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Advanced
Grid Connection Workshop
The Innovation Centre, Sci-Tech Daresbury,
16th July 2013

Welcome and Introduction
Geor...
Programme
9.00

Welcome & introduction
Dr. George Hall, Wind-Tech Project, UCLan

9.10
9.20
9.50
10.45
11.00
12.00
12.30

...
Today’s workshop
• Following the energy and grid connection basics workshop, today
we will investigate in more detail the ...
Today’s workshop
Please note:
The information provided today is done so in an advisory capacity
only. The supplier shall n...
Advanced
Grid Connection Workshop
16th July 2013

Geoff Owen,
Grid Connections
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Level 1 review
• Essential power terminology & application for renewable
generation projects
• G83 is under 16 amp per pha...
LEVEL 2
Workshop Content
Part 1:
Part 2:
Exercise 1:
Part 3:
Part 4:
Exercise 2:

Variation in grid voltage and the reason...
Renewable power generation
Essential considerations for projects
• If there is no consumer demand then there is limited
ju...
Part 1: Variation in grid voltage and
the need for DNO studies
• For a generator to work and stay connected it must operat...
Why is the Grid connection process
so complicated?
•

Grid systems were never designed for multiple smaller
generation con...
DNO Responsibilities
These are the statutory obligations under the
terms of their licence
•
•
•
•
•

Secure operation and ...
Grid voltage variation
• The voltage level in the UK was
standardised with the EU

• The DNO is responsible for the supply...
DNO’s EXISTING ELECTRICITY NETWORK (LV grid)
Voltage at source set
250/433 volts

Small 3 phase
Commercial supply
Supplyin...
Voltage variation data with customer load
for proposed G83 generation
Peak 254 volts
252 volts
244 volts

Day 1

Day 2

Da...
Hz

Frequency variation data with customer load
for proposed G83 generation

50.3

50.18.

50.06

49.94

49.82
49.7

Day 1...
Part 2: The rural grid in detail
Introduction to the complexity and schematic
view of most rural connection arrangements
f...
Essential Information
Supplied by sustainable Energy Eystems
Installer of over 300 small WT’s in the last 5 years
What you...
Examples of poor connection capability
• More than one property run
from the transformer
• End of line connection
• Long d...
Rural supplies
• 70 % of rural areas have a single phase supply
system
• A technical assessment must be made before
any ap...
Rural overhead line supplies & grid connectivity

HV 3 phase
supply

• This supply arrangement provides
single phase to th...
70% of rural overhead line supplies are
single phase only
• This supply
arrangement can only
provide single phase to
the c...
Connectivity for single phase rural
grid supplies with one customer
Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT

Small LV grid cables...
Connectivity for single phase rural
grid supplies to one customer
Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW single phase WT

Single phase LV...
Connectivity for single phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Customer no. 3
Single phase LV grid cables
S...
Connectivity for single phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Proposed 5 kW WT limited to ( 3.68 kW output...
Rural Case Study
Grid upgrade costs for exceeding 16 amps

• Evance 9000 installed in Rossendale
• Planning submitted and ...
Connectivity for single phase
rural grid supplies

Proposed 10 kW to 50 kW single phase WT
Customer no 3

Single phase LV ...
Connectivity for split phase rural grid supplies
with more than one customer
Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT
Customer no ...
Single (split) or three phase ?
• In a rural area if there is any doubt
• Competent electrician to carry out voltage test
...
Overhead supply with
three phase transformer
HV 3 phase
supply

Overhead LV
3 phase
supply to
customer

• Maximum rated ca...
Connectivity for 3 phase rural
grid supplies to one customer
Proposed 11 kW 3phase WT

3 phase LV grid cable
G 83
generato...
Connectivity for 3 phase rural grid
supplies to one customer
Proposed >11 kW <50kW 3phase WT

3 phase LV grid cable
G 59
g...
Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW 3 phase WT
Custome...
Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT
Customer ...
Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Proposed 11 kW 3 phase WT
Customer no 3
3 ...
Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid
supplies with more than one customer
Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW 3 phase WT
Custome...
Larger rural supplies
The H pole
Maximum size of grid transformer 200kVA
feeding
• Dedicated customers
•Several costumers ...
Firm grid connection quotation
• Will include:
–
–
–
–

Connection permission
Terms and conditions specific to the project...
Case Study
Small Hydro G59 connection
Small 15kW hydro project in a remote valley
• Refer to site map for further informat...
Case Study Rural location:
10kWp School project
The Project
• Grid supply looks like it is 3 phase
• Installation has 3 ph...
Case Study
Two incoming HV lines supplying village
No 3 phase supply

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Case Study
Two incoming HV lines supplying village
No 3 phase supply

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Do’s
•
•
•
•

Have a view of what is involved
Carry out a detailed site survey
Understand the potential connection costs
M...
Break time
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Exercise 1: Completing a site survey
Group exercise with feedback and discussion
• You are going to a site, to undertake a...
Site Survey 1
Proposed 50kW Hydro project: The Weir

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Site Survey 2: Burnley College
150 kW peak PV solar

Proposed PV 150
kWp project

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Site Survey 3
Proposed 2 x 11 kW Gaia turbines
The project:
Green Farm

Existing supply

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL ...
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD

49
Part 3
large power connections

Have a view of what is involved
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
The UK Grid layout
Provides a network of cables and substations to transport power
to customers
Domestic
and small
industr...
Other considerations
• Network capacity issues
• Connection capacity race
• Technical, design for firm grid application,
c...
Grid connection project planning
1.
2.
3.
4.

Planning information phase
Detailed design phase
Construction phase
Complian...
New NHS build Ashton
Case study

Non contestable & contestable Grid costs

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
The I.C.P?
• Independent connection provider
• Lloyds registered to carry out contestable grid
works that will be finally ...
Grid connection options
Grid connections are split into two
• Non contestable work – the work only the DNO or
his register...
Non contestable & contestable works
DNO existing 11kV cable
Contestable work

Non-contestable Work

New DNO HV S/S

Final ...
Non-contestable & contestable works
DNO existing 11kV cable
Contestable work

Non-contestable Work

New DNO HV S/S

Final ...
Larger single turbine –225kW
The project:
• In pre-planning stages
• 1 x ASCA 225kW turbine
• Hub height 32m / Blade diame...
Site layout
Incoming 6,600 volt overhead Grid
line

Brown cables are low voltage

Proposed site of turbine

Incoming 6,600...
Extract from
Electricity Northwest’s
budgetary quote
This shows the proposed
connection plan
• The Map shows the
proposed ...
2.25 MW turbine project
The project:

3 x 750 kW turbines

•

3 Turbines on farm near Chorley

•

Total project installati...
Connection options
Difficult negotiations with 3rd party
landowner
Project considered connecting to the
passing 33,000 vol...
Greenacres Farm 300kW AD plant
Greenacres Farm 300kW AD plant
18 months of planning and investment commitment
Agricultural...
The basic Grid connection issues
for each Project
• Is there a Grid connection at a cost that the
project can afford ?
Wha...
Connections have commercial risk
• Actual connection capacity can only be secured
when accepting a firm offer, and is subj...
Approximate Connection delivery
times
•
•
•
•
•

415 volt ( 3-phase)
2 months
11 kV
6 months
33 kV
>12 months
66kV/132kV
>...
Part 4: Additional grid
connection considerations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I.D.N.O & mpan no’s
Power factor
3 phase power calcul...
MPAN numbers
Identifying the DNO
• MPAN (Meter Point Administration
Number)
• This is found on the electricity bill
issued...
The Distribution Network Owner

•Establishes and maintains Electricity Distribution connections to its customers –
first f...
From electricity board to DNO’s
Takeovers, mergers and acquisitions
MPAN ID Previous name
11
14
12
19
10
13
18
16
17
20
21...
IDNO Independent Distribution
Network Operators
They own cables and substations inside of a DNO’s geological area
ID
24
25...
What is power factor and kVar?
Customers peak
consumption 400kW
= 557 Line amps

Reactive energy
300 kVar
= 443 Line amps
...
Three phase
FORMULA

TRIANGLE

Power = volts x 1.732 x amps

Amps

=

power
volts line x 1.732

POWER

Line
VOLTS

1.732

...
Three phase calculations
• Calculating kW power for small three-phase supplies
• Power = line Voltage x line amps x PF x 1...
Calculating phase line current for
three-phase project
• PV array is rated at 11.4 kWp (11,400 watts)
• What is the maximu...
Fault level current
This is the maximum fault current that a generator can
deliver to a short circuit fault
• For inverter...
Likely grid connection costs
•

Turn the voltage down at PMT

= £2,500

•

Isolation and safe working on O/H lines

= £ 20...
Testing and commissioning
& compliance
• Refer to Technical notes supplied
• G59 Testing & commissioning and compliance
wi...
Break time
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD
Exercise 2:
Completing the ENA form for an example project
• Complete and submit to
ENW using the ENW form
for a 150 kWp P...
Generator customer grid assessment
Required on the standard EA form
Questions A2 A3 A4
Diagram no 1 (A2)
The Grid supply
I...
Group Exercise
Repeat using the ENA form
• Complete and submit to
ENW a ENA form for 150
kWp PV solar project.
• The custo...
INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR THE REAL WORLD

84
Advanced
Grid Connection Workshop
16th July 2013

Summary and surgery
Geoff Owen,
George Hall

S

INNOVATIVE THINKING
FOR ...
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Advanced grid connection workshop 16 07 13 presentation

  1. 1. Advanced Grid Connection Workshop The Innovation Centre, Sci-Tech Daresbury, 16th July 2013 Welcome and Introduction George Hall, Project Manager The Wind-Tech Project INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  2. 2. Programme 9.00 Welcome & introduction Dr. George Hall, Wind-Tech Project, UCLan 9.10 9.20 9.50 10.45 11.00 12.00 12.30 Introduction to the workshop Part 1: Variation in grid voltage and the need for DNO studies Part 2: The rural grid in detail: Schematic diagrams for most rural connections Morning Refreshments Exercise 1: Completing a site survey for an example PV, hydro or wind project Part 3: Larger grid connection projects and case studies Geoff Owen, Grid Connections Lunch 1.30 2.00 2.45 3.00 Part 3: Larger grid connection projects and case studies (continued) Part 4: Additional grid connection Afternoon refreshments Exercise 2: Completing the ENA application form for an example project 4.30 Summary and surgery: one-to-one advice Geoff Owen Geoff Owen, Dr. George Hall INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  3. 3. Today’s workshop • Following the energy and grid connection basics workshop, today we will investigate in more detail the complexity of connecting to the grid; • A more interactive workshop, with morning and afternoon group exercises, with support from the Wind-Tech team; • Follow-on support from the Wind-Tech team for companies interested in wind turbine technologies, or other forms of renewable technology, available after today’s workshop. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  4. 4. Today’s workshop Please note: The information provided today is done so in an advisory capacity only. The supplier shall not incur any liability for any action or omission arising out of any reliance being placed on this information by any organisation or other person. Any organisation or person in receipt of this information should take their own legal, financial and other relevant professional advice when considering what action (if any) to take in respect of any grid connection, renewable strategy, initiative, proposal, or other involvement with any renewable technology, before placing any reliance on anything contained herein. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  5. 5. Advanced Grid Connection Workshop 16th July 2013 Geoff Owen, Grid Connections INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  6. 6. Level 1 review • Essential power terminology & application for renewable generation projects • G83 is under 16 amp per phase • G59 is over 16 amps per phase • One G83 project is allowed per customer • Once a G83 project is fitted to increase or add another project will require a G59 application & permission from the DNO • The function of the DNO grid and connections • Application and upstanding grid connectivity for renewable energy projects INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  7. 7. LEVEL 2 Workshop Content Part 1: Part 2: Exercise 1: Part 3: Part 4: Exercise 2: Variation in grid voltage and the reason for DNO studies The rural grid in detail Completing a site survey Larger grid connection projects and case studies Additional grid connection considerations Completing the ENA application form for an example project INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  8. 8. Renewable power generation Essential considerations for projects • If there is no consumer demand then there is limited justification to install a generation project • The Availability of FIT support will not be there for long • The installation of renewable power technologies enables consumers to take control of their energy costs and limit their exposure to future price increases. • De-centralised power generation can reduce transmission grid losses. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  9. 9. Part 1: Variation in grid voltage and the need for DNO studies • For a generator to work and stay connected it must operate within design parameters • G83 upper cut of voltage stage 1 (@51.5HZ) 262.2 volts in 90 seconds • G59 upper cut of voltage stage 1 (@51.5HZ) 253 volts in 90 seconds • The grid supply transformer is set at 250 volts at the source, this allows a head room of only 3 volts • In periods of low customer load the grid volts are high through out the grid system, generation may increase the grid voltage resulting in invertors and protection relays operating with loss of generation, and Grid voltage pushed beyond statutory levels INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  10. 10. Why is the Grid connection process so complicated? • Grid systems were never designed for multiple smaller generation connections, designed for power flow in one direction • DNO’s have to guarantee to the customers the quality of supply and availability 24/7 • Increasing number of projects could result in a unstable Grid system, with undermining of network supply security INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  11. 11. DNO Responsibilities These are the statutory obligations under the terms of their licence • • • • • Secure operation and development of the network; Safe & reliable operation of the network; Ensure fair and equal access to the network; Least cost options for connection; Lifetime ownership of network not just your connection. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  12. 12. Grid voltage variation • The voltage level in the UK was standardised with the EU • The DNO is responsible for the supply characteristics and is directly responsible for guaranteeing the supply quality to all customers • The supply characteristics are declared as 400/230 volts (+10% to -6%), 50Hz damage to electrical equipment will result if the if the supply voltage goes outside of the stated range • Customer switches on large motor • G83 or G59 nuisance tripping Low customer load Maximum 253 volts Normal grid 240 volts high customer load Minimum 216 volts Grid transformer output set at 250/433 volts INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  13. 13. DNO’s EXISTING ELECTRICITY NETWORK (LV grid) Voltage at source set 250/433 volts Small 3 phase Commercial supply Supplying Sub station Small single phase cable to house Large 3 phase Commercial supply Cable joints in highway 3 C 300 mm W cable in pathway or road DNO designs infrastructure connections to guarantee the supply quality INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  14. 14. Voltage variation data with customer load for proposed G83 generation Peak 254 volts 252 volts 244 volts Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Switching on of motor load INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  15. 15. Hz Frequency variation data with customer load for proposed G83 generation 50.3 50.18. 50.06 49.94 49.82 49.7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  16. 16. Part 2: The rural grid in detail Introduction to the complexity and schematic view of most rural connection arrangements for projects < 50kW Warning Excludes non-standard DNO supply systems that are awaiting a system upgrade Will the grid connection cost undermine the F.I.T/energy reduction investment return? INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  17. 17. Essential Information Supplied by sustainable Energy Eystems Installer of over 300 small WT’s in the last 5 years What you must have • Good healthy DNO supply • Single phase or 3 phase INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  18. 18. Examples of poor connection capability • More than one property run from the transformer • End of line connection • Long distance to three phase line • Low on site usage • Old supply transformer • High voltage tapings on the supply transformer INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  19. 19. Rural supplies • 70 % of rural areas have a single phase supply system • A technical assessment must be made before any applications are submitted to the DNO • A project must initially have view of the likely GRID connectivity and costs • Submit a budgetary request to the DNO for indicative costs INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  20. 20. Rural overhead line supplies & grid connectivity HV 3 phase supply • This supply arrangement provides single phase to the customer • MCS generator project connectivity is 3.68kW Transformer HV to LV single phase • Cost to upgrade for 3 phase if pole is suitable (£6k to £15k) Single phase LV supply to a farm INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  21. 21. 70% of rural overhead line supplies are single phase only • This supply arrangement can only provide single phase to the customer HV 2 phase supply • MCS generator project connectivity is 3.68kW • Cost to upgrade to 3 phase, with a new pole transformer = £18k DNO HV/LV transformer Substation name and pole number Single phase supply to customer • New lines and poles = £80 = £120/m INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  22. 22. Connectivity for single phase rural grid supplies with one customer Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT Small LV grid cables Single phase LV grid cable G 83 generator 1 Customer • Installed under G83 • May require later DNO grid upgrade High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  23. 23. Connectivity for single phase rural grid supplies to one customer Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW single phase WT Single phase LV grid Cable Small LV grid cables G 59 generator • G59 application to DNO • Installed under G59 • DNO grid upgrade & costs to connect Customer no 1 High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  24. 24. Connectivity for single phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Customer no. 3 Single phase LV grid cables Small LV 3 phase grid cable G 83 generator Customer no. 2 Customer no. 1 • Single phase installed under G83 maximum of 3.68 kW • May require later DNO grid upgrade High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  25. 25. Connectivity for single phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed 5 kW WT limited to ( 3.68 kW output) Customer no 3 Small LV single phase grid cables G 59 generator Customer no 2 Customer no 1 • G59 application to DNO with technical details • With DNO’s agreement installed under G83 maximum output 3.68 kW • May attract DNO grid upgrade costs High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  26. 26. Rural Case Study Grid upgrade costs for exceeding 16 amps • Evance 9000 installed in Rossendale • Planning submitted and passed • Application submitted to DNO for connection of 5 kw • Grid costs excessive £ 20,000 • Technical agreement with DNO to cap turbine output to 3.6kW – nil cost INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  27. 27. Connectivity for single phase rural grid supplies Proposed 10 kW to 50 kW single phase WT Customer no 3 Single phase LV grid cables G 59 generator Customer no 2 • G59 application to DNO • installed under G 59 • DNO grid upgrade & costs to connect Customer no 1 High voltage lines New S/S for customer no 2 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  28. 28. Connectivity for split phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT Customer no 2 Small LV grid cables Split ( single) phase LV grid cable G 83 generator Customer no 1 Has 2 x 1 phase supplies High voltage lines • 1x3.68 kW project installed under G83 • A second project will require G83 stage 2 application to DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  29. 29. Single (split) or three phase ? • In a rural area if there is any doubt • Competent electrician to carry out voltage test a the source of the supply on the customers side • Contact the DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  30. 30. Overhead supply with three phase transformer HV 3 phase supply Overhead LV 3 phase supply to customer • Maximum rated capacity 50KVA (approx 70 amps per phase) • MCS generator project connectivity is 11kW • Exceeding 11 kW will require connection approval from the DNO Transformer HV to LV 3 phase INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  31. 31. Connectivity for 3 phase rural grid supplies to one customer Proposed 11 kW 3phase WT 3 phase LV grid cable G 83 generator Installed under G83 May require later DNO grid upgrade Customer no 1 High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  32. 32. Connectivity for 3 phase rural grid supplies to one customer Proposed >11 kW <50kW 3phase WT 3 phase LV grid cable G 59 generator • G59 Application to DNO • Installed under G 59 • Grid upgrade & costs to connect Customer no 1 High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  33. 33. Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW 3 phase WT Customer no 3 3 phase LV grid cable G 59 generator Customer no 2 • G59 Application to DNO • Installed under G 59 • Grid upgrade to connect Customer no 1 New S/S for customer no 2 High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  34. 34. Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed 3.68 kW single phase WT Customer no 3 Small LV grid cables 3 phase LV grid cable G 83 generator Customer no 2 • Installed under G83 • May require later DNO grid upgrade Customer no 1 High voltage lines INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  35. 35. Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed 11 kW 3 phase WT Customer no 3 3 phase LV grid cable Single phase grid service cable to customer G 83 generator Customer no 2 Customer no 1 High voltage lines • Request to DNO to upgrade supply customer supply from 1 phase to 3 phase ( from £1,500 to £ 4,500) • Installed under G83 • May require later DNO grid upgrade to transformer INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  36. 36. Connectivity for single/3 phase rural grid supplies with more than one customer Proposed >11 kW < 50 kW 3 phase WT Customer no 3 3 phase LV grid cable G 59 generator Customer no 2 Customer no 1 High voltage lines New S/S for customer no 2 • G59 Application to DNO • Installed under G 59 • Grid upgrade to connect INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  37. 37. Larger rural supplies The H pole Maximum size of grid transformer 200kVA feeding • Dedicated customers •Several costumers in one area • MCS generator project connectivity is 11kW ( or 3.68kW for single phase supplies) •Exceeding 11 kW will require connection approval from the DNO Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect 240/415 volt LV grid to customers 11KV DNO grid INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  38. 38. Firm grid connection quotation • Will include: – – – – Connection permission Terms and conditions specific to the project Any connection costs Legal work if required • On acceptance, the project work can commence – You can install the project to the submitted design – You must follow G83 & G59 Compliance stages – You must complete the test and commissioning stages. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  39. 39. Case Study Small Hydro G59 connection Small 15kW hydro project in a remote valley • Refer to site map for further information • Large valley with no 3 phase grid supply • A technical solution agreed with the DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  40. 40. Case Study Rural location: 10kWp School project The Project • Grid supply looks like it is 3 phase • Installation has 3 phase TP/N switch fuse • Sales person secured a 10 kWp PV array contract • PV panels and inverters were installed • Electrician was sent to complete the connection to G83 standards The issue • The electrician discovered that the supply was actually 3 x single phase supplies • The incoming overhead grid lines to the grid distribution transformer only have 2 cables. • There is no 3 phase supply in the area The Solution • They submitted G83/2 application requesting permission to connect multiple projects. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  41. 41. Case Study Two incoming HV lines supplying village No 3 phase supply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  42. 42. Case Study Two incoming HV lines supplying village No 3 phase supply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  43. 43. Do’s • • • • Have a view of what is involved Carry out a detailed site survey Understand the potential connection costs Make the right decisions, at the right time Dont’s • • • • Ignore grid connection Leave it to the last minute Make assumptions Request a firm grid connection offer until you are in a position to accept INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  44. 44. Break time INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  45. 45. Exercise 1: Completing a site survey Group exercise with feedback and discussion • You are going to a site, to undertake a survey for a renewable energy project. • Maximum of three groups • List what you think you need to consider when undertaking this site survey… 1. 50kW hydro 3 phase generator 2. 150 kW peak PV solar 3. G83 or G59 WT generation INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  46. 46. Site Survey 1 Proposed 50kW Hydro project: The Weir INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  47. 47. Site Survey 2: Burnley College 150 kW peak PV solar Proposed PV 150 kWp project INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  48. 48. Site Survey 3 Proposed 2 x 11 kW Gaia turbines The project: Green Farm Existing supply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  49. 49. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 49
  50. 50. Part 3 large power connections Have a view of what is involved INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  51. 51. The UK Grid layout Provides a network of cables and substations to transport power to customers Domestic and small industrial supplies 240/415 volts Manual connected network Large customers supplies Automatic connected network Area distribution 6.6kV11kV Primary Grid supply into areas 33kV 66kV Bulk supply point to DNO 132 kV Power stations network connected Power Station INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD National grid transmission 400kV
  52. 52. Other considerations • Network capacity issues • Connection capacity race • Technical, design for firm grid application, correct choice of generator , thermal limits, voltage limits, reverse power flow, switch gear rating and fault levels, protection arrangements, power quality , earthing stability , • Competent design /experienced consultants INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  53. 53. Grid connection project planning 1. 2. 3. 4. Planning information phase Detailed design phase Construction phase Compliance and commissioning stage Identifying a suitable site Permission and costs to connect Budgetary/indicative quotation from DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  54. 54. New NHS build Ashton Case study Non contestable & contestable Grid costs INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  55. 55. The I.C.P? • Independent connection provider • Lloyds registered to carry out contestable grid works that will be finally adopted by the DNO • May be able to carry out design work for you project and project manage on you behalf • Will apply for a Point of connection form the DNO and the non contestable costs INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  56. 56. Grid connection options Grid connections are split into two • Non contestable work – the work only the DNO or his registered contractor can do • Contestable work – The work that is open to competition that any Lloyds registered I.C.P can do, on completion will be adopted by the DNO Choice • Use the DNO for all the Grid connection work and an experienced Grid engineer for the testing and compliance stages of the project • Use an I.C.P to complete the contestable work and project manage all the other requirements INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  57. 57. Non contestable & contestable works DNO existing 11kV cable Contestable work Non-contestable Work New DNO HV S/S Final HV joint Network study and all design approvals New HV cable Customer s HV cable To next substation This one cable connection to the existing grid is called a INNOVATIVE THINKING TEE or FOR THE REAL WORLD unsecured connection
  58. 58. Non-contestable & contestable works DNO existing 11kV cable Contestable work Non-contestable Work New DNO HV S/S Final HV joints Network study and all design approvals Customer’s HV cable This cable connection to the existing grid is called a LOOPED or secured firm connection INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  59. 59. Larger single turbine –225kW The project: • In pre-planning stages • 1 x ASCA 225kW turbine • Hub height 32m / Blade diameter 28m / Tip height 46m The Benefits: • F.I.T. payment The grid connection process: • Rural location • Grid connection point - 450m from preferred turbine location • In file - Grid connection budgetary quote - £168K • Final – Grid connection £ 168,000 • Update – delayed due to planning consents INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  60. 60. Site layout Incoming 6,600 volt overhead Grid line Brown cables are low voltage Proposed site of turbine Incoming 6,600 volt overhead Grid line INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  61. 61. Extract from Electricity Northwest’s budgetary quote This shows the proposed connection plan • The Map shows the proposed route to connect the turbine to the grid • A new substation and cables would be required • Cables would follow the road rather than cross agricultural fields INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  62. 62. 2.25 MW turbine project The project: 3 x 750 kW turbines • 3 Turbines on farm near Chorley • Total project installation costs - approx £2.5M The Benefits: • F.I.T / R.O.C payment The grid connection process: • Rural location • Grid connection point 1.2km from site • Need to access 3rd party land to reach grid connection point • Grid connection cost £227k (approx 10% of installation cost) • DNO non–contestable - £26,000 • DNO–contestable - £201,000 • I.C.P- contestable - £119,000, excludes legal costs • Delays caused by ongoing negotiations with 3rd party land owner land access payment INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  63. 63. Connection options Difficult negotiations with 3rd party landowner Project considered connecting to the passing 33,000 volts system . DNO non contestable estimate £345,864 DNO contestable estimate £387,803 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  64. 64. Greenacres Farm 300kW AD plant Greenacres Farm 300kW AD plant 18 months of planning and investment commitment Agricultural consultant involved Option no 1 for 300 kW of AD generation • Initial budgetary Grid quote of £100,000 • non-contestable cost of £10,000 Option no 2 for 600kW of AD generation • The connection cost remained the same but the extra upgrade works on the system to allow more generation were estimated at £251,000 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  65. 65. The basic Grid connection issues for each Project • Is there a Grid connection at a cost that the project can afford ? What other issues do I have to consider? • Site location of new DNO Substation • Permission & cost to lay new DNO cables on 3rd party land • Grid connection options INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  66. 66. Connections have commercial risk • Actual connection capacity can only be secured when accepting a firm offer, and is subject to terms and conditions • Outstanding offers can become interactive • Grid systems are dynamic • In some areas larger projects >5MW may be in a queue or waiting for connection room on the grid to become available. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  67. 67. Approximate Connection delivery times • • • • • 415 volt ( 3-phase) 2 months 11 kV 6 months 33 kV >12 months 66kV/132kV > 18 months 132kV upwards & NGT level Legal works can take 3 to 12 months to complete INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  68. 68. Part 4: Additional grid connection considerations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I.D.N.O & mpan no’s Power factor 3 phase power calculation Fault levels Likely grid connection costs G59 testing & Commissioning INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  69. 69. MPAN numbers Identifying the DNO • MPAN (Meter Point Administration Number) • This is found on the electricity bill issued by the supplier • The full MPAN is 21 digits and should be printed in the format as shown on a recent electricity bill www.energylinx.co.uk/mpan.htm INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  70. 70. The Distribution Network Owner •Establishes and maintains Electricity Distribution connections to its customers – first for load, and more recently generation • Does not make, own, buy or sell electricity, though other parts of the groups may INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  71. 71. From electricity board to DNO’s Takeovers, mergers and acquisitions MPAN ID Previous name 11 14 12 19 10 13 18 16 17 20 21 22 15 23 East Midlands Electricity Midlands Electricity London Electricity The SEE board Eastern Electricity Manweb Scottish Power Norweb (UU) Scottish Hydro Electric Southern Electric South Wales Electricity South western Electricity Northern Electricity Yorkshire Electricity Recent name Central Networks E.ON EDF now UK Power Networks Scottish Power SP Energy Networks Electricity North West Scottish & Southern Energy now SSE Power Distribution Western Power Distribution CE Electric (YEDL NEDL) now Northern Power Grid INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  72. 72. IDNO Independent Distribution Network Operators They own cables and substations inside of a DNO’s geological area ID 24 25 26 Name Envoy ESP Energetics 27 28 GTC EDF IDNO Licensee Independent Power Networks ESP Electricity Global Utilities Connections (electric)Ltd The Electricity Network Company Ltd. UK Power Network (IDNO) Ltd INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  73. 73. What is power factor and kVar? Customers peak consumption 400kW = 557 Line amps Reactive energy 300 kVar = 443 Line amps Pf angle Pf = 400/500 = 0.8 = 36 degrees Increase the Pf to 0.9 = 25 degrees 500kVa reduces to 444kVa and line current reduces to 640 amps The grid supplies the customer THINKING INNOVATIVE with 500 kVa = 721 line amps REAL WORLD FOR THE
  74. 74. Three phase FORMULA TRIANGLE Power = volts x 1.732 x amps Amps = power volts line x 1.732 POWER Line VOLTS 1.732 x AMPS INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  75. 75. Three phase calculations • Calculating kW power for small three-phase supplies • Power = line Voltage x line amps x PF x 1.732 (for small supplies assume PF as 1) • (K)Watts = Line volts x Line amps x 1.732 • Line (phase) Amps = Power (K)Watts line volts x 1.732 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  76. 76. Calculating phase line current for three-phase project • PV array is rated at 11.4 kWp (11,400 watts) • What is the maximum line current output in amps if the line voltage is: (assume PF as 1) • Line voltage is 415 volts • Line voltage is 400 volts • Formula is amps = power kW / line voltage x 1.732 Answer • 15.86 amps line current • 16.45 amps line current INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  77. 77. Fault level current This is the maximum fault current that a generator can deliver to a short circuit fault • For inverter driven generation The maximum fault current = output +5 % • For rotating generators This will require power engineering expertise with technical details of the rotating generator and calculations INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  78. 78. Likely grid connection costs • Turn the voltage down at PMT = £2,500 • Isolation and safe working on O/H lines = £ 2000 • Turn the voltage down at S/S = £1,500 • HV DNO Grid network Study from = £2,000 • New PMT and transformer = (£10,000 to £32,000) • New ground mounted HV S/S = £40,000 • New ground S/S with transformer = £65,000 • HV cable laying = £100 to £200 / m • LV cable laying = £80 to £150 / m • New O/H lines and poles = £80 - £120 / m INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  79. 79. Testing and commissioning & compliance • Refer to Technical notes supplied • G59 Testing & commissioning and compliance with DNO’s requirements Outsource to a competent experienced engineer INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  80. 80. Break time INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  81. 81. Exercise 2: Completing the ENA form for an example project • Complete and submit to ENW using the ENW form for a 150 kWp PV solar project. • The customers supply is 946 kW with a power factor of 0.95 • The estimated weekend base load is 145 kW • Firm quotation is required INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  82. 82. Generator customer grid assessment Required on the standard EA form Questions A2 A3 A4 Diagram no 1 (A2) The Grid supply Import Power Kw Customers intake load In KW Power Station Customers SITE Diagram no 3 (A4) Grid supply meter & fuses Import Power zero Kw Customers intake load In kW The Grid Supply Export power in Kw Power Station Customers SITE Diagram no 2 (A3) Import Power Kw Customers intake load In kW The Grid supply Power Station Customer generator Customers SITE Grid supply meter & fuses Customer generator INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD Grid supply meter & fuses
  83. 83. Group Exercise Repeat using the ENA form • Complete and submit to ENW a ENA form for 150 kWp PV solar project. • The customers supply is 946 kW with a power factor of 0.95 • Estimate the weekend base load • Firm quotation is required INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  84. 84. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 84
  85. 85. Advanced Grid Connection Workshop 16th July 2013 Summary and surgery Geoff Owen, George Hall S INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD

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