Business Analysis...


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  • Welcome. This is the talk for… Are you in the right presentation???
  • Requirements errors: Mars orbiter – SHOULD be 150km orbit – was 54km. Cause – imperial vs metric units. Lack of user involvement: the BA has not correctly analysed the impact on all users and sought representation from them Unrealistic expectations: the BA has not adequately and realistically defined measurable/testable benefits and requirements Lack of exec support: poorly defined objectives will mean that senior execs don’t care about them and so will not engage – if the benefits result in a director hitting his bonus he will engage with a project! Changing requirements: BA aims to MINIMISE (not remove) changes in requirements by analysing the really requirements first time around. When users do change their minds (and they do) then they facilitate incorporation of requirements through mediation and impact analysis always preserving the chain of reasoning. Lack of planning: A BA who does not know what they need to do with who and in what order will not be able to SPECIFY their requirements and plan for doing the analysis.
  • This is based on a study by Staffordshire University – figures are based on amount of actual effort rather than what is actually needed to get it right. My experience at BBBS was that the Requirements took about twice as long as the design and about the same amount of time/effort as Coding (not testing).
  • This is based on a study by James Martin Other studies have shown that reworking requirements defects on most software development projects costs 40 to 50 percent of total project effort, and the percentage of defects originating during requirements engineering is estimated at more than 50 percent. The total percentage of project budget due to requirements defects is 25 to 40 percent.
  • The numbers don’t matter too much – the fact the costs of correction rise exponentially does.
  • Half of errors are requirement errors costing ¾ o project rework costs – leading to… Late projects costing nearly double their budget – no wonder 30% just get canned.
  • IF : All change projects must consist of changes to business capabilities THEN : all analysis methods must analyse changes to business capabilities
  • There is a chain of reasoning that leads from the sufficient definition of the problem to the sufficient definition of the requirements for the solution. Break any one link in the chain and the rest of the chain is unsupported: un-provable. There are (almost!) infinitely more ways to get a solution wrong than right. BLACK HOLE – projects that get it wrong REQUIREMENTS – wrong until PROVED right…so HOW do you PROVE that?
  • Driver: Problems that the business must solve Opportunities the business can exploit Rules that the business must conform to … etc Vision : The ideal state of the business after the drivers have been addressed Objective : The measures of success that will DEFINE if a project has been successful: Increase [measure] to the value of … Decrease [measure] to the value of … Maintain [measure] at the value of … Deliverable : The output of a project that affects the Objectives in the desired way. Function Business Procedure Technology Skill Proof of compliance … etc Benefit : Which (and how much?) Deliverable contributes to which Objective Requirement : Functional Non-functional Scope (Org, App and Tech) Data Requirement Benefit : Which (and how much?) each Requirement contributes to which Benefit Business Rule: Process model Data model Rule definition Business logic Requirement Business Rule: Which rules are utilised within which Requirements EXAMPLE: Driver: Don’t know how to get to Olympia on the tube Taxi arriving in 20 minutes My computer is packed up Vision: I have no problems knowing which tubes to get when I arrive at Euston, and where to change, to get to Olympia Objective: I have the knowledge to get me from Euston to Olympia the time the taxi arrives Deliverable: A map of the tube stations from Euston to Olympia Requirement To know which tube line and direction I need from Euston To know at which tube station to change tube trains and lines To know what direction of travel I need To know when I have arrived at Olympia Business Rule The tube line is highlighted for all tube stations The tube lines I need to take is highlighted The tube stations I need to use are highlighted The direction of travel is indicated from any tube station I need to depart from for the relevant tube line Kensington is the tube stop for Olympia
  • COLOUR CODED DIAGRAM BLUE: Who is involved Black: What is being done Red: What the BA is doing BA doesn’t have to be involved at every point – COULD/SHOULD BE – and will need knowledge of every point to complete the train of reasoning…
  • IF : the BA uses the Chain of Reasoning to specify provable requirements for changes to processes and/or data and/or non-functional components THEN : it does not matter what method and approach using techniques, language and emphasis is employed so long as it covers every link in the chain
  • Made the case that BA is not a difficult thing to do in principle It is difficult in practice because it demands provable ANALYSIS which means TIME AND THINKING – on projects these are often both in short supply So long as the analysis is provable in your method/approach it doesn’t matter what method/approach you use Beware the jargon – my current fav is Jidoka – add the human element to processes (from Lean) When I am working as a BA my mantra is trust no-one, believe nothing, prove everything – and that should apply to how you do Business Analysis as well
  • Business Analysis...

    1. 1. Business Analysis… … methods, fads and fashions Guy Beauchamp Business Analyst Solutions Stand 63
    2. 2. <ul><li>The Standish Group “Chaos Report” (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>365 executive managers </li></ul><ul><li>8,380 applications </li></ul><ul><li>all major industry segments including: banking, retail and wholesale. </li></ul>The Top 6 Reasons Projects Fail Some of the contents of this slide were taken from 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    3. 3. Business Analysis Proverbs <ul><li>Delivery is not the best time to analyse requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>A factor present in every successful project and absent in every unsuccessful project is sufficient attention to requirements. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suzanne & James Robertson </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements-Led Project Management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    4. 4. Requirements Analysis Design Code/test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Average actual effort spent on each stage of the development cycle* *based on a study by Staffordshire University What is “sufficient attention to requirements”? (I) 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    5. 5. Requirements Analysis Design Code/test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Average Proportion of Errors Built in During Development* *based on a study by James Martin What is “sufficient attention to requirements”? (II) 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    6. 6. Relative Cost of Correcting Requirements Errors* *sourced from Barry Boehm What is “sufficient attention to requirements”? (III) 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    7. 7. How Much Poor Analysis can £ Cost* <ul><li>Half of all bugs can be traced to requirement errors </li></ul><ul><li>fixing these errors consumes 75% of project rework costs </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRIBUTING TO: </li></ul><ul><li>The average project exceeds its planned schedule by 120% </li></ul><ul><li>52.7% of projects will cost 189% of their original estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Only 16.2% of projects will be completed on time & on budget </li></ul><ul><li>30% of projects are cancelled before completion </li></ul>*Source: Calculating your return on investment from more effective requirements management IBM article Dec 2003 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    8. 8. <ul><li>The typical project… </li></ul><ul><li>… expends least effort on analysis… </li></ul><ul><li>… which is where most errors originate… </li></ul><ul><li>… and whose errors cost most to fix! </li></ul>Summary 1. make the case for undertaking Business Analysis
    9. 9. Definition of terms for Business Analysis Business : < whatever> Analysis : “the process of breaking a concept down into more simple parts, so that its logical structure is displayed” (OED) a   : an examination of a complex, its elements, and their relations b   : a statement of such an analysis (Merriam Webster) 2. debunk Business Analysis
    10. 10. Scope of analysis of change <ul><li>ANALYSIS of change requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-functional </li></ul></ul>2. debunk Business Analysis
    11. 11. Chain Of Reasoning <ul><ul><li>Requirements must be assumed to be wrong until they are proved to be right </li></ul></ul>2. debunk Business Analysis Driver/ Vision £ Objective X £ X X X X X X Requirement X X X X £ {black holes of failure}
    12. 12. -Links-in-the-Chain-Of-Reasoning- Driver Objective Benefit Requirement Benefit Requirement Requirement Business Rule Vision Deliverable Business Rule Addressed by Achieved as measured by Delivered through Contributes to Delivered by Delivers Enforces Enforces 2. debunk Business Analysis Key Many One
    13. 13. POST-IMPLEMENTATION Business Analysts feed back to the Owner how well their measure of success has been achieved Owners defines measures of success and £ targets … Business Analysts confirm & document Strategists determine the strategy to hit the targets … Business Analysts help do market research, create strategy, challenge & document Sponsors establish a Programme that delivers the strategy … Business Analysts document Programme TOR and build the Business Case Programme Managers Institute Projects that implement the programme … Business Analysts document the Project TOR Project Stakeholders … Business Analysts specify requirements for Projects (in the Business Model) Design Analysts design solution that satisfies the requirements … Business Analysts protect requirements & document compromises <ul><li>Project managers </li></ul><ul><li>Implement solution </li></ul><ul><li>… Business Analysts help with </li></ul><ul><li>Process and data migration </li></ul><ul><li>Cutover planning </li></ul><ul><li>Rollout </li></ul>Solution Builders & Business test solution … Business Analysts ensure tested against requirements Solution Builders build solution … Business Analysts protect requirements & document compromises <ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Accept solution </li></ul><ul><li>… Business Analysts help with </li></ul><ul><li>£MEASURING £BENEFITS £REALISATION </li></ul>When & Where are Business Analysts involved and how do they help? There is a chain of reasoning that leads from the statement of a problem to the implementation of solutions… … involving up to 10 groups of people… £Money! 3. make the case for a pragmatic and practical analysis of business changes
    14. 14. If… <ul><li>If you can map all your analysis to components in </li></ul><ul><li>the Chain of Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>If there are no gaps AND no breaks in the chain </li></ul><ul><li>If those who can kill your project agree with your </li></ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Then your analysis is correct and what’s more you are a Business Analyst my son. </li></ul><ul><li>Sorry Rudyard! </li></ul>3. make the case for a pragmatic and practical analysis of business changes
    15. 15. … and finally… the secrets of doing Business Analysis <ul><li>Agree the analysis method and approach you will use </li></ul><ul><li>Get some trained Business Analysts </li></ul><ul><li>Plan how, when and who to do the analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Do the analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Use the analysis products to develop and implement the solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Er – that’s it. </li></ul>
    16. 17. So – Business Analysis is needed… … what next? There are a number of steps to take to establish an operational Business Analysis function: Monitor and Support the BA Function Design the B.A. Function Recruit the B.A. Function Train the B.A. Function Equip the B.A. Function
    17. 18. How can BA Solutions help? Monitor and Support the BA Function Design the B.A. Function Recruit the B.A. Function Train the B.A. Function Equip the B.A. Function <ul><li>Recruitment of permanent and contract analysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Source candidates internally and externally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Qualify CVs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Interview – conduct them or just assist with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Assessment centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Manage contracted analysts placed by B A S </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training courses for analysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Business Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPMN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISEB accreditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Skills for Business Analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop Facilitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CASE tool recommendation - independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations and benefits assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Support for analysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone and email post training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refresher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q/A reviews of analysis deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design of the Business Analysis function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms of reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Analyst Profile </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Who Are BA Solutions ? <ul><li>B A S are highly experienced Business Analysts </li></ul><ul><li>We have extensive practical experience in a wide range of industry sectors including retail, banking, utilities, software houses </li></ul><ul><li>We have worked in IT departments and within Businesses at every level from Majority Shareholder/Owner to Managing Director to shop floor workers – average satisfaction score for delivered services is 92%! </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Client feedback forms) </li></ul><ul><li>… and what is the BA Solutions mission? </li></ul><ul><li>To support the whole Business Analyst ‘life cycle’ and provide whatever services clients need in order to set up and run a Business Analyst function. </li></ul>
    19. 20. BA Solutions Just some of our Clients… Christian Aid D S Data Training Ltd Diligenta Ltd Hewitts Ltd HSBC KPMG Littlewoods Shop Direct Group Plc Network Rail Norwich Union O2 Otto Plc Scottish Water Suffolk County Council The Law Society Transport For London Zurich International Solutions Ltd
    20. 21. Thank you for your time. If you would like to discuss anything further, please contact BA Solutions <ul><li>web: www. BusinessAnalystSolutions .com </li></ul><ul><li>mail: Guy@ BA-Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>phone: 0845 166 2161 </li></ul><ul><li>address: 6 Mickle Gate, </li></ul><ul><li>Peterborough, PE3 6SU </li></ul>
    21. 22. -end-