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  2. 2. Republic of the Philipines LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY Siniloan(Host) Campus, Siniloan Laguna SYLLABLE
  3. 3. Syllable is a volunteer project that is developing a family of easy to use computer operating systems. An operating system is the basic software that makes a computer do things. Every computer, and basically every electronic device that is a computer nowadays, needs one. The application programs that you use to get things done need an operating system, so they don't each have to reinvent the wheel.
  4. 4. A syllable ( Greek : συλλαβή) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words . They can influence the rhythm of a language , its prosody , its poetic meter, its stress patterns, etc. Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words . They can influence the rhythm of a language , its prosody , its poetic meter, its stress patterns, etc.
  5. 5. Syllable structure The general structure of a syllable consists of the following segments: Onset (obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others) Rime Nucleus (obligatory in all languages) Coda (optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others) In some theories of phonology, these syllable structures are displayed as tree diagrams (similar to the trees found in some types of syntax). Not all phonologists agree that syllables have internal structure; in fact, some phonologists doubt the existence of the syllable as a theoretical entity.
  6. 6. Syllables and suprasegmentals The domain of suprasegmental features is the syllable and not a specific sound, that is to say, they affect all the segments of a syllable: Stress Tone syllable length - is also counted as a suprasegmental feature; for example, in some Germanic languages, long vowels may only exist with short consonants and vice versa. However, syllables can be analyzed as compositions of long and short phonemes, as in Finnish and Japanese, where consonant gemination and vowel length are independent.
  7. 7. Syllables and phonotactic constraints Phonotactic rules determine which sounds are allowed or disallowed in each part of the syllable. English allows very complicated syllables; syllables may begin with up to three foconsonants (as in string or splash ), and occasionally end with as many as ur (as in prompts ). Many other languages are much more restricted; Japanese , for example, only allows /ɴ/ and a chroneme in a coda, and theoretically has no consonant clusters at all, as the onset is composed of at most one consonant. [3] There are languages that forbid empty onsets, such as Hebrew and Arabic (the names transliterated as "Israel", "Abraham", "Omar", "Ali" and "Abdullah", among many others, actually begin with semiconsonantic glides or with glottal or pharyngeal consonants).
  8. 8. Syllabification Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing too.Due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English "written" syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the living language. ( Syllabification may also refer to the process of a consonant becoming a syllable nucleus.)
  9. 9. Syllables and stress Syllable structure often interacts with stress. In Latin , for example, stress is regularly determined by syllable weight , a syllable counting as heavy if it has at least one of the following: a long vowel in its nucleus a diphthong in its nucleus one or more coda (e) In each case the syllable is considered to have two moras .
  10. 10. Syllables and vowel tenseness In most Germanic languages , lax vowels can only occur in closed syllables. Therefore, these vowels are also called checked vowels , as opposed to the tense vowels that are called free vowels because they can occur in open syllables.
  11. 11. A syllable is a part of a word , and consists of phones, or phonetic segments. Each syllable consists of at least a "nucleus" (middle) and, optionally, "margins" (edges). Vowel sounds occur in the nucleus of a syllable; mostly, consonant sounds occur in the margins (semi-vowels, which are phonetically identical to a corresponding vowel, may appear in the "margin"). In English, syllables can begin or end with consonants or vowels. Other languages sometimes insist that every syllable end in a vowel or begin with a consonant. On the other hand, no known language insists that syllables begin with a vowel or end in a consonant.
  12. 12. In linguistics jargon, basic syllable structure is often listed using abbreviations, where C represents any consonant and V any vowel, for instance:  CV - beginning consonant, vowel  CV(C) - beginning consonant, vowel, optional closing consonant An open syllable is one which ends in a vowel. An example in English would be 'boo'. A closed syllable is one that ends in a consonant. An example in English would be 'bat'.
  13. 13. A Tale of Two Operating Systems So what exactly is Syllable and what can it do for you? We are producing two operating systems: Syllable Desktop and Syllable Server. They are meant for different roles, but they share the goals of being as easy to use as possible while still being very powerful. Syllable Desktop is meant to run on personal computers. It is fully graphical, so it is easy to operate for people who don't care about diving into technical details. At the same time, it also offers a traditional command prompt environment that is well-known to technical-minded people as an extra, so nobody loses out. Syllable Server is meant to run on server computers - the ones that quietly do their work in backrooms and that you can connect to over the network with your personal computer. Thus, Syllable Server and Syllable Desktop are made to work together.
  14. 14. An important thing to know about Syllable is that Syllable Server is based on the well-known Linux kernel, but Syllable Desktop is not. Thus, Syllable Server is a Linux distribution, but Syllable Desktop is not. We started Syllable Desktop in 2002 and based it on the AtheOS operating system . Its author ceased its development around that time, so we effectively took it over. In 2007, we created Syllable Server with the same tools that we developed for Syllable Desktop, but basing it on Linux. The Linux kernel is not a complete operating system, but only the core for one, so we molded it into a complete system by adapting the parts that we already had. This way, we have made the two systems quite similar. When you can work with one, you can work with the other. However, Syllable Server does not have a full graphical environment yet .
  15. 15. We are putting the one from Syllable Desktop on it, so it will become a very easy to use server system, but until we are done, Syllable Server can only be operated from a text mode command prompt. After that, the choice between the two environments will be up to the user. Unlike Syllable Desktop, it will always be possible to run Syllable Server without the graphical environment where and when this is more suitable.
  16. 16. Different Strokes for Different Folks What Syllable can do for you really depends on what you want from it. Even though Syllable tries hard to be easy, it is not a microwave (although it has been known to warm people up and even make them glow ;-). It is a general-purpose system, so it can be used for many things. We think everyone can benefit from gaining the full power of their computers, but different people have different needs.
  17. 17. If you are a regular computer owner with a number of things you want from your computer but not much time to coerce your machine into doing them, then Syllable is for you - just not yet. Syllable is still under development. The base system is relatively mature. We think you will like it very much for its simplicity, consistency and speed, but most of the applications you need to do your things are still missing. We need more people to help us create application programs. In the meantime, we think it would be a good thing to check in on Syllable's development once in a while, and to compare it to your current system to see if it is really as adequate as you thought it was.
  18. 18. If you are somewhat of a hobbyist , Syllable may be very interesting to you. Even though it doesn't have many applications yet, a full collection of the most basic applications is included with the system. Syllable Desktop is easy to try out and quite usable if you are willing to adapt a bit to it. For example, it's quite suitable for browsing the web and some light emailing. Not all common computer hardware is supported yet, but if your audio hardware is supported, you can listen to music and play videos.
  19. 19. What's more, you can do this on older computers that are unusable with current mainstream operating systems. One of the ways that we put the power of the machines into the hands of their owners is that Syllable's hardware requirements are very low. You can make a five years old machine into one that behaves like a brand new one. You may even be able to make a ten years old computer do useful things again. The Syllable community on the Internet is friendly and we always try to help out with any problems you may encounter.
  20. 20. Syllable Server is a small and efficient Linux operating system. It uses the Linux kernel and is compatible with Linux software, but is otherwise built to be as similar as possible to Syllable Desktop, using mostly the same parts. It is optimised for server computers, yet inherits a lot of efficiency and speed from the Syllable Desktop design. The current version only has a text mode console interface suitable for server use and elementary support for running some graphical programs (it is shown here running on Syllable Desktop under emulation). Nonetheless, the clean Syllable design and straightforward documentation make it easy to use. The graphical user interface from Syllable Desktop will be added in later versions to enhance ease of use further. Due to its Linux base, Syllable Server is a stable and usable system. It runs on industry-standard Personal Computers with a minimum of a 486 processor and 16 MB of memory. It can make a new computer very fast and efficient and an old computer usable again.
  21. 22. Syllable Desktop Syllable is still being developed, but it is already relatively stable and mature, including the following features:  Operating system optimised for desktop computers.  Easy to use graphical work environment with consistent, simple but powerful interface. Text console emulation is available as extra within the graphical environment.  High response speed to user input, even under load.  Fast start-up (under ten seconds on modern computers) and shut-down (around five seconds).  Based on the AtheOS operating system. Modular. Multi-user. Memory protection. Pre-emptive. Kernel threading. Excellent support for SMP and multi-core systems. Originally inspired by AmigaOS .  Under development. Usability depends on your requirements.
  22. 24. Syllable development has been advancing at a steady rate, with new features, drivers and programs appearing as each month passes. Work has been under way to update glibc and the programming toolchain (GCC and friends), and the desktop is seeing polish and refinement too. So now we have a freely available (GPLed), multitasking desktop OS, with a fully-fledged GUI, network stack, USB drivers, journalling filesystem, SMP support, and a sprinkling of POSIX adherence thrown in for good measure. Quite an achievement.
  23. 25. To run Syllable comfortably, a Pentium 200 MHz with 64M of RAM is required. (It'll squeeze into a smaller system, but the results won't be ideal.) Although a bare-bones setup can fit into 100M, around 300M of hard drive space should be fine for general use; however, Syllable won't install on FAT/NTFS or ext2/3 partitions, so you'll need to give it some dedicated space. In terms of sound, video and network card support, Syllable sports an impressive array of drivers for most well-known kit -- so before you give it a spin, it's worth checking out the hardware compatibility list [] first. Virtual machines and emulators (such as VMware and Bochs) can run the OS with a bit of tweaking.
  24. 26. Syllable's installer is a simplistic text-based affair that gets the system up and running within a few minutes. Periodically, discussions and proposals for a graphical installer pop up -- for now, though, it does the job adequately and cosmetic issues can be dealt with later. If there are no hitches, one reboot later and the Syllable login screen will appear (use "root" for both the username and password).
  27. 29. THE END!... THANK YOU!!