Short Story Unit Literary Terms


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Short Story Unit Literary Terms

  1. 1. Short Story Unit Literary Terms & Definitions
  2. 2. Parts of Plot <ul><li>Plot: The sequence of events in a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition: The basic situation of a story—this is where the reader learns the background information necessary to understand the story. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of Plot <ul><li>Rising Action: The part of the story which occurs between the exposition and climax. Here is where conflicts occur which build up the story and make it interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Climax: The turning point or highest point of action in a story. The main conflict is typically resolved after this place. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Parts of Plot <ul><li>Falling Action: The part of the story which occurs after the climax and before the resolution. Here is where loose ends are tied up toward the end of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: The final outcome of the story. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Parts of Plot Basic Situation Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution
  6. 6. Conflict <ul><li>Internal Conflict: A conflict that occurs within a character’s mind. (man vs. himself) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conflict <ul><li>External Conflict: A conflict that occurs between a character and an outside force. Man vs. man, man vs. nature, for example. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characterization <ul><li>Static Character: A character who does NOT change throughout the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Character: A character who changes throughout the story. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characterization <ul><li>Round Character: A character with many qualities and personality traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Character: A character with only a couple characteristics; is often the stereotypical character in a story. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characterization <ul><li>Protagonist: The main character of a story—often considered to be the hero of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist: The character who frustrates, deceives, or works against the main character. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methods of Characterization <ul><li>Direct Characterization: The narrator makes direct comments about the character. i.e. “She is friendly.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Characterization: We learn about the character through her speech, thoughts, feelings, actions, physical appearance and through other characters’ thoughts, feelings, and speech about her. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Setting <ul><li>Setting: Where and when the story takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>Place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place? </li></ul><ul><li>Time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Point of View <ul><li>Who is telling the story? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Person POV: The narrator is a character in the story and uses “I” or “me” when telling the story. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Person POV: The narrator brings “you”, the reader, into the story when telling the story. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Point of View <ul><li>3 rd Person Limited POV: The narrator tells only what one character thinks, feels, and observes, and uses “he,” “they,” “she,” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Person Omniscient POV: The narrator sees into the minds of more than one character when telling the story– uses “he,” “she,” “they,” etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Theme <ul><li>A perception about life that the writer conveys to the reader. A theme must be written in a complete sentence, and must apply to the story as well as to life in general. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One’s family may be his friends.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sometimes the cruelest words are said in silence.” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Irony <ul><li>Situational Irony: When there is a contrast between what a reader or character expects and what actually exists or happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Irony: Saying one thing, but meaning something else. . . knowingly exaggerating. (sarcasm) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Irony <ul><li>Dramatic Irony : The audience or reader knows something another character does not know. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Irony?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What a beautiful day!” (said on a rainy, 40 degree day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s ironic that the man who reported the crime to police is actually the murderer! </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Make It Ironic <ul><li>Choose 5 of the following scenarios and rewrite them so that they are ironic. Label whether they are verbal, dramatic, or situational irony. </li></ul><ul><li>A man gets struck by lightning. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: As Joe, the local weather forecaster, does his 6:00 weather report stating how the storm that has just moved through town has passed, he gets struck by lightening. (situational—contrast between what is expected and what happens) </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Right after a man has been struck by lightening he exclaims, “Well, that felt good.” (verbal—contrast between what is said and what is meant). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Make it Ironic <ul><li>An animal rescuer gets injured on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>A teenager saves all summer to buy a new car. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Cunningham drinks a cup of her favorite coffee from Starbucks. </li></ul><ul><li>A newlywed couple goes to the beach for their honeymoon. </li></ul><ul><li>An off-duty police officer is driving to the store. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire breaks out in a building. </li></ul><ul><li>A woman wins the lottery. </li></ul><ul><li>A priest listens to a confession. </li></ul><ul><li>Treasure hunters find a long-lost treasure chest. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Symbol <ul><li>A person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : the American flag symbolizes freedom, liberty, and love for America. </li></ul><ul><li>A wedding band symbolizes_______. </li></ul><ul><li>A white flag symbolizes__________. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Foreshadowing <ul><li>The use of hints or clues to indicate events and situations that will occur later in the plot. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spooky music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thunder and lightening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new suspicious character introduced (purpose unknown at the time) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Suspense <ul><li>The excitement or tension a reader feels when reading. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder what will happen next? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mood <ul><li>The feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader through word choice and imagery. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of mood: scary, romantic, </li></ul><ul><li>violent, hopeful, etc. </li></ul>