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  1. 1.  “The process of giving a desired shape to a metal piece by heating and hammering is known as forging”. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  2. 2.  It increase the strength and toughness of the metals by producing directional grains. It refines the structure of the metal and thus renders it more dense. The internal defects like segregation, cracks and porosity are eliminated. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  3. 3.  A forged component has the ability to withstand higher load during service. A forged components can be produced to close tolerance. It reduces the machining time, material and labor considerably. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  4. 4.  Brittle material like cast iron cannot be forged. Complex shapes can easily be produced by casting and not by forging. Cost of forging dies is high. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  5. 5.  Upsetting: upsetting is the process in which the cross sectional diameter of a hot metal work piece is increased with a corresponding reduction in its length.During this process the hot metal piece is held in a tong and placed on the anvil in vertical position and then is stroke with a hammer. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  6. 6. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  7. 7. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  8. 8.  It is also known as drawing down. Exactly the reverse of upsetting Contrary to upsetting this process is used to reduce the thickness/width/diameters or increasing the length of red hot workpiece. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  9. 9.  Cutting operation is required for removing extra metal from the job. For cutting operation three major things required, hammer, cutting tool set and the stock. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  10. 10.  The process of giving the desired angle or curves to a hot metal work piece is known as bending. The process is done on the edge of anvil. Circular shaped, eye bolts, hooks or any other types of bent shape can be prepared with this operation. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  11. 11.  Punching is the operation in which a rough hole is made into the hot workpiece by forcing a punch through it. A red hot job is placed on the anvil and by using a sledge hammer, the punch is forced to the pierce the metal upto half of its thickness. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  12. 12.  Then by inverting the workpiece same process is repeated at the same point to get a rough hole. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  13. 13.  Is an operation of finishing and enlarging the hole by hammering a tapered drift into the hole until the required bore size is reached. Is similar to punching and followed by it. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  14. 14.  Swaging is the operation of reducing and finishing a work piece to different desired shapes usually circular, hexagonal and square. Swaging operation is performed with the help of swages and swag blocks. Swages are used for small jobs. Swag blocks are used for large jobs. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  15. 15.  It is the operation of reducing the thickness of a work piece. In this process the bottom fuller is held in the hole of the anvil. Hot work piece is placed in the grooves of the lower fuller and then the top fuller is placed over it. The hammering operation is carried out until the piece gets squared thickness. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  16. 16.  This operation is performed to level the job surface. The red hot metal work piece is placed on the anvil and is stroked hardly using hammer set to flatten the metal work piece. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  17. 17.  The process of joining two metals by heating and hammering is known as forge welding. The metal pieces to be joined are cleaned and heated in a furnace up to the welding temperature. With the help of tongs these are kept overlapping each other at the one of their ends on the anvil and are subjected to hammering. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  18. 18. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  19. 19.  Forge/Furnace/Hearth : Heating furnace Anvil :Supporting Tool Hammers & set Hammers : Striking Tool Tongs: Holding Tool Chisels: Cutting Or Shaping Tool Fullers: Grooving Tool Swages & Swage Block: Shaping Tools Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  20. 20. HammersTong chisel Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI Swage Block
  21. 21.  Pitting: occurs on the surface of forging due to scales. Cold shuts or laps : Short cracks that occurs on the corners of the surface that are at right angles to each other Die shift : Caused due to misalignment between to halves of forging dies. Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  22. 22.  Dents :Caused due to careless working. Oxidation & Decarburization : Occur due to overheating of stock. Fins and rags : Small projection or loose metal driven into the forging surface Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI
  23. 23.  Some other common defect are(a) Incomplete filing of dies(b) Burnt and overheated metals(c) Flakes: Internal breaks and rupture(d) Incorrect size of forging(e) Tears(f) Blowholes(g) Internal cracks Hamza Abdullah Khan... IIUI