The Direct Method in Language Teaching


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Basic Principles, Techniques, Comparison with Grammar-Translation

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The Direct Method in Language Teaching

  1. 1. Mersin University Faculty of Science and Letters Department of English Language and LiteratureTHE DIRECT METHOD IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Soner KALAN İsmail PİŞER Şenol BAKIRAL Erkan PATIBAY Soner İÇEN Burak ERGİN İDB 422 Applied Linguistics Dr. Pınar İBE AKCAN Mersin April, 2012
  2. 2. THE DIRECT METHODThe Direct Method of languageteaching is also called:
  3. 3. THE DIRECT METHODThe Direct Method was developed byMaximilian Berlitz towards the end ofthe 19th century as a reaction to theGrammar Translation Method.
  4. 4. THE DIRECT METHODThe Direct Method is named “direct”because meaning should beconnected directly with the targetlanguage without translation into thenative language.
  5. 5. THE DIRECT METHOD Basically, the Direct Method aimsto provide language learners with apractically useful knowledge oflanguage. Knowing a language isbeing able to speak it.
  6. 6. THE DIRECT METHODThis method argues that a foreignlanguage can be taught withouttranslation, unlike the argument ofthe Grammar-Translation Method.
  7. 7. THE DIRECT METHODRather than translating the teachingmaterial, the teacher is expected todirectly use the target language inclass because a language can best betaught by using it actively in theclassroom.
  8. 8. THE DIRECT METHODThe teacher should not explain butassociate the meaning through actionand demonstration.
  9. 9. THE DIRECT METHODIn this way, learners will be able toinduce grammar rules throughexamples, illustrations, anddemonstrations.
  10. 10. THE DIRECT METHODThis method replaces the textbookwith teacher-student / student-student activities such as readingaloud, question-answer exercises,fill-in-the-blank exercises, etc.
  11. 11. THE DIRECT METHODCorrect pronunciation is given carefulattention in this method. In addition,new vocabulary is taught by usingknown words.
  12. 12. BASIC PRINCIPLES1. Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language. The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate. NEVER TRANSLATE: DEMONSTRATE
  13. 13. BASIC PRINCIPLES2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. BASIC VOCABULARY IS GIVEN FIRST
  14. 14. BASIC PRINCIPLES3. Grammar is taught inductively. There may never be an explicit grammar rule given. DO NOT GIVE RULES: MAKE THEM FIGURE OUT THE RULE.
  15. 15. BASIC PRINCIPLES4. New teaching points are introduced orally. ORAL TRANSMISSION
  16. 16. BASIC PRINCIPLES5. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
  17. 17. BASIC PRINCIPLES6. Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
  18. 18. BASIC PRINCIPLES7. Vocabulary is taught through known words, demonstration, authentic objects (realia), pictures, and miming.
  19. 19. BASIC PRINCIPLES8. The teacher, by asking the student to make a choice, gets him to correct his own error. LEARNING BY SELF-CORRECTION
  20. 20. BASIC PRINCIPLES9. The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures. CONTEXTUAL/TOPICAL TEACHING
  21. 21. BASIC PRINCIPLES10. Learning is not merely restricted with formal language knowledge; it also involves speaker conventions and descriptive usage. NOT formal BUT NATURAL USE
  22. 22. BASIC PRINCIPLES11. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if students use it in full sentences, rather than memorizing word lists. NOT memorization but PRODUCTION
  23. 23. BASIC PRINCIPLES12. The purpose of language learning is communication; therefore students need to learn how to ask questions as well as answer them. COMMUNICATION-FIRST PRINCIPLE
  24. 24. TECHNIQUES IN THE DIRECT METHOD Reading aloud Question-answer exercise Student self-correction Conversation practice Fill-in-the-blank exercise Dictation
  25. 25. Grammar-Translation Method vs.The Direct Method: A Comparison in terms of GRAMMAR Direct Method Grammar translation method In the direct method, the The GTM focuses on grammar teacher provides the rules and their application. knowledge in grammar Language is learned through inductively through speaking. rules.
  26. 26. Grammar-Translation Method vs.The Direct Method: A Comparison in terms of VOCABULARY Direct Method Grammar translation method The vocabulary is learned The vocabulary is learned through practice every day. through direct translation of L1. Students learn vocabulary when they are translated.
  27. 27. Grammar-Translation Method vs.The Direct Method: A Comparison in terms of TEACHER ATTITUDE Direct Method Grammar translation method The role of the teacher is of The role of the teacher is not great importance. He asks very active because he just questions to students limits his work to translate for constantly, encourages them the students. to participate in class and corrects their mistakes immediately.
  28. 28. Grammar-Translation Method vs.The Direct Method: A Comparison in terms of STUDENT ATTITUDE Direct Method Grammar translation method The students are very actives, The accuracy from the their oral communication skills students is expected and they are emphasized, they have to have to practice by speak a lot. translation.
  29. 29. Grammar-Translation Method vs.The Direct Method: A Comparison in terms of LANGUAGE SKILLSDirect Method Grammar translation methodOral communication skills are Primary skills to be improved:built up in a carefully grade Reading and writing.