In producing well-designed visuals:
charts, posters, bulletin board
displays, graphics for slides or
television and the like it is best to
do a preliminary sketch of the
The rough layout in commercial art
is called a “blueprint” which gives
less attention to artistic details and
more consideration on choosing the
right words and images, their
arrangement, lettering style and
Use to maximize:
F- fidelity and
G- graphic harmony
- The pattern should capture the viewer’s
attention to relevant details.
- A geometric shape (e.g.
oval, rectangle, triangle) can serve as a
framework to build on.
Apply the “rule of thirds”. Elements along
any of the one-third dividing lines takes
on liveliness or movement. The most
dominant and dynamic position is at the
intersections of the one-third dividing
lines (especially the upper left
intersection). The center is the most
static and least interesting point on the
- Restrict the display to a single idea. In
advertising this is called the “unique
- Lines add to eye movement.
Horizontal lines give a feeling stability and
Vertical lines imply strength
Diagonal lines show movement, action and
Crossed diagonals give a sense of conflict
Curved lines give a feeling of motion
Contrast lends emphasis
- Symmetrical or formal balance has an equivalence
of elements on each side of the visual either
horizontally or vertically.
- A symmetrical or informal balance has a rough
equivalence of weights among elements. This tends
to provide dynamism and interest.
Formal/ informal/ imbalance
Formal: balance repeated on each side and is
highly symmetrical and can be boring
Imbalance: jarring – dynamic but can be
distracting – best to avoid
Informal: (like the three little bears – soup not too
hot or too cold but just right)
-- preferred – suprizing but not distracting or
jarring – rough equivalence of weight but use of
different elements adds surprize
Color adds to realism, provides emphasis, and
create an emotional tone.
- Blue, green and violet are “cool” colors which
physiologically seem to recede from the viewer.
- Red and orange are “hot” colors which seem to
approach the viewer. Red and orange highlights
help make objects leap to the viewer.
- Different colors appear to stimulate the
senses: Blue is “sweet, Orange is
‘edible”, Pink, yellow and green “smell”
best. Dark red and brown evoke masculine
images of earth, wood and leather.
Gold, silver and black suggest prestige and
- Use color judiciously in order not to lose
harmony. Choose analogous colors (next to
each other) on the color wheel.
- Lettering should be consistent and harmonious.
- Ornate letterings adapt to aesthetic or motivational
- Simple letterings (like the Gothic or Roman
Sanserif or without serif) are for informational or
- Lowercase letters with capitals, only when needed are
- Short headlines may be all in capitals.
- Color of lettering should contrast with
background color for eligibility and emphasis.
- For size, a rule of thumb is to adopt ¼ inch high
letters can be seen by a student at the last row
of a 35-feet-long classroom.
- For letter spacing, judge distance by experience
stressing an “optical” even and regular pattern.
The ff. are some practical guidelines to follow in the
design of instructional visuals.
-ways to represent objects
-Rule of Thirds
-variety of visuals
-amount of detail
Ways to represent object
- There are three major ways to represent objects: as
pictorial symbols, graphic symbols, or verbal
Designing visual images for instruction requires the
ability to think visually coupled with the ability to
relate verbal symbols (words) with corresponding
visual symbols (pictures or graphical images) in a
meaningful and creative way.
Is a principle of photographic and graphic composition
in which an area is divided into thirds both vertically
and horizontally and the centers of interest are located
near the intersections of the lines. The numbers at the
intersections that divide the image into thirds indicate
the percentage of people that look at that intersection
first when reading a visual.
Too much detail in a visual image can detract from
instruction. The age and developmental level of
students viewing the visual image. Younger children
need more detail than older children.
The layout of a visual needs to be clear and focus
attention to the appropriate places in the image.
The shapes of several letters are useful to guide layout
patterns. The letters C, O, S, Z, L, T, and U can be used
as basic guidelines for layout.
When words are added to label parts of a visual
image, be sure it is clear to the viewer of the image
which words go with which objects.
Move labels close to the objects they refer to.
Has to do with the shape, size and placement of words.
Serif style fonts have finishing lines
At the ends of the letters.
Sans serif fonts are more
Text should be in lower case. Use capitals only where
ALL CAPITAL LETTERS ARE HARD TO
READ, ESPECIALLY FOR MORE THAN ONE LINE.
-The arrangement of words in a visual image should
help clarify the message or information to be
-To make your visuals easy to read, be sure to have a good
amount of contrast between the color of the letters
and the color of the background.
These examples do not have good contrast between
the color of the letters and the color of the background
making them difficult to read.
These examples have good contrast between the color
of the letters and the color of the background making
them easy to read.
The size of letters used depends on the purpose of the
Posters need letters large enough to be read at a
distance, approximately ¼” for every eight feet of
viewer distance from the visual.