Muscle power from animals
Wind & water usage
Steam engines powered by wood fires
Steam engines powered by coal
Now we use oil more because it is
easier to ship, store & burn.
Oil use peaked in 1979, so did prices
thanks to Arab oil embargo & Iranian
1980’s began pursuing renewable
energies but then oil prices fell and
we went back to oil.
In 2000, OPEC decreased production
and prices went up to $30 per barrel
Now oil costs $90-$100 per barrel
• Biomass energy- It comes from plants and is a rich source of carbon and
hydrogen. Fast-growing plants, such as switch grass and willow and
poplar trees, can be harvested as "power crops." Biomass wastes,
including forest residues, lumber and paper mill waste etc can be used to
produce heat, transportation fuels, and electricity.
• Solar energy- It is the power from the sun. It is free and inexhaustible.
Converting sunlight into useful forms is not free, but the fuel is. Sunlight
has been used by humans for drying crops and heating water and buildings
for millennia. A twentieth-century technology is photovoltaic, which turns
sunlight directly into electricity.
• Wind power- It is another ancient energy source that has moved into the
modern era. Advanced aerodynamics research has developed wind turbines
that can produce electricity at a lower cost than power from polluting coal
• Geothermal energy- It taps into the heat under the earth's crust to boil
water. The hot water is then used to drive electric turbines and heat
• Hydroelectric power- It uses the force of moving water to produce
electricity. Hydropower is one of the main suppliers of electricity in the
• Coal- It is the largest source of fuel for electricity production, and also
the largest source of environmental harm.
• Oil- It is used primarily for transportation fuels, but also for power
production, heat and as a feedstock for chemicals.
• Natural gas- It is a relatively clean burning fossil fuel, used mostly for
space and water heating in buildings and running industrial
processes. Increasingly, natural gas is used in turbines to produce
• Nuclear power- It harnesses the heat of radioactive materials to produce
steam for power generation.
A Conventional Source of energy is a natural resource which
cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which
can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more
available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are
resources that are consumed much faster than nature can
create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural
gas), firewood, nuclear power(uranium) and certain aquifers
Today’s ENERGY needs are
mostly met by Coal & Oil
• Coal is a fossil fuel that is made by carbonized vegetable material.
It is a black-brown sedimentary rock. Coal is composed primarily
of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements,
chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
• Coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in
turn is converted into lignite, then anthracite. This involves
biological and geological processes that take place over a long period
•Produces 62% of world’s
•Most abundant fossil fuel and
could easily last at least 200
• Many industries contribute to the depletion of coal because
they use large amounts to power their machines. These
industries include the car industry, steel industry and
• Individual citizens also contribute to the depletion of coal.
The use of electricity, driving engines and heating your
home all eat up coal.
• Petroleum is a fossil fuel and is an oil that is found
underground. Sometimes we call it oil. Oil can be as thick
and black as tar or as thin as water. Petroleum has a lot
of energy. We can turn it into different fuels - like
gasoline, kerosene, and heating oil. Most plastics are
made from petroleum, too.
• Petroleum is buried underground in tiny pockets in rocks.
We drill wells into the rocks to pump out the oil.
• Increased efficiencies in the use of better and higher
concentrations of energy in petroleum allows humans to
participate in takedown, which is the consumption of energy
at a greater rate than it is being replaced. It is believed
that decreasing oil production portends a drastic impact on
human culture and modern technological society, which is
currently heavily dependent on oil as a fuel and chemical
• Natural gas is a fuel that’s used to heat buildings, cook
food, dry clothes, heat water, and even to help
produce electricity. It’s sometimes called “gas” for
short. In fact, natural gas is really a mixture of gases
that formed from the fossil remains of ancient plants
and animals buried deep in the earth. The main
ingredient in natural gas is methane. Natural gas gives
off a lot of heat and light when it burns, but doesn’t
• This is seen as depletion because gas is burned much more
quickly than it is formed. There are limited natural gas reserves.
• The gas equivalent of almost 60 billion tonnes of oil is used up.
• The territories that use most of the gas are the United States,
the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and Canada.
• Until about 1965 natural gas from oilfields was often considered
useless, so was disposed of by flaring. It has since been used
extensively, as a fuel.
• Severe Air Pollution
• Greenhouse Effect
• Severe damage to
• Firewood is any wooden material that is
gathered and used for fuel. Generally,
firewood is not highly processed and is in
some sort of recognizable log or branch
form. Firewood is a renewable resource.
• Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate
heat and electricity.
• Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and
13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and
Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated
electricity. In 2007, the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclear
power reactors in operation in the world operating in 31 countries.
Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have
– Coal can be found in lots of places in the world.
– Coal can be easily transported to the power
– Coal is a relatively cheap energy source.
– To dig up coal, we have to create mines which can
be dangerous and not very nice to look at.
– Transporting coal by lorry and train from the mine
to the power station causes pollution.
– Burning coal produces polluting gases like sulphur
dioxide which make acid rain.
– Of all energy sources, burning coal releases the
most greenhouse gases which may add to
– global warming.
– Coal is a non-renewable source and will run out in
about 100 years.
– Coal miners can be affected by black lung disease
or pneumoconiosis and also emphysema if
– they breathe in too much of the coal dust.
– Oil is found in lots of places in the world.
– We can transport oil in pipes and by using tankers or ships.
– Environmental damage can be caused when building the rig and by accidental oil
– Oil is not renewable, so once the supplies are used, it will run out.
– Burning these fuels releases greenhouse gases into the air. This may add to global
– The price of oil will increase because supplies are running out and lots of people will
– Working on an oil rig can be dangerous due to the risk of explosions and bad
Natural gas is more environmentally friendly
that coal or oil. It is composed of methane,
which has just one carbon, producing very low
carbon emissions. Natural gas emits an
estimated 70% less carbon dioxide that other
fuels. Natural gas burns cleaner than heating oil,
and does not leave product, like ash, behind.
Natural gas is very popular, and the major
source of energy for most consumers. It is
conveniently pumped to homes across the
country through a network of underground
pipeline. It is provided through a local providers
and utility companies.
Due to its make-up, natural gas is combustible
and easily explosive if handled improperly. With
a leak, the gas builds up within a room or
structure. When that gas is ignited it causes an
explosion. The severity of the explosion depends
upon the amount of the leak.
Natural gas is toxic if inhaled, leading to severe
– Nuclear fuel does not make
harmful greenhouse gases.
– You only need a very small
amount of nuclear fuel to make a
lot of energy
– The waste that is produced when
using nuclear fuel is radioactive
and very harmful. It needs
– to be disposed of carefully
– Nuclear power stations are at
risk from terrorist attack and
– World uranium supplies may run
out in about 50 years.
Uranium is Highly
– The wood is a renewable resource,
offering a sustainable, dependable
– The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2)
emitted during the burning process is
typically 90% less than when burning
– Wood fuel contains minimal amounts of
sulphur and heavy metals.
– It provides less heat energy per unit
than materials like coal.
– Burning firewood is a very inefficient
method of heating a house.
– Firewood produces carbon dioxide and
carbon monoxide and other pollutants
– Most of the heat produced goes
Never Forget Ancient Wisdom
“MATA BHUMIH PUTROHAM
“THE EARTH IS OUR MOTHER, WE ARE
CONSERVE LIMITED RESOURCES
60% OF RESOURCES ALREADY CONSUMED
85% of raw energy comes from non-renewable
sources and hence is not available for the future
Plan your Trips
Plan your Route
Drive in the correct Gear
Keep your foot off the clutch
Good braking habits
Carpooling saves fuel
Switch off engine when you park
Check your tyre pressures and radial
Keep your engine healthy
Clean air filter regularly
Use recommended grade of oil
• Eliminate air leaks
• Air to air heat
• Efficient appliances
• Efficient electric
• Increasing fuel
SOLAR ENERGY - Solar energy is the
technology used to harness the sun's energy
and make it useable. Today, the technology
produces less than one tenth of one percent
of global energy demand. The most common
way to harness solar energy is to use solar
HYDRO ENERGY - The production of
energy through the use of the
gravitational force of falling or flowing
water is called hydro energy. It is the
most widely used form of renewable
WIND ENERGY - Wind power is the
conversion of wind energy into a useful
form of energy, such as using wind
turbines to make
electricity, windmills for mechanical
power, wind pumps for water
pumping or drainage, or sails to propel
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY - It is the power derived from
the Earth's internal heat. This thermal energy is
contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth's crust. It
can be found from shallow ground to several miles below
the surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot
molten rock called magma.
BIOMASS - Biomass is plant matter used to generate
electricity. Examples include forest residues, yard
clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste.
Biomass also includes plant or animal matter that can
be converted into fibres or other industrial chemicals,
including bio fuels.
• Increase fuel efficiency standards for vehicle, appliances,
• Tax and other financial incentives for energy efficiency
• Subsidize renewable energy use, research and development
• By 2050:
– renewable energy=50%
– cut coal use by 50%
– phase out nuclear altogether