Co-production approach to support deported children
Co-production approach to the reintegration of deported children Sofia Marisol Zelada Olmedo EL SALVADOR“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. In fact, it is the only thing that ever has”. Margaret Mead
1. COOPERATIVES A COOPERATIVE is a group of people acting together to meet the common needs and aspirations of its members, sharing ownership and making decisions democratically. Promote active citizenship by developing the skills of members who run the organization. They also stimulate wealth creation by creating businesses that meet people’s needs.
PRINCIPLES Voluntary and open membership; Democratic member control; Member economic participation; Autonomy and independence; Provision of education, training and information; Cooperation among cooperatives; and Concern for the community.
COOPERATIVES IN EL SALVADOR Regulated in the “General Law of Cooperative associations” from 1986. Constituted for more than 15 members. Types include: Production Cooperatives Service Cooperatives Housing Cooperatives
Case: “Cooperativa San Rafael” 102 associated members. 5,712,000 square meters Production of sugar cane, pineapples, plantains, mangoes and legumes. Sold to Wal-Mart, informal market and to export. Credit to pay salaries and to provide maintenance to the land and equipment. Every associated member has their own salary and a subsidy for electricity, water, house construction, and education. Health insurance, cooperative clinic,
50% of what they get is distributed for: 10% education, 10% solidarity, 10% health, 20% reserved. The other 50% is divided between the associated members.
2. PEER EDUCATION ‘PEER’ refers to "one that is of equal standing with another; one belonging to the same societal group especially based on age, grade or status”. Behavioral change strategy- learning from people of your own age, similar background and interest. Manly used in Health issues (HIV/AIDS, sexuality, birth control, breast feeding, pregnancy, etc)
THEORIES OF PEER EDUCATIONTHEORY MAIN IDEASocial learning theory People serve as models if human(Bandura, 1986) behavior and some people (significant others) are capable of eliciting behavioral change in certain individuals.Diffusion of Innovation theory Certain individuals (opinion leaders)(Rogers, 10983) from given population act as agents of behavioral change by disseminating information and influencing group norms in their community
WHY PEER EDUCATION? Peers are traditionally providers of information to their peers Peer education programs are community based Peer education programs can provide strong benefits to peer educators themselves. Peer education programs can be economical.
3. THE PROBLEM Children are irregularly migrating alone at a very young age. Causes of migration: poverty, lack of job opportunities, loneliness, family encouragement, perception of a better future. Dangers of migrating include: kidnapping, falling off the train, drowning, losing limbs, robbery, rape, abandoned, dead. After deportation they go back to the same situation they faced before migrating. Children want to migrate anew.
4. CO-PRODUCTION APPROACH Successfully reintegrated children can work as Peer educators to create awareness among the younger members of the communities about the dangers of irregular migration. Peer education can be delivered at schools, cultural houses, communities of origin, local radios, etc. Incentives can be given to the peer educators for their participation, such as food, transportation and cloth allowance, scholarships, salary, etc. Parents of deported children can also participate as peer educators, to provide other parents information about parenting strategies, etc.
Creation of youth cooperatives, but also involving their parents or relatives to participate in the cooperatives, specially when children are to young to participate. Youth cooperatives can be implemented with the deported children but also with all the children in communities of origin, in: Catering services. Handicrafts. Remittances management. Agricultural activities. Most of all, children should be trained in income generated activities before creating the cooperatives.