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rana butex 37 project weaving mythology

  1. 1. 1 BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF TEXTILES TEJGAON, DHAKA-1208 PROJECT ON WEAVING MYTHOLOGY Academic Supervisor Kazi Sowrov Asst. professor Department of Fabric Engineering Faculty of Textile Engineering Bangladesh University of Textiles Prepared by Sohel Rana (ID: 2011-1-135) Hasibul Islam (ID: 2011-1-162)
  2. 2. 2 BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF TEXTILES TEJGAON, DHAKA-1208 Declaration This Report Presented as the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in TEXTILE ENGINEERING under the supervision of Kazi Sowrov, Lecturer, Department of fabric manufacturing engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles. We also declare this project has not been submitted elsewhere for award of any degree or diploma. SUPERVISOR Kazi Sowrov Lecturer, Department of fabric Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles PREPARED BY Department of Fabric Engineering Sohel Rana 2011-1-162 Hasibul Islam Bappi 2011-1-162
  3. 3. 3 Abstract: Since the very beginning of civilization tribal, the isolated people, commonly living in the hill tracts are one of the part of human being. In Bangladesh there are many tribal groups (over 1% of total) having their own weaving competency. Populations which have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self- sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society are known as tribes, also known as indigenous or aborigines. There are an estimated one hundred and fifty million tribal individuals worldwide, constituting around forty percent of indigenous individuals. Our project is mainly on the weaving mythology. As the tribal people mostly use woven fabrics, that’s why our learning covers their clothing. Since the social, religious and environmental conception and notion has effect on this. So we logically will try to focus on their tradition, festivals, living arts, dresses and in some extent environment briefly.
  4. 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All thanks go to Almighty ALLAH the most beneficial and merciful who enable us to complete this project. Project work is an essential requirement for the completion of B.Sc. in Textile Engineering. In this regard, we would like to pay our gratitude to our project supervisor Kazi Sowrov, Asst. Prof, Dept. Of Fabric Engineering, BUTex for his cordial supervision, valuable suggestions and guidance during project work. Then we would like to give special thanks to (names of people who you worked with) and Professor Dr. Shah Alimuzzaman, Head, Dept. Of Fabric Engineering, BUTex, for their wholehearted help during this project work. At last but not the least, we would like to thank our other friends and well-wishers for their cooperation to complete this project.
  5. 5. 5 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................6 2. Weaving by the Tribes...................................................................................16 2.1 Reasons of weaving fabric by themselves: .....................................................17 2.2 Weaving Procedures by the tribal people:.....................................................19 2.3 Weaving Mechanism.......................................................................................20 2.4 Loom used by the tribes : ...............................................................................21 2.5 Woven fabric used by the tribes:....................................................................25 2.6 Raw material, Sources:...................................................................................29 2.7 Product Pricing :.............................................................................................30 2.8 Test of tribal fabrics: ......................................................................................31 3. Analysis...............................................................................................................32 3.1 Effect of mainstream culture on the Tribal weaving and clothing: ..............33 3.2 Influence of Ethnic Fashion in Bangladesh Fashion: ....................................35 3.3 Problems of Pahari dress:...............................................................................36 3.4 Analysis of problems faced by weavers: ........................................................38 3.5 Feedback on Product Samples of the tribes:..................................................39 4. Discussion...........................................................................................................40 5. Conclusion .........................................................................................................44 6. References..........................................................................................................46
  6. 6. 6 Chapter 1. Introduction
  7. 7. 7 Tribe: Populations which have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self- sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society are known as tribes, also known as indigenous or aborigines. There are an estimated one hundred and fifty million tribal individuals worldwide, constituting around forty percent of indigenous individuals. The term "tribal society" refers to societies organized largely on the basis of social, especially familial, descent groups, a customary tribe in these terms is a face-to-face community, relatively bound by kinship relations, reciprocal exchange, and strong ties to place. Tribe is a contested term due to its roots in colonialism. The word has no shared referent, whether in political form, kinship relations or shared culture. Sometimes it conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past. To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the terms ethnic group, or nation instead. Etmylogy : In 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) in the Roman Republic was organized in 35 tribes (four "urban tribes" and 31 "rural tribes"). The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle "race, tribe, clan" and ultimately the Hebrew or "sceptre". In the historical sense, "tribe", "race" and "clan" can be used interchangeably. The indigenous peoples of Bangladesh The indigenous peoples of Bangladesh refer to native ethnic minorities in southeastern, northwestern, north-central and northeastern regions of the country. These regions include the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet Division, Rajshahi Division and Mymensingh District. The total population of indigenous ethnic minorities in Bangladesh was estimated to be over 2 million in 2010. They are diverse ethnic communities including Australoid, Tibeto- Burman and Sino-Tibetan races. The primary census report of 2011 gives the number of ethnic population groups of Bangladesh as 27. The first is Chakma, consisting of 444,748 people while the Marma, the second largest ethnic group compares with 202,974 persons. There are some other tribal
  8. 8. 8 groups in other parts of the country. Santals are inhabitants of Rajshahi and Dinajpur. Khasis, Garos, and Khajons in Mymensingh and Sylhet regions. Different tribal groups differed in their social organization, marriage customs, foods, birth and death and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. They have somehow managed to resist centuries of colonization and in the process have retained their own customs, traditions and life. List of tribal community in Bangladesh No. Name Location 1. Chakma Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachari 2. Garo Mymensing 3. Khasiya Border of Sunamganj 4. Khumi Chittagong Hill Tracts 5. Khyang Rangamati Hill tracts 6. Rajbangshi Rangpur, Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Bogra & Mymensingh 7. Lusei Chittagong Hill Tracts 8. Mahle Rajshahi, Joypurhat, Dinajpur, Rangpur and Sylhet 9. Marma Rangamati, Khagrachari, Coxs Bazar and Patuakhali. 10. Murang Chittagong Hills, Rangamati Hill District. 11. Munda Rangamati. 12. Pankho Hill Tracts 13. Rakhaine Cox’s Bazar, Bandarban, Manikchhari And Teknaf 14. Tanchangya Chittagong Hill Tracts 15. Tripura Chittagong Hill Tracts, Khagrachhari 16. Hajong Mymensingh, Sherpur, Syhlet, Netrokona 17. Rajbangshi Rangpur, Dinajpur, Rajshahi 18. Monipuri Sylhet, Moulovi Bazar, Habiganj, Sunamganj 19. Santal Thakurgaon, Panchagar, Dinajpur, Naogaon etc
  9. 9. 9 20. Mandi Different areas of Bangladesh and the adjacent parts of India. 21. Khiang, Mro, Bam, Pangkhu, Khumi Bandarban 22. Kharia, Khond, Pahan, Rajuar Rajshahi 23. Banai, Kocah, Dalu Mymensingh, Sherpur, Jamalpur 24. Musohor, Rai, Muriar, Turi, Khatrio, Gond, Barmon Rajshahi, Dinajpur 25. Singh Pabna, Shirajgong 26. Gurkha Rangamati 27. Patro Sylhet 28. Kol Rajshahi, Sylhet Figure 1.1 : Some Marma adn Rakhain people with their traditional cloths
  10. 10. 10 Recomended tribals to study: To complete our project we selected four tribes of Bangladesh. Our recommended tribes was Khasia, Marma, Rakhain and Santal. We also have a chance to meet the tribal people of Murang and Tripura people. First we visited the community of Khasi located at Sylhet (Jaflang) and collected some samples of their fabric and information about their weaving technique. We also observe the fabric manufacturing techniques and processes used by the khasi people. Then we went Rangamati and Khagrachari for Marma trible and Bandarban to meet Rakhain people. After that we visited Dinajpur and Rangpur to meet the Santan people. We took interviews of the weavers and captured some pictures of their traditional loom. Finally, it was a great pleasure for us to complete such an exceptional project. While completing this project we have gone through many interesting moments. Which enhanced our practical knowledge.
  11. 11. 11 Cultures of the tribe: 1. Khasi people (Khasia): The Khasi people (or Khasis) are an indigenous tribe, the majority of whom live in the State of Meghalaya which is in the north eastern part of India, with a significant population in the border areas of the neighbouring state of Assam, and in certain parts of Bangladesh. Usually they build their cottages with a balcony and on stilts made of wood and bamboo. Recently, they have egun to build houses like the Bangalis. Their kitchen is attached to the bedroom and almost every Khasia house has a pig-shed near it. The Khasia houses are clustered and hence they call their villages Punji. The villages are clusters of houses within the cultural boundary of their own community. At present, more than 80% of these communities are Christians and almost every punji has its own church. But they also maintain their age-old customs and traditions. Dress of Khasi people: The traditional Khasi male dress is a Jymphong, a longish sleeveless coat without collar, fastened by thongs in front. Nowadays, most male Khasis have adopted western attire. On ceremonial occasions they appear in a Jymphong and sarong with an ornamental waist- band and they may also wear a turban. The traditional Khasi female dress is called the Jainsem or Dhara, both of which are rather elaborate with several pieces of cloth, giving the body a cylindrical shape. Figure 1.2 : Khasi traditional dress Dhara
  12. 12. 12 Manufacture of Eri Silk Cloths and Cotton Cloths in the Jaintia Hills: The spinning of Eri silk thread, and weaving it into cloths is a fairly considerable. They rear their own Eri worms, and spin the silk from the cocoons. Throughout the whole range, Eri thread is in great request for weaving those striped cloths, in which the mountaineers delight. The Khasis obtain their silk cloths from the Assam Valley, and from the Nongtung or Khyrwang villages in Jaintia. The latter villages have given the name to the striped cloth, ka jáin Khyrwang_, which is almost invariably worn by the Syntengs. The Khyrwang cloth is red and white, mauve and white, or chocolate and white, the cloth being worn by both men and women. The Khyrwang cloths vary in price according to size and texture. These cloths are the handiwork of women alone, and a woman working every day regularly will take six months to manufacture a cloth; but, as a rule, in the leisurely manner in which they work, it takes a year to complete it. Cotton Cloths by Khasi people: In the Jaintia Hills at Mynso cotton is spun into thread, and weaving is carried on there, but on a limited scale. The Mynso people weave the small strips of cloth worn by the men to serve the purpose of the lengti or languti. The people import cotton thread and weave the sleeveless coat, peculiar to the district; these coats are dyed red and blue. The dark blue or black dye is obtained from the leaf of a plant called u-sybu, which grows in the gardens round the homesteads. The leaves are dried, then reduced to powder, mixed with hot water, and the skeins of thread are steeped in the liquid. The colour is permanent. The red dye is obtained from the mixture of the dry bark of shrubs. The bark is dried, then pounded, and the two sorts are mixed together and made into a paste with hot water. The skeins are steeped in this mixture for twenty-four hours, then taken out and divided, and again steeped for another twenty-four hours. Cotton cloths, which are generally dyed blue, sometimes striped blue and red. Some cotton cloths which are dyed red and yellow, the cloths being woven in checks. The cotton grown in the Jaintia Hills is said to be the best cotton produced in the province. Its thread can be more closely woven than that of other kinds. The other types are of inferior quality, the staple being short and woolly.
  13. 13. 13 2. The Marma: The Marmas sometimes referred as Mogh and live mostly in the CHT. They call themselves “Marma lumya” (Nue 2007). According to Marma writer Kya Shai Pro the word “Marma” is derived from “mryma” carrying the concept of Myanmer's nationalism. They are the second largest ethnic group in Bangladesh. According to the National Census 1991 Bangladesh has a Marma population of 1,57,301. They are called in different name by the different ethnic groups living around them e.g. 'Mran' by the Mrora tribe, 'Mrang' by the Lusai and the Pangkhua indigenous community, 'Mraing' to the Chakma tribe, 'Mukhu' to the Tripura tribe, 'Kramo' to the Khumi tribe and 'Ooa' to the Khyang Indigenous community (Ching 1998). Marmas are divided into several clans. Each clan is named after the place from where it migrated. The Marmas are fair complexioned and nose is slightly flat. They show similarities with the Burmese. They also belong to the Mongoloid. The material culture of the Marma society includes many basic tools and weapons of primitive societies. Dress of the marma: Marmas make their own dresses using traditional weaving technology. Weaving is a very common activity of Marma women. Both Marma men and women like to be cleanly dressed and the women are comparatively more fashionable. Marma men used to wear a kind of loincloth called 'Deyah' It is a dress which covered the body from waist to the knee. Some wear 'Khyok' which cover the part from waist to ankle. They also wear collarless jacket called 'Barista' and a turban in head named 'Gobong'. The Marma women wear a blouse called 'Bedai ungi' and a type of brassiere called 'Rangkai' to cover their chest. They wear 'Thobing' or 'Thami' to cover the lower part. Now a days both men and women wear Lungi. Figure 1.3 : Kinds wearing Marma traditional dress.
  14. 14. 14 3. The Rakhain: Rakhain, The an ethnic community from arakan who migrated to Bangladesh in late 18th century and settled in the coastal districts of cox's bazar and patuakhali. Rakhains have a long history and culture of several thousand years old. At present (2011), majority Rakhain people living in Bangladesh are concentrated in those rehabilitation area: Cox's Bazar municipality, Khuruskul, Chowfaldandi, Ramu sadar, Panerchhara, Ashkor Kata, Teknaf sadar, Kharangkhali, Hneela, Harbang of Chokoria, Gorokhghata of Maheskhali and Khepupara and Kuakata of Patuakhali. Rakhains are engaged in various professions. Beside the main occupation of farming and fishing, they are engaged in trading, shop- keeping, boat and ship building, weaving etc. Many of them work as artisans with the professional group like goldsmith, blacksmith, carpenter, painter, wood-carver, mason and metallurgical technician. Rakhains inherit a long heritage of fine arts and aesthetic culture. These are quite evident in their architecture, arts and crafts, paintings, music, drama and dance. Rakhains had constructed many religious establishments, known as jadi in Bangladesh, Arakan, Myanmar and Malaysia. There are 32 jadis in Bangladesh. A piece of stone marking the direction of sea was placed on the top of the tower of each jadi. Dress of Rakhains: Rakhain males attire colorful lungi, shirt, turban, unstitched coloured dhuti of 12 feet length, genji (vest), scarf, waistband, belt and crown (only during wedding). Rakhain women cover the lower part of their body with 12 feet long unstitched coloured cloth called a-thongke and thami and wear bra, blouse and colourful modest scarf to dress up the upper portion of the body. They also use belts. Figure 1.3 : Rakhain traditional dress.
  15. 15. 15 4. The Shantal The Santals are known as one of the oldest and largest indigenous communities in the northwestern belt of Bangladesh. They have been living in the pristine natural surroundings of the area for thousands of years. They might be described as children of nature who are nurtured and reared by its bounty. Santals are largely seen in the northern districts of Dinajpur, Naogaon, Thakurgaon, Panchagar, etc. Santals are the descendants of Austric- speaking Proto-Australoid race. Their complexion is dark, height medium, hair black and curled, and lips heavy. Dress of Shantals: Their dress is also very simple. Women wear short, coarse but colourful sari, fix flowers on their heads and hair-buns, and make themselves graceful with simple ornaments. Men wear dhutis or gamchhas (indigenous towels). Well-to-do and educated Santals wear modern dress. Skilful workers as they are, Santal women, especially young girls are by nature very beauty-conscious. Santal men and women wear tattoos on their bodies. Figure 1.3 : Some Santal traditional dress.
  16. 16. 16 Chapter 2. Weaving by the Tribes
  17. 17. 17 2.1 Reasons of weaving fabric by themselves: 1. Centuries old tradition: The tribes are usually thousands of year old. Their culture comes from a time when human society was totally dependent on agriculture and there was no market system, people produced their own cloth. These people still follow that centuires old tradition. 2. Financial constraints: The tribal people are usually very poor. Though they have no lack of food grown by themselves, they are poor from the modern point of view. So for clothing, they rely on their own weaving skill. 3. Festival: Tribal people have various religious and social festival which require special cloths. They produce those clothes. 4. Abundant time: Tribal ladies usually weave cloths. They do this during winter because agricultural work is little in this period. They have abundant time which they use to weave cloths. 5. Limited skill: Tribal people have limited skills. They don’t have other manufacturing skills than agriculture and weaving. 6. Intolerancy towards progress: They live in isolated areas and don’t allow people to mix with them. They keep sincere to their tradition and don’t tolerate progress towards modern system of society, which is a reason for weaving their own clothes. 7. Illiteracy: Because of their isolated living area and not mixing with people other than themselves, most of them are illiterate. 8. Simplistic lifestyle: Their lifestyle is very simple. To them, buying factory made cloth is indulging in complex and modern lifestyle. So they weave by themselves.
  18. 18. 18 9. Non-adaptability to different fashion: Because of tradition, they don’t try to adapt themselves to newer fashions and keep producing same cloth by weaving. 10. Uninterest to life outside: Their long lasting tradition has made them uninterested in anything outside their society, which is a big reason for weaving. 11. Loyalty to clan: Loyalty is a very big deal to the tribes. They don’t even trust anybody outside their own family, let alone their tribe. Weaving and wearing their own cloth is a sign of keeping loyal to their clan.
  19. 19. 19 2.2 Weaving Procedures by the tribal people: Process flowchart of tribal weaving Collection of raw yarn Dyeing (If needed) Drying Sizing (If needed) Warping Drawing & Denting Looming Weaving Finished Fabric
  20. 20. 20 2.3 Weaving Mechanism Name of common loom used by Khasi, Marma, Rakhain and Santal Name of the tribes Loom used Khasi Frame Loom and hand loom Marma Frame loom, back strap loom Rakhain Horizontal loom and hand loom Santal Back strap loom Murang Hand loom Tripura Hand loom and Back strap loom
  21. 21. 21 2.4 Loom used by the tribes : Horizontal loom: The looms are positioned horizontally. In this type of loom there is no warp beam and cloth beam used. So there is no take-up and let-off motion mechanism. In this loom at first all warp yarns are cut according to the fabric length. Then the warp yarns decorated according to the design. The two ends of the warp yarns are fixed by the special device in appropriate tension. This device are made by bamboo bar. After doing this the shedding and picking are done. In the horizontal loom there is no heald frames are used. Instead of heald shaft a special shedding mechanism is used here. When the shedding is completed then weft yarn is inserted through the fabric. The weft yarns remain in a shuttle. Normally pirn are used here. After inserting the weft yarn the beating mechanism is completed by a special device. This device are made by special type of wood. In horizontal loom shedding, picking, beating all are done by manually. All the operation is done manually. A weaver sitting upon the fabric perform the shedding, picking, beating sequently. There is no option of take up and let off in this loom. In this loom it is needed almost 7 days to weave a 30 meters plain production rate is almost 6 meters per day. Figure 2.4.1 : A Horizontal loom used by Rakhains
  22. 22. 22 Back strap loom: Tools : The tools necessary for weaving consists of yarns (acrylic, cotton or silk), spindle, spinning machine, shuttles, warp drum or pegs, and a loom (back strap or frame). The various back strap loom implements are: 1. Front bar 2. Bamboo bar 3. Heald bar 4. Sword 5. Shuttle 6. Breast bar 7. Back strap Most of these tools are either made of bamboo or wood. Figure 2.4.2 : Back Strap loom used by Marma and Khasia People
  23. 23. 23 Process : By Monipuri, the back strap loom is used for weaving. These age-old looms are simple in construction and easy to operate. They are cheap too. They have neither permanent fixtures nor heavy frames and so are easily portable. Apart from these, the greatest advantage that lies with these looms is the unlimited scope that they offer for design variation. It is also called the loin loom. A common back strap loom consists of: Front bar- The front bar is a circular wooden bar put in between two loops fixed to the wall of the house. Breast Bar - The warp is fixed between the front and the breast bar. The breast bar is also a circular wooden bar. Sword- The sword is a flat wood piece and rests in the front warp; one end of this sword is blunt and the other end is pointed. Heald bar- It is made of bamboo and is circular in shape Circular bamboo bar- This is another circular bamboo bar but is a little longer than the former and is placed after the heald-bar. Lease rod- It is a rod or a bar positioned between front bar and circular bar, separating the warp in two sets. Figure 2.4.2 : Back Strap loom used by Marma.
  24. 24. 24 Back strap- This is made either of leather or cloth. There are two loops at the ends of the back strap, which are attached to the notches of the front warp bar. Nearly all types of weaves can be woven in the back strap loom. The possibilities in terms of the weaving pattern in a back strap loom are unlimited. The weaver sits with a loom fixing the back strap, putting on the back strap around their middle, keeping her legs against the footrest, which is adjustable for maintaining tension in the loom. The weaving in the back strap loom is governed by the shedding motion, the picking motion and the beating motion. The heald bar is lifted up with the left hand and the circular bamboo bar is pressed down by the right hand simultaneously. The sword is then placed in the shed and kept vertical and the weft is passed from the right side by the right hand by means of the shuttle and picked up by the left hand. The weft is then beaten up by the sword. The sword is then taken out and the center shed is made, through which the shuttle is passed by the left hand and is picked up by the right hand. The sword is then again placed to beat the weft. The process is repeated. When the weaving begins, the two-bamboo splits work as the first weft. This is the technique of plain weave of one up and one down and the process is continued until the pattern is woven. The artistic textiles or weaves essentially consist of the traditional attires that the tribals used to weave for their own consumption or requirement. The most prominent of these are: Risha/Riha: Small piece of cloth used by women to cover their breast. Pasra/Rinai: Lower part of the garment worn by women used as a wrapper. Other than these saris, chadors are also being woven. The symmetrical pattern ranges from colorful stripes running in the direction of the warp to figurative and geometric motifs woven in the supplementary weft. The designs, coloring and patterns vary from tribe to tribe. Figure 2.4.3 : Back Strap loom used by Santal people.
  25. 25. 25 2.5 Woven fabric used by the tribes: Khasi: The traditional Khasi male dress is a Jymphong, a longish sleeveless coat without collar, fastened by thongs in front. Nowadays, most male Khasis have adopted western attire. On ceremonial occasions they appear in a Jymphong and sarong with an ornamental waist- band and they may also wear a turban. The traditional Khasi female dress is called the Jainsem or Dhara, both of which are rather elaborate with several pieces of cloth, giving the body a cylindrical shape. On ceremonial occasions they may wear a crown of silver or gold. A spike or peak is fixed to the back of the crown, corresponding to the feathers worn by the menfolk. The Jainsemconsists of two pieces of material fastened at each shoulder. The "Dhara" consists of a single piece of material also fastened at each shoulder. Figure 2.5.1 : Traditional women dress of Khasi people.
  26. 26. 26 Marma: Both Marma men and women like to be cleanly dressed and the women are comparatively more fashionable. Marma men used to wear a kind of loincloth called 'Deyah' It is a dress which covered the body from waist to the knee. Some wear 'Khyok' which cover the part from waist to ankle. They also wear collarless jacket called 'Barista' and a turban in head named 'Gobong'. The Marma women wear a blouse called 'Bedai ungi' and a type of brassiere called 'Rangkai' to cover their breast. They wear 'Thobing' or 'Thami' to cover their lower organs. Now a days both men and women wear Lungi. Figure 2.5.1 : Traditional women dress of Marma. Figure 2.5.2 : Traditional women dress of Marma kids.
  27. 27. 27 Rakhain: The common dress of Rakhain men is the lungi and fatua. Sometimes they also ware jacket over their dress looking them more smart. In the cultural or religious festival they use Pagri (one kind of cap) on their head. The women wear embroidered lungis and blouses and also various type of ornaments on their bodies and flowers on their heads. Rakhain males attire colourful lungi , shirt, turban, unstitched coloured Dhuti of 12 feet length, genji (vest), scarf, waistband, belt and crown (only during wedding). Rakhain women cover the lower part of their body with 12 feet long unstitched colored cloth called a-thongke and thami and wear bra, blouse and colourful modest scarf to dress up the upper portion of the body. They also use belts. Figure 2.5.3 : Traditional Rakhain dress.
  28. 28. 28 Santal: The Santal women now generally wear bordered saris not less than seven cubits in length. Half of this serves as the lower garments being knotted at the waist; the other is passed over the left shoulder and hangs in the front. They use no veils for their heads of raven dark mass of wavy hair. They keep them combed in a nice knob at the back of their head and decorate them with flowers of all hues and frequently with tufts of red silk. The Female children up to the age of five wear a very short loin cloth, worn around a coulered string tied at the waist (danda jbinjbir). They call this cloth gendre. Girls after ten years wear a thick cloth called panhand in Santali. Some of these have a bright violet border. Such saris reach only up to the knee as they measure three cubits in length and one and half cubits in wide. But they take care to cover the upper part of their bodies with another part of measurement called gamcha. But the dress of santal women varies from place to place. But women still retained their primitive style intact, makes several pleats in the portion bound round the waist at the front and the end thrown over the shoulder from behind falls over the breast, and the edges are tucked in one either side into the portion round the middle. A second dress is of katntha cloth ( pices of old cloth sewn together) which is bound by women round the waist and completed with other pice of cloth thrown over the shoulder and covering the breast. Men are scantily dressed. On generally see them wearing a short cloth tied at the waist, the end being passed on and secured near the end of the spine to free movement. Santals wear loin cloth, which they call Panchi at home but they put on long sheet of thick cloth five cubits in width which they term kutcha. Figure 2.5.4 : Traditional Santal dress.
  29. 29. 29 2.6 Raw material, Sources: Raw material: The basic raw material used is acrylic, cotton and sometimes silk. Most of the yarn comes from Assam, China and Southern India. Traditionally the yarn used was cotton. But in the last 8 to 9 years, the weavers have gradually shifted from cotton to acrylic yarns. This shift is due to various factors such as non-availability of good quality cotton, durability and 100% wash-fastness of the acrylic yarns, all of which has made acrylic the preferred yarn type for weaving. Source: They collect yarn from Chittagong, Bogra, Narayanganj, Narshingdi, local distributor. The yarn are locally named as Pakiza, Korean, China, Pakistani suta etc. The tripura people also buy second sweater and separate the yarns from the fabric and use them for their woven products. Figure 2.6.1 : Yarn stored by local supplier.
  30. 30. 30 2.7 Product Pricing : The product pricing essential varies over a wide range, starting from Tk.350 to Tk.10000. This variation is because of the design complexity. The more intricate the design, the more expensive the fabric. On the whole, of the overall costs of production, labor wages make up 45 to 50%, raw materials 35 to 40%, and 15% is overheads. Then, on the aggregate, approximately 5% consists of the incentive to the weavers. The Directorate of Handlooms, Handicrafts buys the products from the weavers and sells at a mark of 2.5 to 3%. The yarn cost is Tk.220 per kg of cotton (2/40s) and Tk.200 to 500 per kg of acrylic. The locally called ‘Velvet’ yarn’s rate is higher. Per kg of velvet yarn costs almost 500tk. The daily labor charges are around Tk.45 to 60 per day for a 4 to 6 hours shift. Figure 2.7.1 : Exttra fabric design is being done by Rakhain women.
  31. 31. 31 2.8 Test of tribal fabrics: We collected fabric samples from different tribes and we tested the fabrics in our laboratory. The composition test results are given bellow Here, we couldn’t collect any fabric sample as they stopped their traditional weaving few years earlier. The reasons for this is discussed in the following chapter. Name of tribe Yarn type Yarn composition Khasia 1. Cotton 2. Pakistani 100% cotton Polyester + cotton Rakhain 1. Korean yarn 2. Cotton 3. Wool Polyester mix 100% cotton 100% Marma 1. Pakiza 2. Chaina 3. Nakkhai 4. Korean 5. Pakistani 6. Barmij Cotton + acrylic 100% acrylic Nylon + cotton Polyester + cotton 100% cotton Santal Figure 2.8.1 : Yarn composition test of tribal fabric.
  32. 32. 32 Chapter 3. Analysis
  33. 33. 33 3.1 Effect of mainstream culture on the Tribal weaving and clothing: It was observed through the study of the lifestyle of the khasi, marma, rakhain and santal, that the factors influencing the transformations in clothing includes influences from the sectors like political, socio-cultural, media and communication. Though the tribal regions are largly isolated, with the passing of time and growing cultural contact with the neighboring areas, as the population of non-tribal people has steadily increased, the state their influence is also reflected in the tribe. People of different parts of neighboring areas are also settled. Even tribal from other places can also be found travelling or residing in the state. The tribal women community maintains their own design preferences of colour, stripes and motifs. With change in socio-economic status of the tribal women, certain cultural changes has been observed and reflection of the same can be witnessed in their traditional costume. The traditional colours are taken over by bright colours like, red, green and shades of blue. The modern tribal women add her personal touch and styling while dressing. Selection of the printed fabrics for stole/ dupatta shows the acceptance of other cultures and global trends. Young women were observed to be more experimental with clothing, than the older women who still prefer more traditional costumes. In spite of transformations, men, women preserve their cultural identity in the community. Some points are discussed here. 1. Mixed cultural & political influences: New draping styles are largely influenced by immigration of people from neighboring districts of India. Knitted tops imported from countries like Korea, China, Malaysia and Thailand is accepted by the younger generations. 2. Socio-economic influences: With change in socio-economic status of the tribal women there is more disposable income to purchase ready-made clothes. Weaving in loom is time consuming and tedious. The younger generation knows the art of weaving, but it is mostly practiced by the older population. As the younger generation is taking up formal education they are also influenced by the global dressing trends.
  34. 34. 34 3. Mass-media influences: Moreover, due to impact of mass-media (television, internet and mobile phones which is available now) on the younger generation, it has influenced them to contemporize their dressing style. 4. Cultural differences: In CHT, settler Bengali people have showed intolerance when met any Pahari girl/women with their traditional dresses that do not fully cover their whole body. The Pahari girls/women can understand and get hurt by such indecent behavior (by Bangali) which is totally unprecedented in CHT and un easy to them. When Pahari women goes to any office, bazaar, or school they become worried about the Bangali people. They cannot avoid but heard some bad comments which are intolerable to them . Sometimes some intolerant people comment the girls/women that reach to their brothers or parents or relatives’ ear which also turn into quarrel. Given the above mentioned disservice situation, Pahari women are seen to have adapted their traditional dress, consisting of pinon (skirt) and khadi (breast cloth) by adding from cover to decoration. Elite Pahari women educated in Bangla system occasionally choose their own dress particularly for public appearances or when they lived outside the CHT. Covering the body could also be a protective measure to the minority Pahari women to avoid Bengali nuisances. Figure 2.8.1 : Khasi women wearing their tradiional cloths
  35. 35. 35 3.2 Influence of Ethnic Fashion in Bangladesh Fashion: Ethnic influences on today’s fashion. One might think that fashion is just about clothes, shoes and accessories but where the inspiration to create them does come from. Knee-high boots, bangles, chandelier earrings did not all just pop up in Bangladesh. These fashion items came from all around the world through designers who were inspired by the different ethnic fashion. The role of this project is to open the eyes of many Bangladeshi origins from which many designers base on to create the different styles of today. For the summary, focus will be put on the main influences found while researching on the topic. While researching, British & Indian influence seemed to dominate. It was discovered that most of the ethnic influence on fashion seen today in Bangladesh came from British & Indian sub-continent. From Indian culture, America gets the Sari, Chandelier earrings, the Nehru jacket and many more. The Indian influences began in the 1947 and has been here ever since. Although British influence is the big thing to the fashion industry now, Indian influence is still quite big. People still wear silk clothes and Chandelier earrings. People also love to get Henna tattoos, which originate from India. The rest of the ethnic influences are not as popular today as they were once before but are still in the loop of being very influential on Bangladesh’s fashion.
  36. 36. 36 3.3 Problems of Pahari dress: If any Pahari women wear Pahari dress in a place where Bengalis are the majority, it implies that she is a typical Pahari (un-smart, ordinary) and easy to defeat or assault .Therefore, in the district headquarters of CHT, and other part of Bangladesh they almost have given up wearing their traditional dresses. They essentially wear their traditional dresses inside their home, and outside of their home they prefer Bengali dresses. Any people can easily identify them as Pahari by their traditional dress and then she is treated as ‘upajati’ (‘tribe’/‘sub-nation’) which is insulting for them. Even in the university they don’t feel easy with their own dresses. Only in the day of any occasion, some of them wear their traditional dresses if they have something to perform. Presently in Dhaka or Chittagong, from a far distance one cannot identify one Pahari woman because of her dresses (Bangali). Bangali versus traditional dress: Pahari people enjoy and feel comfort with traditional dresses in public places; they don’t feel easy if they wear their traditional dresses in outside. Just after coming back at home from office, school, or market they change the Bengali dress and wear traditional dress. All women family members wear their traditional dress inside home. So they really are not fond of Bengali dress, but they are bound to wear to escape them from troubles made by some Bangalis. The ethnic women feel comparatively free with Bangali dress in public places, because of Bengali dress’s standing. Dress and symbolism: Since Pahari people do not feel free with traditional dress in outside they wear Bangali dress as a dress-code. In fact, they use the Bangali dress symbolically as a sign-board for not being treated as ‘upajati’ and not cheated as well. However, it can be said that, because of out numbering of Pahari people in their own land, they don’t feel easy with their own dress which is made locally at home. That’s why they wear Bangali dress in public places where Bangalis are the majority or dominant. If a Pahari woman wears a Bangali dress, it implies that she is educated and modern (not typical) and it is not so easy to cheat her.
  37. 37. 37 Perception regarding ethnicity: If some of Pahari women heard that they look fine or looks-like Bangali they feel very pleased. Because, they do not want to be visible and thereby insulted by Bangali people wearing Pahari dresses. New techniques for survival: They better like Bangali dress as a strategy so that their physical appearance would not be identically noticed and be irritated thereby by some of the Bengalis. Furthermore, if they wear Pahari dress in everywhere there is a chance to be cheated/ defeated in the shop, office, market, school/college, etc. Even educated/ modern Pahari girl/ woman cannot escape them from ragging or sexual harassment at times irrespective of their Bengali or Pahari costume.
  38. 38. 38 3.4 Analysis of problems faced by weavers: The tribals are being encouraged to take up weaving on a commercial scale. But these weavers are facing problems which can be summed up as follows: 1. Non-availability of raw materials: The yarns, both acrylic and cotton, are either being procured from NHDC or local traders. But for this, there is no yarn depot or raw material bank that meets the requirement of government supplies as well as individual weavers. Availability of good quality cotton yarn is an issue, the available yarns either bleeding colour or being of low strength. 2. Lack of working capital: Most of the tribal weavers are from BPL households, hence there is always a dearth of capital required to procure the necessary implements and yarns to start weaving. 3. Lack of awareness: Weaving is a tradition that is being followed by these tribals for years, for their own consumption but not as a commercial activity that can supplement the household income. Hence, there is a need to spread awareness regarding the potential weaving has as a livelihood generation activity, rather than being just a daily household chore. 4. Loom upgradation: The existing back strap looms have low productivity as compared to the frame looms, on which the productivity is almost double. 5. Lack of product diversification and market linkages: The existing production is restricted to only the local market. There is not much of product development and diversification of the existing traditional Tripuri textiles. 6. High transportation costs: In order to source the raw material at competitive price or sell the finished product in the market outside of Tripura, transportation costs turn to be very high and affect the sale price of the product.
  39. 39. 39 3.5 Feedback on Product Samples of the tribes: Below is the feedback on product samples from Khasi, Marma, Rakhain and suggestions for future product design and development: 1. Quality: The quality is satisfactory but needs to be improved to cater to the urban contemporary market. Quality of raw material, pattern placement or design layouts and overall finish needs to be worked upon. 2. Colour and Design: Most colors and designs that are being used are quite traditional; these need to be contemporized as per the target market. More experimentation is required in both color combinations and weave structures. 3. Price: The pricing of the products is reasonable but with modification in design, quality and product finish, the products can command a better price in the market. 4. Product potential in the domestic and the international market: The potential, as of now, is bleak unless design and product innovation is introduced. One needs to work on colors, design and finish, and pricing of the products. A lot of work needs to be put in before it can be profitably introduced in the international market. 5. Suggestions on product range: Newer product lines need to be initiated, such as jackets, scarves, utility trays, bags, and travel accessories. The use of details and patterns can be introduced and varied product lines can be developed for different price segments. With the optimum use of color, the typical patterns can be used to create distinctive products for a wider consumer base.
  40. 40. 40 Chapter 4. Discussion
  41. 41. 41 1. High-count yarn is not used to produce these dresses: The manufacturing process is not suitable for high-count yarn. Especially in waist loom, the fine yarn can break due to manual tensioning process. The weft insertion is also manual so that the fine yarn cannot resist tension during weaving. 2. Ethnic dresses cannot cover the whole body: Ethnic people wear dresses based on their festivals. In house, they use two layers of fabric – one to cover the upper part and another to cover the lower part of the body. They use lungi, thami etc in the official tasks. As they are also doing job with other people of this country and living with others. Therefore, their dresses are not acceptable to all. Every office has dress codes. In these offices, their dresses are not accepted. 3. Hand loom or waist loom is used to produce these dresses: Due to the use of such manual looms, the production is low. They could use modern looms by replacing existing ones. Sometimes the produced fabrics contain yarn contaminations, holes, yarn jamming, miss pick etc. There is no way to remove these fabric faults in their existing process. To establish modern looms they need huge investment so that they expect financial help from government. On the other hand, ethnic women usually weave fabrics in waist loom. It is an extra income for them because they run waist loom after completion of their household works. It may also be mentioned that the investment of a waist loom is very low sometimes it is negligible for high volume of production. 4. Ethnic dresses can introduce the ethnicity of ethnic group: All the people of a country can represent her easily. There may have people of different cultures. In Bangladesh, there are different ethnic people who can represent their ethnicity through their dresses. The other people can help them (ethnic community) by accepting their (ethnic people) dresses to alive their ethnicity.
  42. 42. 42 5. Sometimes the cost of these dresses is high compared to other traditional one: Though the quality of ethnic dresses is not up to mark or is not like dresses produced by modern machineries, some businesspersons try to make high profit. Sometime they show different causes regarding cost of the product and they try to say that the handwork is becoming more costly due to the lack of available ‘karigor’ (manufacturer). 6. Not suitable for bulk production: Ethnic dresses have made a place in the fashion area of Bangladesh. People except ethnic groups use these dresses occasionally. The demand of ethnic dresses per year is not so huge in this country. Already different small industries have established in the hilly areas especially in Rangamati to produce ethnic dresses. These industries collect the fabrics from handloom and waist loom still now. The dyeing process is also manual because they dye the purchased yarn as per the recipe and recommendation of the shoppers. For bulk production, high investment is required to set up a big industry. It is directly related with demand of customer. As the demand of customers, regarding ethnic dresses are not so high, it is not suitable form bulk production. 7. These are colorful & Attractive: Ethnic people are very much fond of colorful dresses. They produce different products with different color. They usually live in hilly area. They can match in the nature wearing colorful dresses. 8. More accessories are used in Ethnic Dress that makes it attractive: Ethnic people use different types of trimmings and accessories, which are bright and colorful. Lace, braid, jori, colored yarns, metallic yarns, cord etc. are notable. 9. Ethnic dresses are produced in the following areas of Bangladesh – Ethnic people live in the different areas of Bangladesh. They produce their dresses in their own houses. For this reason, they chose those areas to produce dresses.
  43. 43. 43  Rangamati,  Khagrachori,  Bandarban,  Cox’z Bazar,  Sylhet,  Mymensingh, etc. 10. Problems of ethnic people regarding ethnic fashion: In Bangladesh, ethnic people are known as indigenous people. They are deprived from lots of facilities here. They think that they are different from Bengali people. Ethnic people enjoy and feel comfort with their traditional dresses in family but they do not feel comfortable when they wear it in public places. Ethnic people are not fond of Bengali dress, but they are now bound to wear to escape them from troubles made by some Bengalis. Therefore, if all people feel to keep alive these traditional dresses in this country then they have to change their own mentality as well as modification in needed to wear it publicly.
  44. 44. 44 Chapter 5. Conclusion
  45. 45. 45 This project helps us to know about the details of textiles of tribals. We know about the raw material of woven fabric , source of raw material, process and procedure of manufacturing woven fabric, which types of loom use for producing fabric as well as ornaments and accessories using by the tribals. Our honorable teacher helped us to know this huge sector of knowledge which we have gained by this project. Our teacher helped us also to visit several tribal zones. At that zone we discussed with the people of tribal to know about necessary information as well as capture many photos as our necessity. This project is very important for our textile students to vast our knowledge about woven fabric structure and design. Ethnic textile is very important to hold the uniqueness of a group of people. From this study, it was found that ethnic clothing are just as important to the tribes as the mainstream clothing in Bangladesh. However, these are not produced regularly because of some social issues. If these barriers can be broken, ethnic textile will be able to play an important role in the economy of this country. In this study, the history of ethnic people & their dresses, their present condition, knowledge of mass people about ethnic dresses & the way of increasing the popularity of ethnic dresses and the manufacturing process of these dresses have been investigated. This research will help someone who has interest in ethnic textile and there is an obvious scope for further research regarding ethnic textile in Bangladesh.
  46. 46. 46 Chapter 6. References
  47. 47. 47 References:  ‘Bangladesh - Over 40 ethnic groups not individually recognized for census’, in: Indigenous Portal, 26 February 2011. notindividuallyrecognised-for-census.html  Muhammad Ala Uddin (2009).Cultural assimilation and survival strategy of ethnic people in Bangladesh: Bangali dress on ethnic physique in Chittagong Hill Tracts: Canadian Social Science ,Volume-5  ghts2010.aspx ; See also ‘Bangladesh’. In: The Indigenous World 2011, pg. 328, IWGIA, Copenhagen, 2011.  Bangladesh Ethnobotany Online Database (BEOD)   James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications.  CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".  Chakrabarti, Dr. Byomkes, A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, KP Bagchi, Calcutta, 1994   Joshua Project - Khasi of Bangladesh Ethnic People Profile   20Library%20Thesis%20of%20Mohammad%20Faizur%2029-05- 2014.pdf?sequence=1  ,_The   