Software Testing Center of Excellence

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Software Testing Center of Excellence

  1. 1. Software Testing Center of Excellence 21351 Ridgetop Circle, Suite 400 ● Dulles, Virginia 20166 ● 703-404-9293 ● info@cigital.com ● www.cigital.com
  2. 2. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 2 Table of Contents 1 SOFTWARE TESTING CENTER OF EXCELLENCE (STCE) ......................3 2 STCE STRUCTURE ......................................................................................4 2.1 Core Functions ................................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 Testing Services .............................................................................................. 5 2.1.2 Best Practices and Processes........................................................................... 7 2.1.3 Knowledge Management ................................................................................ 8 2.1.4 Tools and Technologies .................................................................................. 9 2.2 Supporting Functions ....................................................................................... 9 2.2.1 Configuration Management ............................................................................ 9 2.2.2 Release Management .................................................................................... 11 2.2.3 Independent Test and Evaluation Facility (ITEF) ........................................ 12 3 SUMMARIZED SAMPLING OF STCE ACTIVITIES ...................................13 4 STCE BASIC STAFFING STRUCTURE .....................................................16 5 STCE COMPONENT INTERACTIONS .......................................................17 6 RISKS AND MITIGATION ...........................................................................17 www.cigital.com
  3. 3. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 3 1 Software Testing Center of Excellence (STCE) A Software Testing Center of Excellence is a unified and balanced organization that provides a full range of software quality and testing services to support the effective, efficient and consistent delivery of quality software. What is the problem? Organizations developing significant amounts of software are often challenged with providing quality assurance and testing of their software in an effective and efficient manner. This issue is compounded by the increasing movement towards outsourcing software development services. What is the solution? An independently staffed and/or managed Software Testing Center of Excellence providing a unified and balanced combination of: • Testing Services • Best Practices and Processes • Knowledge Management • Tools & Technologies Supported by • Configuration Management • Release Management • Independent Test and Evaluation Facility What are the benefits of a Software Testing Center of Excellence? A Software Testing Center of Excellence provides: • Scalability – ability to scale software quality and testing services to changing demand and still maintain adequate quality of service • Objectivity – holds development accountable for the software they build by providing independent assurance of software quality. • Consistency – standardizing on testing best practice process and tools guarantees that software testing activities will be performed in a consistent and repeatable manner. • Constant Improvement – on-going training, measurement/metrics, and process improvement assure continued strides toward a best of breed software testing capability. • Better, cheaper, faster products – objective, full lifecycle software assurance following standards and best practices reduces software development rework as critical defects are found earlier in the process and corrected. www.cigital.com
  4. 4. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 4 2 STCE Structure An effective and scalable STCE will be organized along four mutually supportive core functions along with three optional supporting functions shown below. Each of these functions will be described in greater detail in the following sections. Core Functions: Supporting Functions: • Testing Services • Configuration Management • Best Practices & Processes • Release Management • Knowledge Management • Independent Test & Evaluation • Tools & Technologies Facility www.cigital.com
  5. 5. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 5 2.1 Core Functions 2.1.1 Testing Services The Testing Services core function provides actual management, planning and execution services for full lifecycle software quality and testing activities for software development and maintenance. These services include but are not limited to: 1) Requirements analysis 2) Software test strategy and planning 3) Test automation 4) Test design, execution and results validation 5) Artifact review 6) Overall risk management 7) Security testing An STCE Testing Service core function will provide independent software testing and analysis to assure the successful delivery of high quality software and leverage defined best practices and processes through the associated knowledge portal. Benefits derived from an STCE Testing Services function include: • Objective assessments of software quality • Full lifecycle analysis to decrease rework activities during software development • Cost-effective automation of testing • Organization scalability to match capability with demand • A continuously learning and improving testing staff supported by the other STCE core and supporting functions Full lifecycle testing services provided through the STCE will include both Systems Acceptance Testing (SAT) and User Acceptance Testing (UAT) methodologies, as briefly defined below, to support several types of testing: 1. SAT: The Test and Evaluation (T&E) Team uses the system functional and non- functional requirements to determine if the product correctly performs to required specifications and fulfills the business functions as needed by the user. Problems identified during testing are documented as Test Problem Reports (TPRs). The TPRs are passed to the Development Team, which assesses them and determines the level of effort required to implement a fix. At the completion of SAT, project stakeholders should be confident in their understanding of what level the software product either satisfies or does not satisfy the specified requirements. 2. UAT: UAT relies on actual system users to perform testing, to ensure that it meets their operational needs, before the system is released into the production environment. T&E facilitates the UAT by preparing appropriate test procedures and scenarios, assisting users during the UAT, and documenting TPRs identified during the UAT. The TPRs are passed to the Development Team, which assesses them and determines the level of effort required to implement a fix. www.cigital.com
  6. 6. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 6 Testing types to be performed as part of the independent T&E function include but are not limited to: • Functional Testing - Verify that the system or application functions properly, satisfies the requirements defined in the Functional Requirements Document, and performs adequately in the host environment to ensure that potential system errors are identified and addressed prior to deployment. • Data Handling and Integrity Testing - Ensure that the integrity of the data is maintained from all points of input for a system, through its handling and manipulation, to its storage in the persistence layer and eventual presentation. Any derivations done on the data are checked for correctness to validate that the data remains reliable. These tests are executed by validating the form and content of data from system inputs, validating the derivations done to the data, validating its appropriate storage and validating the presentation of the data to the user. This type of testing is important for systems dealing with mission-critical data. • Systems Security Testing - Determine the overall assurance profile and security risk of the system through testing of system security requirements, conducting architectural risk analysis, testing of the system for the presence of known common security weaknesses, penetration and red team testing, as well as evaluating compliance of the operational system with organizational security and data integrity guidelines, as well as federal security regulations. Part of system security requirement testing involves validating how well a system meets predefined technical control security requirements concerning unauthorized internal or external access or willful damage. Security testing also establishes an application security baseline and identifies a level of security risk prior to production implementation. Applications are tested on standard secure platform configurations to ensure that normal operations are not impeded by the security configurations themselves. Security testing also includes vulnerability assessments using automated scanning tools, as well as testing patches and security alerts and warnings for both applications and images. Additionally, security testing may include disaster recovery and COOP planning and exercise. • Reliability Testing – Verify if a system is capable of recuperating gracefully from failure conditions. It tests to guarantee that a system can recover and continue operating in the event of a major outage, web server, application server, database, etc. These tests are executed by simulating these outages during normal system processing. Reliability is important for systems dealing with mission-critical data • Usability Testing – Verify the aesthetic and efficiency qualities of user interfaces and examines their ease of use. The user interfaces are evaluated on how logical data entry into the system is and how intuitive the presentation of data to the user is. This type of testing is more of an art form than a science. The ultimate goal is to remove any thing that might be confusing or ambiguous to the user. www.cigital.com
  7. 7. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 7 • Integrated Performance and Stress Testing - Ensure the product delivered to the field performs with the desired response times, and as expected under projected user load using the existing infrastructures. Determine the load at which the application and/or hardware can no longer meet acceptable processing metrics as defined during the requirements and design process. Interface and Interoperability Testing - Assess the compatibility and potential impact of multiple, cooperatively employed systems through the validation of their operation and conformity to approved standards; validate standard images before they are released into the field. • Interoperability testing validates that applications or COTS products installed in combination on production platform(s) operate correctly or work with the approved Production baseline. It also validates that the new version of a platform baseline image permits the functioning of Production applications and systems. • Interface testing verifies communication and interaction between systems by ensuring that the system’s interface design requirements are satisfied. Interface testing addresses calls made to other modules, communication interfaces between modules, and the integration of COTS software and custom-developed software. • Regression Testing - Ensure that program changes have not degraded the overall functionality of the system. • Infrastructure Testing - Ensure that new and proposed infrastructure components such as servers, workstations, peripherals, operating systems, and office productivity software are compatible with the current systems and applications. • Image Testing - Ensure that developed workstation and server images are compatible with the current systems and applications • Installation Testing - Analyze the impact of the installation of new systems or components on deployed systems and baselines ensuring the installation meets the project’s requirements and does not negatively impact production. 2.1.2 Best Practices and Processes The Best Practices and Processes core function will identify, define, deploy, track and improve standard quality assurance and testing processes for the STCE based on industry best practices and lessons learned internal to the STCE. Key processes and practices to be defined by the Best Practice and Processes core function include areas not typically covered by most QA and testing organizations including but not limited to: • Test strategy and planning • Test automation • Software metrics www.cigital.com
  8. 8. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 8 • Requirements review and traceability • Security testing and analysis • Risk management These will be integrated with CMMI and ISO 9001 quality assurance and management practices as appropriate. Activities will be used to assess current testing process and practices to identify existing best practices and gaps and to develop comprehensive improvement roadmaps that incrementally improve software testing processes while not impacting release schedules. In addition to deployment through the software testing portal, there will be documentation of these best practices-based software testing processes and methodologies. Measurements will be measured to determine the impact of process change and will be incrementally improved. The STCE will be a driving force for improvement in the organization, but will amend existing processes incrementally to reduce culture shock. 2.1.3 Knowledge Management The Knowledge Management core function will provide three primary services: software quality assurance and testing knowledge capture and transfer, including training; process, knowledge and collaboration deployment through a software testing portal; and management of a certified components repository to house previously vetted components for strategic reuse. The overall purpose is to provide knowledge to software testing and development teams that will increase their productivity and capabilities and drive on-going software test training (both classroom and online) to improve individual skill sets. Ongoing activities for the STCE Knowledge Management function will include: 1) Development, maintenance and population of a knowledge portal that provides information to both software developers and testers on testing best practices, plan and report templates, technology quality guidelines 2) Incorporate component repository of tested components to drive reuse and increase quality 3) Maintain and deliver software quality assurance and test training curriculum. Targeted content for management should include, but not be limited to, the following: • Knowledge Management online repository/ “Portal” to house STCE measurements, costs, testing reports, daily summaries, CM status accounting, status of document assessments - and anything else deemed as important information to share across the organization. The SCTE Portal is role-based and gives instant insight into STCE activities and documentation including the SLM process and allows for users to quickly search for relevant topics of interest. The portal serves as the repository for the latest changes to STCE methodologies and procedures and houses the latest templates. www.cigital.com
  9. 9. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 9 • Periodic meetings with development teams, IT Project Managers, IT Operations, and the STCE to discuss project schedules, technology advancements, process improvement, and anticipated changes to the environment, ensuring all parties are aware of pending issues that can be resolved before they become problems. • Yearly self-evaluations that result in documented “Lessons Learned,” ensuring the STCE is constantly maturing and improving. • Online and in-person training of all STCE processes, including the systems development lifecycle process. • Newsletters developed to foster awareness of systems development methodology and standards, to highlight areas of frequent questions, and to communicate with system development projects in easily accessible targeted briefs • Enterprise Systems Assurance Plan (ESAP) serves as a “how-to” guide for implementing the STCE. The ESAP provides instructions for carrying out specific CM, Release Management (RM), and T&E activities, and delineates the responsibilities of these activities for STCE Teams and project teams. • Status reports highlight all STCE activities accomplished each week. • Service Level offerings to enable system owners and project managers to assist in determining depth and breadth of testing appropriate for a specific release given the project context, mandates, and willingness to accept risk. • Daily reporting as required on independent testing and evaluation progress. 2.1.4 Tools and Technologies The purpose of STCE Tools and Technologies branch is to examine and select appropriate tools and testing techniques for use within the testing services core function. STCE Tools and Technologies function activities provide tool evaluation, testing techniques evaluation, and documentation of tool and technique best practices. The benefits of the STCE Tools and Technologies function include but are not limited to: 1) Assures that effective software tools are selected for use by both software development and testing based upon business/mission criteria 2) Documented information provides developers and testers useful knowledge for effectively using appropriate tools 2.2 Supporting Functions 2.2.1 Configuration Management The Configuration Management (CM) supporting function includes planning, defining, and providing the change management environment to ensure the delivery of quality systems. Change management identifies and tracks changes to system components through administration tools such as version control software, system change request software, and a central repository for system documentation. As requirements change, system change requests (SCRs) will be tracked through the Governance process based on automated tools, and discussed and reviewed during CCBs and other Governance reviews. Upon approval by the CCB, the requirement, data, code, or architecture (CIs) www.cigital.com
  10. 10. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 10 are updated in its respective repository to ensure integrity and tracking for all changes to the established baselines. CM ensures software and systems release integrity as a release or infrastructure modification moves through the development, test, and production environments and ensures that software and documentation assets are well protected. Configuration Management requirements to be supported include the following: • Configuration Management Planning • Developing an overall CM plan documenting CM process and procedures to be implemented at specific phases and milestones of the system development lifecycle. • Monitoring and controlling the configuration management process by initiating, controlling, tracking, and auditing changes, deviations, and waivers. • Communicating with and training those performing or supporting the configuration management process on as needed basis. • Supporting the operation of the Enterprise Change Control Board (CCB). • Configuration Identification • Providing configuration identification and documentation for software, hardware, and other configurable items (CIs) within the organizational IT environment. • Configuration Change Control • Implementing CM policy and change controls to meet system security certification and accreditation requirements • Tracking and controlling changes to software and hardware configurations. • Establishing and maintaining an automated CM and change management system for controlling work products. o Analyze and evaluate CM software tools - researching products and technical specifications. o Providing and administering enterprise-wide use of version control software to ensure organizational investments and software assets are consistently maintained. • Maintaining and operating an enterprise centralized repository and enterprise library of documents (including processes, procedures, workflow, etc.), software, and infrastructure. This leverages the software test portal managed and deployed by the Knowledge Management core function. • Ensuring that version control software and the document repository are compatible with legacy CM tools such that data can be migrated. • Working with each software development project to ensure configuration management activities are properly incorporated into project plans. • Making baselined application code available to staging teams. • Managing all baselines including but not limited to applications, workstations, servers, and images. o Identifying and documenting baseline contents o Tracking baseline changes. o www.cigital.com
  11. 11. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 11 • Configuration Status Accounting o Certifying baselines for internal use and for delivery to the field. o Producing a global configuration status accounting report. o Reviewing the activities, status, and results of the configuration management process with organizational management. • CM Audits o Participating in the development of audit trails to specify what changes, i.e., executables, configuration files, documents were deployed and where. o Conducting configuration audits and reviews to maintain integrity of the configuration baselines and the enterprise central repository and library of documents and software. 2.2.2 Release Management The Release Management supporting function provides services to assure quality in the deployment of new system releases. Applications and COTS Software Staging and Pre- Deployment Services ensure that planned single or bundled releases of software and/or hardware changes, COTS upgrades, configuration changes, patches, and images are available for deployment to field locations. The Release Management function will stage releases using various platforms including FTP servers, web servers, CDs, and automated tools. The organizational IT Operations Division will physically deploy the software to field sites. The intent is to deploy quality software to production facilities in a seamless and transparent manner. Applications and COTS Software Staging and Pre-Deployment Services requirements include the following: • Developing staging/ release processes, methodologies, and plans. • Creating installation packages for system releases using industry best practices and tools. • Ensuring the release package can be successfully installed by IT field personnel who do not have an intimate knowledge of either the system or deployment process. • Notifying the Help Desk that a new system release is imminent so that a message may be broadcast. • Staging application updates using industry best practices and tools/ methods (e.g., automated tools, CD-ROM, FTP Site and Websites). • Participating in developing a standardized methodology to work with system business owners, IT project managers, users if necessary, and others, as required to communicate staging and deployment milestones, business impacts, roles/ responsibilities, problem resolution, other special needs for a specific IT component. • Creating installation CD-ROMs and send to the designated point of contact on the distribution list supplied by the Development Team, IT Project Managers, etc. • Developing fallback procedures and checkpoints (milestones for staging). • Developing a standardized, post staging review process. www.cigital.com
  12. 12. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 12 2.2.3 Independent Test and Evaluation Facility (ITEF) The Independent Test and Evaluation Facility supporting function will provide an independent testing environment to support the testing activities of the Testing Services core function. The ITEF will have the appropriate size, equipment, security, and functionality to support the STCE and envisioned enterprise testing support. It will be able to reproduce organizational operating environments and technologies. It will be responsible for creating an environment which mirrors the workstation / printer / peripheral environment of the field locations as closely as possible. It will be scalable. The ITEF will include all hardware and software for performing testing, CM, release management, reporting, and other STCE functions that is not GFE. Where the sponsoring organization chooses to utilize a third-party ITEF to support the STCE, the STCE will develop a physical and logical configuration plan and management process to be implemented by the third-party ITEF. This plan will address the following factors: • Location (e.g., in proximity to the organizational office location) • Size • Layout/ partitions • Infrastructure/ tools • Connectivity • Access Control/ Security • COOP and Disaster Recovery • Flexibility • Scalability. www.cigital.com
  13. 13. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 13 3 Summarized Sampling of STCE Activities A summarized sampling of some typical detailed STCE activities include but are not limited to: • Test Planning and Management Oversight Establishing and maintaining enterprise-wide testing standards and procedures in accordance with the system development life cycle, and ensuring that development testers follow established standards. (Best Practices and Processes function) Serving as a testing point of contact for organization generated test questions or issues. (Test Services function) Attending control board meetings, review board meetings, and other system lifecycle process required reviews and addressing any T&E issues. (STCE Management and Test Services function) Using requirements documents in preparing a detailed specification describing the physical test lab solution for each application and release being tested. (Individual Test and Evaluation Facility function) Providing test engineering guidance for T&E personnel. (Best Practices and Processes function) Developing/ delivering documentation such as test plans, which clearly define the goals, requirements, testing needs, entry/exit criteria, test data needs, and detailed test cases or test scripts for automated testing. (Testing Services function) Defining and establishing—with CM, QA, and Release Management team standard processes for the management of automated test scripts. (Best Practices and Processes function) Providing all deliverables, as required, in a well documented, timely manner. (Testing Services function) • Testing Conducting functional testing to assess whether the final software product meets the approved requirements and design specifications. The Systems T&E Team uses the functional requirements as described in the current Functional Requirements Document (FRD) to determine if the product performs the business functions as needed by the user. Functional testing includes both manual and automated processes. (Testing Services function) Conducting end-to-end integrated performance testing that measures response time, and throughput using load, stress and WAN-emulation tests. (Testing Services function) Executing performance diagnostics tuning to identify and resolve the root cause of performance bottlenecks. (Testing Services function) Conducting Interoperability Testing to assess the compatibility and potential impact of new or updated systems on existing systems. (Testing Services function) Developing a methodology for conducting independent Security Testing Evaluation, and conducting security testing that will aid the Security team in www.cigital.com
  14. 14. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 14 making a decision(s) about an application’s certification to be deployed securely. (Best Practices and Processes function) Performing risk-based testing that focuses test efforts on critical areas when there is the latitude to choose the areas for test focus based on functional criticality, complexity, and risk. (Testing Services function) Developing and maintaining a suite of automated regression testing tools. (Tools and Technologies function and Testing Services function) Electronically capturing and executing automated test scripts using approved software products. (Testing Services function) Facilitating User Acceptance Testing by creating results based testing scenarios. (Testing Services function) Recording and tracking TPRs during SAT and UAT. (Testing Services function) • Support Systems Development Lifecycle Processes Providing guidance to organization Systems Assurance management on the benefits and function of test support through the system development lifecycle. (STCE Management and Best Practices and Processes function) Participating in control board meetings and review board meetings, and conducting Test Readiness Reviews (TRR) and Release Readiness Reviews (RRR) with organization System Owners, IT Project Managers, IT Operations and Systems Assurance. (STCE Management and Testing Services function) Providing technical assessments and risk assessments of Test Problem Reports (TPRs) during the RRR to assist organization in determining if planned changes are certified for deployment into production. (Testing Services function) Integrating the test process with the configuration management process such that when problems are discovered during testing, they can be reproduced, diagnosed, and fixed against the version of the application code that failed and on the same platform. (Best Practices and Processes function and Configuration Management function) Evaluating Version Description Documents and Maintenance Release Notes provided by the development teams, IT Infrastructure or Security to validate the information and ensure target software can be installed in an independent test facility. (Release Management function, Independent Test and Evaluation Facility function, Testing Services function and Configuration Management function) Evaluating application software and making recommendations for improvement. (Testing Services function) Evaluating office automation and support tools, OS, COTS, hardware, security template, configuration settings. (Tools and Technologies function and Knowledge Management function) Resolving questions and issues that arise between application development teams and assigned testers. Generating test-related routines and special reports as required. (Testing Services function and Best Practices and Processes function) Assessing readiness of software and hardware for delivery to the Government upon completion of testing. (Testing Services function) www.cigital.com
  15. 15. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 15 Support Disaster Recovery and COOP planning/ testing as required. (Testing Services function) • Systems Testing Administration Providing systems administration for the independent T&E lab equipment, so as to duplicate the organizational environment for accurate T&E. (Independent Test and Evaluation Facility function) Providing DBA Administration for the Systems Assurance ITEF, which may include: setup of independent test areas for all applications undergoing T&E, managing database configuration control, setup of performance test databases, performing analysis of performance testing on the database, ensuring database configuration meets security requirements, manipulation of tables for creating different testing scenarios. (Independent Test and Evaluation Facility function) Providing automated test tool administration to include the following: management of procurement and implementation, license management, maintenance and upgrades, technical support, scheduling of formal training, and serving as a general point of contact for all automated testing tool related inquiries. (Tools and Technologies function and Knowledge Management function) • Tracking and Analysis/ Reporting Ensuring that individual tests provide testing schedule estimates, test plans, daily test summary reports upon request, and test analysis reports to the organization Systems Assurance Manager, and in general, developing a standardized, comprehensive reporting process. (Best Practices and Processes function and Testing Services function) Identifying, recording, and tracking software and hardware defects. (Testing Services function) Developing Test Analysis Reports (TARs) to comprehensively show analysis and the results from all levels of testing. TARs detail items such as the testing type and methods used, test case results, test environment utilized, test problems encountered (open and/or resolved), and test metrics. (Testing Services function) www.cigital.com
  16. 16. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 16 4 STCE Basic Staffing Structure The following staffing structure would form the baseline model for a balanced and scalable approach to staffing an STCE. This structure provides the key roles required to fully execute the STCE services defined above and can be easily scaled to support anywhere from a very small number of projects to a very large number of projects. As demand increases, the staffing of the Test Services function under the Test Manager will scale at a much faster rate than the rest of the core and supporting functions. www.cigital.com
  17. 17. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 17 5 STCE Component Interactions The STCE’s four core functions (Testing Services, Best Practices and Processes, Knowledge Management, and Tools and Technologies) are constantly interacting in a synergistic, self-reinforcing mechanism, as shown in the figure below. Mission-oriented metrics will be developed and refined to ensure their relevancy to the organization. This constant interaction and mutual dependence is what lends strength and flexibility to this solution. It ensures that the STCE remains current and relevant, that it remains flexible and scalable and that it is continually evolving to achieve higher levels of effectiveness and efficiency while adapting to the needs of the sponsoring organization. Best Practices & Pro Processes ces s eva l& Met men rics torin Process definition re sult g s Training Knowledge Testing Management Portal access Services ack Tool knowledge edb g l fe orin Too m ent l& eva Tools & T ool Technologies 6 Risks and Mitigation There are some implicit risks in effectively implementing an STCE in an organization. It is always wise to identify such risks and establish planned actions to mitigate them as early as possible. The following are some of the more common risks with establishing an STCE: • Risk #1 Description: STCE gravitating to a “body shop” approach to software testing over time. Mitigation: All four core components of the STCE must be implemented day one and a strong measurement program must be put in place. • Risk # 2 Description: Best practices and processes are documented but seldom followed. www.cigital.com
  18. 18. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 18 Mitigation: 1) Appropriate training must be developed and delivered 2) Best practice and processes must include enabling technologies 3) Performance measurement must include productivity measures • Risk #3 Description: Software development views software testing as an adversary instead of a partner. Mitigation: Implement and clearly communicate the value of a full lifecycle software testing processes that will help identify key defects earlier in the process and save software development time and effort. www.cigital.com
  19. 19. Cigital > Software Testing Center of Excellence 19 About Cigital For over a decade Cigital has enabled some of the most well-known companies in financial services, communications, insurance, hospitality and e-commerce to reduce their mission-critical software business risks. Cigital consultants help companies protect some of their most valuable assets: company information, customer data, shareholder value and brand. Each client’s unique requirements are served through a combination of proven methodologies, tools and best practices. Cigital assures the reliable delivery and deployment of software that organizations build, buy and integrate. The company is headquartered near Washington, D.C. with offices in Boston, New York, Los Angeles and Delhi, India. © 2008 Cigital All rights reserved. www.cigital.com

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