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Building in Sustainability - Professor Graham Hillier


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Building in Sustainability - Professor Graham Hillier

  1. 1. Building in Sustainability Prof Graham Hillier, CEng, FRSA Director of Strategy and Futures, CPI Salford University 27th April 2011Copyright CPI 2011. All rights reserved
  2. 2. Content • A bit about me • A bit about the Centre for Process Innovation • Why sustainable engineering is important • Engineering for Sustainability Requires a Behaviour Change • Examples of Sustainable Engineering • Making the Change
  3. 3. A Bit About Me
  4. 4. A Bit About Me • Sponsored undergraduate at Rolls-Royce • Metallurgy degree at Sheffield University • PhD on single crystal turbine blades at Cambridge University • Joined ICI worked in Polymer Films, Advanced Materials, Petrochemicals, Plastics and Fertilizers. Finished as Strategy Director • Moved to British Steel/Corus in Business Development, Merger integration • Became Corus Construction Director • Joined CPI in Low Carbon Technologies – Included sustainable communities • Now CPI Strategy and Futures Director
  5. 5. A Bit About CPI
  6. 6. CPI’s Vision Vision • A World Class Innovation Centre supporting the Process Industries CPI Moves to this Vision by: • Build Physical Assets that bring together Companies, Universities, Public Sector Funds and Technology Expertise to develop new products and processes for the Process Industries Process Development, Proving and Scale Up
  7. 7. Innovation: Technology Readiness Levels (NASA) BUSINESS TRL 9ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSUPPORT TRL 8 (Enterprise) System Test, Launch and Operation TRL 7 System/Sub-System Development TRL 6TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Technology Demonstration(CPI) TRL 5 Technology Development TRL 4 Research to Prove Feasibility TRL 3RESEARCH TRL 2(Universities) Basic Technology Research TRL 1 CPI Works at Technology Readiness Level 4 Up
  8. 8. CPI Technology Development Sustainable Processing Printable Electronics • Process and product development • Organic Displays • Bio transformation reactions – Anaerobic digestion – Rigid and Flexible – Fermentation • Solid State Lighting – Photosynthesis • Organic PV – Bio catalysis • Electronic Packaging – Marine processing • Barrier Films • Particulate Processing – Dispersion – LCDs – Crystallisation – Organic PV – Emulsions and blending – Fuel Cells • Sustainable Systems • Materials – Engineering – Printable electronic formulations – Communities
  9. 9. Located at Wilton CentreSemi technical area - pilot manufacture World class analytical facilities Modern laboratory space Office accommodationLand & infrastructure for manufacturing32 companies on site
  10. 10. Some of the CPI Assets Bioprocess Lab National Industrial Biotechnology Facility Process Marine Fermentation Intensification
  11. 11. Some of the CPI Assets SEM Clean Room Litho area Mask writer
  12. 12. The Sustainability Challenge
  13. 13. The Definition of Sustainability Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs […]. In essence Sustainable Development is a process of change in which exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. (WCED, Brundtland Commission ,1987) Engineering and Built Environment Have Much to Contribute
  14. 14. The Principles of Sustainability Create a balance between: • Economic Factors – Creating wealth to do things and continue to do them • Environmental and Natural Resource Factors – The impact on the resources we have available • Societal Factors – That we have healthy, happy full lives The Three Factors are Equally Important
  15. 15. The Challenge of Sustainability Dealing with: • Growing Population – Inexorably increasing the need for food and shelter • Growing Affluence – The amount of emissions rise with affluence and we use more • Resource Consumption – There is only a finite resource it will not last for ever This Puts Immense Stress on a Finite System
  17. 17. Life Expectancy Life Expectancy Massachusetts, US Historical Statistics 85 80 75 Life Expectancy in Years 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Doubled in 150 Years in Developed World Developing World will follow
  18. 18. Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Rises with Population Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Year on Year (Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii) 390 7000 370 6000 Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (ppmv) 350 5000 Population (Millions) 330 4000 310 3000 290 2000 270 1000 250 0 1830 1880 1930 1980 Carbon Dioxide Emissions (ppmv) Population Source: Mauna Loa Observatory plus historic data from ice cores
  19. 19. Food Prices are rising European Wheat Price Year on Year 200 7000 180 6000 160 WHEAT PRICE IN $/tonne 140 5000 Population in Millions 120 4000 100 3000 80 60 2000 40 1000 20 0 0 1259 1359 1459 1559 1659 1759 1859 1959 Actual 179 pt Moving Average 49pt Moving Average Population
  20. 20. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rise with GDP but…. Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Person v GDP per Person By Country 50 45 Qatar Carbon Dioxdie Emission per Person (t /year) 40 35 l? Oi 30 Bahrain 25 Kuw ait United Arab Emirates 20 Luxembourg itioning? United States Air Cond Australia 15 Canada Saudi Arabia Singapore Estonia OmanCzech Republic Finland Norw ay 10 Netherlands Germany Japan Kingdom Republic of Ireland Libya SouthIsrael Korea Greece United Denmark Poland South Africa Slovakia Cyprus Slovenia New Zealand Austria Spain European Union Italy Belgium Iceland Malaysia Hungary Bulgaria Montenegro Portugal France Sw eden Sw itzerland 5 Serbia andCroatia Hong Kong Venezuela Lebanon Romania ThailandMexico World Lithuania Jordan Chile Argentina Turkey Algeria Panama Latvia Egypt Brazil Republic Dominican Tunisia Ecuador 0 PakistanCosta Rica SriEl Colombia Indonesia Morocco NigeriaUruguay IndiaLanka Vietnam e Zimbabw KenyaSalvador Philippines Guatemala Peru Angola Yemen Bangladesh Ghana Tanzania Sudan Cameroon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 GDP per Person (000 US Dollars 2005) Source data: US Statistics Service and UK There seems to be a levelling out at 7.5 t/yr to 10 t/yr
  21. 21. Population Growth Alone Will Increase AtmosphericCarbon Dioxide Concentration Significantly Total Annual Average CO2 Increase over Population Human CO2 Case Emissions per 2005 Base (billion) Emissions Person (t/yr) Case (bn t/yr) (bn t / yr) Base Case 2005 6.6 3.6 24 Rich World 2005 6.6 7.5 50 26 (108%) Population Base Case 2050 9 3.6 33 9 (38%) Population Rich World 2050 9 7.5 67.5 43.5 (180%) Population Dealing with this Much Carbon Dioxide is a Challenge
  22. 22. Earth Resource Balance Since 1850 Incoming Energy Extract Resource Refine Resource Air Emission Earth Waste Water Emission Use ResourceResources Used Scrap Resource Resource Use exceeds Incoming Energy
  23. 23. Resource Availability Element Available Resource Recycling Rate Indium 4-13 Years 0% Silver 9-29 Years 16% Lead 8-42 Years 72% Antimony 13-30 Years - Tin 17-40 Years 26% Uranium 19-59 Years 0% Zinc 36-46 Years 26% Gold 36-45 Years 43% Nickel 57-90 Years 35% • Neodymium, Dysprosium, Terbium – Vital to high power magnets • Lithium, Lanthanum – Vital to high power batteries • 93% of world rare earth metals come from China • Availability is falling because regional use is rising! Source: New Scientist, May 2007, Chemistry World Jan 2011 Many Important Elements Our ‘Renewable’ Technologies Need Are in Short Supply
  24. 24. There is a Strong Belief that Oil Production is Peaking Source: Hubbert Model From Association for the Study of Peak Oil, 2008 It is Highly Likely That Oil Production Will Peak in the Near Future
  25. 25. Resource Demand in A Simple Equation CO2 Emissions = Population x Gross Domestic Product x Energy Used x CO2 Emission Population GDP Energy Used Waste = Population x Gross Domestic Product x Resource Used x Waste Made Population GDP Resource Used We Need to Become More Efficient in Our Use of Resources An 80% Reduction comes from Increased Efficiency or Less Activity Based on work by Shell scenario planning group
  26. 26. So What Do We Have to Do.. • Develop more sustainable processes • Use resources more efficiency • Improve the efficiency of our processes • Look at the efficiency of integrated systems • Convert wastes to products • Convert batch processes to continuous ones Top Six are Increasingly Strong Political and Economic Drivers Bottom Twois a Our Areas of Strength There are Lot We Can Do
  28. 28. Approaches to Improved Energy Efficiency, ResourceEfficiency and Carbon Reduction Reduce use of resources Reduces • Resources Consumed Make sure operational resource use • Cost is as low as possible • Emissions • Wastes Use highly efficient conversion technologies Increases • Efficiency of Resource Use Add on additional technologies Requires • A Different Way of Thinking • Less Conventional Technology Significant Improvements can be Made
  29. 29. Sustainability in Practice: A Schematic Model Assembled Raw Material Component System Product End of Life Recycle Recondition Re-use Re-furbish Resource Efficient Flexible & Adaptable Design
  31. 31. Plastic Film Production Stage 40% Prime 60% Prime Produce New Polymer Value, % Value, % 100t Capacity Tonnes Tonnes Value, £ £/t Pass £ Pass Convert to New Polymer (20) 46 (920) 64 (1280) Film Prime Product 100 40 40 4000 60 60 6000 Edge Trim (10) 10 10 (100) 10 10 (100) Failed Edge Prime Failed 50 50 30 30Product Trims Product Product Recycle (10) 90 54 (540) 90 36 (360) Waste 5 10 6 30 10 4 20 Recycle Waste Customer Total Value 2470 4280 20% Operational Improvement Gives 75% Value Increase
  32. 32. Baffle Reactor Batch to Continuous • Lower inventory • Make what you need • Plug flow so easy to clean • Highly efficient mixing • Capital down up to 50% • Operating cost down up to 90% Lower Capital and Operating Cost. Less Resource use and Less Waste
  33. 33. Pump Impeller Steel to Plastic • Lower capital cost • Less material • More hydrodynamic efficiency • Smaller motor or higher volume pumped • Quieter in use Greater Efficiency in Use, Less Resource and Lower Cost
  34. 34. The Steel Mini-Mill• Completely changed the complexion of the steel industry• Uses locally arising scrap to supply a local market• Capital reduced by an order of magnitude, operating costs are low• Much lower logistics costs• Batches can be smaller• Investment is affordable• Product is the same quality as virgin steel for sections, rod and bar• Now 30% (400 million tonnes / year) of steel production• Changed by the small upstart company not the incumbents• Overall system cost is lower What Else Can we Change Like This?
  35. 35. Drivers in Construction • Increasing emphasis on the through life cost • Increasing regulatory requirement for improved energy performance and reduced waste • PPP type contracts are for service delivery over time not capital cost • Drive the need for: – Rapid build with good quality finishes – Safety, cleanliness, low disturbance and low waste – Flexible and adaptable buildings – Low through life energy use – Low end of life costs An Opportunity for Change that we are Resisting
  36. 36. Energy Life Cycle for Offices Extraction Manufacture Disposal, including Re-use and Recycling Construction Use (and Refurbishment) Demolition Building Energy Consumption is Higher in Use than in Manufacture and Construction Source: Amato PhD 1995
  37. 37. FOR SALFORD (Temperate) • Solar heating • Natural Ventilation • Artificial Heating • Free Heating • Insulation • DaylightReference: Architecture and the Environment Bioclimatic Building Design, David Lloyd Jones, 1998
  38. 38. Housing Concepts Source: Grimshaw and Partners for World Steel Organisation
  39. 39. Building Sustainable Features into New Buildings • Engineering design that uses the principles – Build sustainability in • Plan the assembly before manufacture and erection – E.g. Distribution sheds • Use of off-site manufacture or pre-assembly of components – Walls, Floors, Roofs • Use of IT in design manufacture and assembly – Basic design, Fluid dynamics, Virtual reality simulation Following Virtual Example Brings Together Existing Technology from Around the World
  40. 40. Sustainable Features in Buildings Source: Grimshaw and Partners for International Iron and Steel Institute, 2004
  41. 41. Refurbishment and Reuse Opportunities • Half the value of the European construction market is refurbishment • Buildings made from components or framed in steel lend themselves to reuse – Reuse whole frame – Extend or refashion existing building – Dismantle and reuse component parts • Improve structure, e.g. – Insulate – Overclad – Glazing • Micro generation, e.g. – Solar, wind – Anaerobic digestion – Grey water
  42. 42. Refurbishment and Reuse Example: Winterton House Source: Corus, Late 1980s
  43. 43. Social Factors • Related to lifestyle and perception • Difficult to gain objective measures • Make people feel good about their environment • Elements such as: – Physical appearance – Function, form and operation – Balance and quality of public and private spaces – Ergonomics – Security and safety – Transport
  44. 44. Environmental Impact:Examples of Sustainable Construction
  45. 45. Environmental Impact in Construction1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  46. 46. Ashden Rwandan Prison Anaerobic Digestion Example • Influx of people to a resource poor community, • Burns all the fire wood, generates untreated sewage, • Prisoners built anaerobic digestion plant in the gardens – Exclude air from pit of sewage and natural bacteria produce methane • No need to denude fire wood • No sewage problem • By-product is digestate for use a fertilizerTrue Sustainable Intervention: Eliminate 2 problems, Create solutions and Educate people to use their skills to repeat the benefit Source: Ashden Awards, AD Section
  49. 49. Big Challenges to Adopting Sustainable Principles• Global drivers and trends in resource availability favour this approach but we must: – Look at engineering and built environment problems differently; – Make sure policy makers, business leaders, engineers and construction industry understand change is needed and is possible; – Aspire to deliver the benefits; – Work collaboratively across technical and social disciplinary boundaries; – Create a favourable legislative and regulatory environment – Take account of the value of finite resources in our economics; – Make attractive, reliable and useable products and demonstrate there are benefits. There is a Large Opportunity for Economic, Social and Environmental Benefit We need to Change Our Behaviour and Do Something
  50. 50. What Could We do? Create a ‘Low Carbon Resource Efficient Community’ Based on an integrated set of projects that Combine industrial, residential, agricultural and transport applications to Exploit the inherent strengths of the Communities and Regions And Deliver Economic Well BeingTo do this we need to: • Facilitate links between research, development and commercial interests to create value through application development. • Create a range of supply partnerships appropriate to end users to increase adoption. • Build supply chain networks that develop the UK industry base. • Utilise a range of funding sources.
  51. 51. An Case Study of an Innovation Challenge Fossil Carbon Light OxygenHeat Production Carbon Fossil Fuel Dioxide Rapid Plant Gas Production Unit Growth Hydrogen Oils Plant Matter Food Carbon ExtractionPower Generation Pharmaceuticals Dioxide And Bio Processing Water Neutraceuticals Vehicles Nutrients Alkane, Alkene or Alkyne Methane Hydrogen Depleted Plant Sewage Anaerobic Matter Digestion Unit Food Waste Brewing ands Distillery Waste Fertilizer Source: Entering the Ecological Age: The Engineer’s Role Bio Diesel andBio Ethanol Waste Land CPI and Arup
  52. 52. Conclusions • Design things that use little energy • Make or build them as efficiently as possible, preferably with reuse in mind • Think about resource flows before you design • Think about resource flows through communities and systems • Think how wastes can be eliminated or used as fuels or feedstocks • Drive collaborative interdisciplinary working • Take action REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE, RELATE
  53. 53. The Centre for Process Innovation CPI receives funding from:Copyright CPI 2011. All rights reserved