TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND EDUCATIONSofia Marisol Zelada
- LEARNING OBJECTIVES - Identify the challenges in implementing1 TQM in education centers and learn how to deal with them. Learn how to implement TQM in schools,2 academies, universities?
- BACKGROUND -o Crisis for Government-provided education.o Reduction on educational investment.o Ageing population.o No willingness (“Dinkies and Woofies”) to pay more taxes for education.
- THE RESPONSE -o UK • Control system and specification of the curriculum that must be taught. • Parental choice and open enrolment to schools were legislated.o USA • 6 national educational goals for 2000. • Emphasize cross-curricular competencies and empowerment of participants.o Canada • Encouraging innovation so as to do more with less. • Voluntary pay freezes for staff
- CHALLENGES -Six categories of ‘Cultural’ Challenge① The rejection of industrial models and vocabulary: an anti-management tendency. • Failure to recognize the benefits which derive from good systematic management techniques. • “concerned with the individual child and the whole person, and are not be driven by the impersonal demands of economy.② A tradition of individualist rather than collectivist responsibility for quality. • Quality was defined by the teacher in his or her own classroom. • i.e. entry grade of “D” vrs “C”.
③ The organizational context of the school but not the classroom can be focus for TQM. • Classrooms have been viewed as islands of professional autonomy with the process of teaching and learning. • School is viewed as a collection of separate, highly specialized individual performers and units.③ Traditional belief that performance achievement is the product of inputs. • key inputs: pupils competences, class size, amount of money available for books. • No relationship between school effectiveness and input factors.
⑤ We are doing very well as we are under the present circumstances. • There are no apparent grounds for dissatisfaction by their stakeholders. • “if we do what we always do we will get what we always get and that has been quite satisfactory for us!” • “comfort zone”⑥ A tradition of management by centralized decision-making: the ‘headmaster’ or ‘superintended tradition’. • “Decision centralization” • Principal’s job has been to plan for subordinates and to appraise their work to ensure that plans are followed.
- SUMMARY -Abstract definition of ‘Quality’ and to avoid theconceptualization of quality as customers’perception. Tardiness to accept fully the notion of internal customer-supplier chains, and to explore the perceived quality of these. Absence of systematic evaluation in general, and in particular of internal products, either by the immediate customer or by the preceding supplier. Absence of a defined strategy for its local ‘marketplace’.
-APPLICATION OF TQM IN EDUCATION-Step by Step 1. Defining customers, customer-supplier chains and empowering student. North Area College, England. • Teacher is supplier to student and vice versa. • Mutual commitment to quality. • More emphasis on self study. • Mutual partnership between students and staff.
2. Costumer audits and surveys: matching costumer and supplier perspectives. Lakeside, Wales UK • Identifying quality issues and assessing the viability of TQM for the school. • Surveys to trap the opinion of the customers about process practices and school context in general. • Differences between the providers view of the same experience and the users view of the same experience.
3. Hoshin or outrageous goals • Public sector institutions are being to achieve beyond its comfort zone • Wayzata, Minnesota USA: “all students will achive the performance standards for each grade of schooling, if they do not, the school system will provide support and training until they do”. • Fort McMurray, Alberta: “100% competitions in grades 11 and 12 – no drop outs”.
4. Defining key whole-school procedures, process mapping and measurement.• Introduce the concept of TQM to senior staff and progressively to all teaching and non teaching staff.• Data collection facilitates planning and scheduling.• Determine the key procedures to be defined.
5. Deriving customer data on classroom processesUS Army School of Engineering andLogistics.• Ongoing instructor improvement programme.• Good instruction using input from all engineering students.• Teaching methods.
- CONCLUSION-• Institutions must be more and more financially self-managing, judged and funded on criteria of performance.• Need to redefine their clients as customers.• TQM is empowering and democratizing and so fits well with the ethos of the educational world, with its traditional focus on the person having both entitlement and unique learning needs.