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An overview of everything covered in the AQA syllabus for the AS ICT INFO1 paper

Published in: Education
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  1. 1. ICT INFO1 Revision
  2. 2. Health and Safety - Responsibility • Employers responsibility – Equipment used correctly and safely – Employees don’t use plugs unsupervised – Equipment positioned in easily accessible ways • Employees not having to stretch/strain to reach equipment – Provide training for employees to use equipment – Provide regular eye tests and pay for glasses if needed
  3. 3. Health and Safety - Responsibility • Employers responsibility – Safety testing carried out regularly – Perform regular risk assessments – Temperature is comfortable – Reduced noise pollution – Good amount of space – Correct equipment to allow for correct use – Good quality software • Employees responsibility – Use workstations and equipment correctly • Shown through training – Bring problems to employers attention immediately and work with them to solve it
  4. 4. Health and Safety - Responsibility • Manufacturers of IT equipments responsibility – Ensure products comply with Directive • Screens must tilt and swivel – Keyboards must be separate and moveable – Promoting use of laptops not for entering large amounts of data • Bad software design – Inefficient design or bugs – Incomprehensible error messages – Use of non-standard keys – Badly structured menus – Poor input screen layout – Flashing effects/inappropriate colour – All cause more stress for user
  5. 5. Health and Safety – Problems Caused • Stress – ICT systems stressful for beginners or unfamiliar users without proper training – Unable to avoid work through developments • Receive work emails/calls at home – New software difficult to use • RSI – Repetitive movements when of keyboard, mouse, mobile, etc. – Use wrist rest, take regular breaks, have keyboard at correct height • Eyestrain – Long hours spent in front of screen – Glare from screen, sitting too close/far from screen, constantly refocusing (looking from paper to screen repetitively) – Take regular breaks, use blinds, sit correct distance from screen • About 3 feet • Backache – Improper sitting position or position of keyboard/screen – Take regular breaks, sit correctly in chair, have screen at correct height/position • Chair with 5 point base and height and tilt adjustable • Screen height and tilt adjustable
  6. 6. Health and Safety - Legislation • Health and Safety at Work Act – Right to be safe at work – Employers must do as much as they can to ensure workers are safe – Employers responsibilities • Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations – Use of computers in the workplace
  7. 7. Analysis – Client, User, Audience • Client – Person who came to you with a problem – Wants you to devise solution for it – Person you have most contact with throughout duration of project – Will maintain system once finished • User – Person who uses the system – Update/edit it once in use • Audience – Person who will view the final system – Who the solution is aimed at
  8. 8. Analysis – What To Include • Problem identification and background information – Find out information about problem • Interview • Observation – View current system and look for problems – How users interact with current system • View documentation • Perform questionnaire • Break problem down – Large problems broken down to smaller ones to help with design • Client requirements and evaluation criteria – What they want, easily see what you are trying to solve, check you’ve produced what the client wanted, signed to agree • Inputs, processing and outputs needed for client requirements – Must match what client wants not what you think they want
  9. 9. Design of Solutions - Standards • Agreed formal ways of carrying out tasks – Agreed nationally • All developers use same standards when working on project • Systems Analysis and Design Methodology – Structured methodology provides set approach to information systems development – Specifies stages and tasks needed to be carried out – What needs to be produced – Techniques used in production • Logical data modelling • Data flow modelling • Event modelling
  10. 10. Design of Solutions – Validation and Verification • Verification – Checking data matches the original • Double entry • Spell checker • Validation – Check data entered is sensible or reasonable – Format • Check data entered in correct format – DD/MM/YY – Range • Check data entered is between two pre-defined ranges – Age between 10-18 – Lookup • Check data entered is already in the system – Log-in details – Length • Check data entered is the correct length – Mobile number is 11 characters long – Presence • Check data has been entered – A persons name or email when signing up to something
  11. 11. Input Devices • Keyboard – QWERTY, ergonomic, concept • Concept uses icons, found in fast-food places • Mouse • Touch screen • Graphics tablet • Camera • Joystick • Microphone • Scanner
  12. 12. Input Methods • Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) – Pre-designed pieces of paper – Put through mark scanner – Registers bits which have been filled in – Lottery tickets/readers, multiple choice tests • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – Only used on cheques – Most secure but most expensive – Data written on bottom in magnetic ink and magnetised as read – Cheques becoming less popular so won’t be needed • Barcodes – Very common in everyday life – Cheap and easy to use – Read through scanner and can be anyway up when read – Can’t always be read if damaged, creased or covered • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – Scans paper (handwritten or typed) into computer and displays as text document – Doesn’t work as well with handwritten as typed – Struggles with similar looking letters – Not 100% accurate • Speech recognition – Good for people with disabilities that don’t allow them to use other methods or if other methods aren’t possible (while driving) – Doesn’t always register correct terminology – Has difficulties with regional accents and different languages – Needs to be trained to recognise users voice
  13. 13. Storage Devices - Magnetic • Floppy disk – Practically disappeared from computer use – Too small and expensive for modern computing • Hard disk – Main storage device for all computers – Can hold large amounts of data • Magnetic tape – Cheap to use as mass storage – Generally only used for backups – Data stored sequentially so tape has to run through until record is found
  14. 14. Storage Devices - Optical • CD-ROM – Bought with contents already on it – Read-only memory so can’t change what’s on it – Transfer pre-written material onto a computer • Software needed in a business – Very fast as data read by laser • DVD-ROM – Holds more data than CD – Read-only memory so can’t change what’s on it – Specially designed to store video, graphics, sound, etc. • CD-R/DVD-R – Write once, read many – Store data and programs permanently – Very cheap so more efficient
  15. 15. Storage Devices – Flash Memory • Memory stick – Generally cheap • More expensive for large amounts of storage – Small so easy to carry around – Should only be used to transfer data • Not for backups • Should also be stored on another device from this – Nearly all computers have USB port so can be read on many devices
  16. 16. Output Devices • Monitor • Projector • Printer – Laser, ink-jet, dot matrix • Plotter • Embosser – For Braille • Speakers/headphones
  17. 17. Systems and Utility Software • Performs specific and useful task – Compressing files • Reduces size of data file • Take up less space in memory and less time to send • Must be uncompressed to use – Defragmenting hard disk • Cleans hard disk • Arranges file segments so next to each • Speeds up file access • Most come as part of operating system – Manages components of computer system – Provides interface between system and user – Monitors input and output devices – Scheduling programs and resources
  18. 18. Applications Software • Increases the functionality of the system • Allows user to do something useful • Generic – General purpose/off the shelf • Word processing, databases – Integrated package contains several types • Specific – Used to solve problems for one specific purpose • CAD/CAM • Bespoke – One-off designed specially to solve a specific task – Very expensive to produce – Should meet all of the clients needs and be specific to the issue – Won’t get automatic upgrades (if any)
  19. 19. Wizards and Macros • Wizards – Create applications whilst being guided through process – Don’t have to create from scratch – Good for inexperienced users • Macros – Allow user to automate tasks – Can be recorded actions or written by hand – Reduce time taken to perform task • Using print macro rather than go through all stages
  20. 20. Implementation for Solution • How data is entered • Control mechanisms – Validation techniques • How data is processed and organised • What will be output and how will it look • Overview of solution
  21. 21. Testing • Test no. – Perform tests in logical order – Refer back to tests if needed later • Test – Clearly see what is being tested – Test data • Normal – Within boundaries • Extreme – Maximum of boundaries – 1=<x=>100 = 1 and 100 • Erroneous – Not within boundaries/incorrect • Reasons for testing – Validity of input – Accuracy of output – Presentation of output – Does it meet the clients requirements – Is it usable by the user and/or audience • Expected outcome – What to look for when testing • Actual outcome – What actually happened – Is it what was expected – If not, retest
  22. 22. Evaluation • Assess effectiveness of solution – Does the solution do what it’s meant to do – Does the solution do it in the way it’s meant to – Is the solution an effective one – If not, what’s wrong with it and what would make it effective • Need to understand what’s been done and how mistakes could be corrected