In some cases the stem of a word also changes when conjugating as well as the ending. (Nosotros and Vosotros do not change) almorzar to eat lunchcontar Examples: morircuento to die aprobarcuentas to approvecuenta mostrarcontamos to show colgarcontáis to hangcuentan mover to move (an object)
In some cases the stem of a word also changes when conjugating as well as the ending. (Nosotros and Vosotros do not change) acertar cerrar Examples: to guess, get cierro right encender cierras to light, kindle cierra advertir cerramos to advise, warn cerráis entender cierran to understand cerrar to close, shut
In some cases the stem of a word also changes when conjugating as well as the ending. (Nosotros and Vosotros do not change) bendecirrepetir to blessrepito Examples: impedirrepites to impederepite colegirrepetimos to deducerepetís maldecir (*)repiten to curse competir to compete medir to measure
Another specific type of “ yoIn irregular yo verbs only the “yo” form irregular” includes verbs whosechanges when conjugated but the rest yo form ends in -go even thoughremain the same. there is not a single g in the infinitive. The simplest and most common -go verbs are regular in all forms except yo, so only the irregular yo form is listed below. hacer (to make, to do) yo form: hago poner (to put) yo form: pongo valer (to be worth) yo form: valgo salir (to leave) yoform: salgo caer (to fall) yo form: caigo raer(to scrape, rub off) yo form: raigo traer (to bring) yo form: traigo
•To expressknowledge orignorance of a skill, •Use when talking about knowing aor how to do personsomething, use saber+ infinitive•To say that youknow something byheart, use saber Examples:Examples Yo no conozco a María.María sabe conducir. I dont know (am not acquaintedMaria knows how to with) Maria.drive. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.No sé nadar muy Alberto and Alfredo know (arebien. acquainted with) Madrid.I dont know how toswim very well.
A verb is reflexive when the subjectand the object are the same. Example: I wash myself. subject: I verb: wash object: myself Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive. The purpose of the reflexive object pronouns is to show that the action ofWhen a verb is reflexive, the the verb remains with the subject.infinitive ends in "se.“ Example:Example: Juan se lava la cara.lavar Juan washes his face. (reflexive)to wash (non-reflexive) Juan lava su carro. (non-reflexive)lavarse Juan washes his car.to wash oneself (reflexive) Note: When referring to body parts, userascar the definite article, thus "la cara" not "suto scratch (non-reflexive) cara."rascarseto scratch oneself (reflexive)
se is used in an Se maneja rápidamente enimpersonal Lima.sense with People drive fast in Lima.singular verbsto indicate that Se puede encontrar cocos enpeople in el mercado. You can find coconuts in thegeneral, or no market.person inparticular, Muchas veces se tiene queperforms the estudiar para aprender.action. Often you have to study to learn.
The vowels a, e, and o are strong in Spanish. They always form their own syllable wherever they appear. Thevowels u and i are weak, and only form their own syllable when they are separate from other vowels. When aweak vowel is next to a strong vowel or another weak vowel, they AUTOMATICALLY form adiphthong, that is, just one syllable.Strong vowels (a, e, o) always form their own syllables: o - tor - gar (3)Weak vowels (i, u) form a their own syllable if they are "surrounded" byconsonants:tri - bu (2)Otherwise, weak vowels form a diphthong with the strong vowel that isnext to them: lue - go (2
Verbs that end• Verbs that end in -ger and -gir in a consonant change the g to j in the yo + -cer or -cir form change the c to• coger z in the yo cojo form. Verbs like ger/ gir Cer/cir uir/ guir coges coercer coge convenzo cogemos convences cogéis convence cogen convencemos• Verbs that end in -guir change convencéis the gu to g in the yo form convencen Verbs that end• conseguir (e:i) in -uir (not guir) consigo add y before o, consigues e, and a. consigue atribuir conseguimos atribuyo conseguís atribuyes consiguen atribuye atribuimos atribuís atribuyen
Hacer expressions• Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb• Hace un año que estudio español. I have been studying Spanish for one year.• Hace dos años que ellas estudian inglés. They have been studying English for two years.• Another way to use the verb "hacer" to express how long something has been taking place is to use the following formula:• Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time• Estudio español desde hace un año. I have been studying Spanish for one year. So, when it comes to using the verb "hacer" to express the length of time an action has been taking place, there are two ways to say the same thing:• Estudio español desde hace un año. Hace un año que estudio español. I have been studying Spanish for one year.
Imperfect• Imperfect: regular ir/er• -ía -ías -ía The imperfect is• -íamos used for past -íais• -ían actions that are• Imperfect ar not seen as• aba abas completed aba ábamos abais aban
The three irregular imperfects• Table 1. Imperfect Tense Forms of Sentir Singular• Plural• yo era (I was)• nosotros/nosotras éramos (we were) yo veía (I was seeing, used to see)• tú eras (you [informal] were) nosotros/nosotras veíamos (we were• vosotros/vosotras erais (you [informal] were)• usted era (you [formal] were) seeing, used to see)• ustedes eran (you [formal] were) tú veías (you [informal] were seeing,• él era (he was) used to see)• ellos eran (they were) vosotros/vosotras veíais (you• ella era (she was) [informal] were seeing, used to see)• ellas eran (they were) usted veía (you [formal] were seeing,• Table 2. Imperfect Tense Forms of the Verb Ir Singular used to see)• Plural ustedes veían (you [formal] were• yo iba (I was going, used to go)• nosotros/nosotras íbamos (we were going, used to go) seeing, used to see)• tú ibas (you [informal] were going, used to go) él veía (he was seeing, used to see)• vosotros/vosotras ibais (you [informal] were going, used ellos veían (they were seeing, used to go) to see)• usted iba (you [formal] were going, used to go)• ustedes iban (you [formal] were going, used to go)• él iba (he was going, used to go)• ellos iban (they were going, used to go)• ella iba (she was going, used to go)• ellas iban (they were going, used to go)
• a menudo often frecuentemente a veces frequently sometimes cada día generalmente every day usually cada año every year muchas veces many times con frecuencia frequently mucho de vez en cuando a lot from time to time• todos los días por un rato every day for awhile todo el tiempo all the time siempre always varias veces several times todas las semanas every week
PRETERITE• To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:• é aste ó amos asteis aron• To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:• í iste ió imos isteis ieron• The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events.• Ella caminó por el parque. She walked through the park.• The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.
irregulars: CAR GAR ZAR• Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu Verbs that end in -car change c to qu Verbs that end in -zar change z to c• Here are three examples:• yo jugué (jugar) yo busqué (buscar) yo almorcé (almorzar)•
DAR- to give VER- to seeIR- to go SER- to I Imos beFui Fuimos Iste IsteísFuiste Fuisteís Io IeronFue Fueron HACER…. TO MAKE OR DO Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteís Hito Hicieron
• Endings for all are the same: -e -imos -iste -isteis -o -ieron
Comparatives• If two things are not equal, they are unequal.• We are not the same height. You are taller than I.• The two items do not cost the same. The camera is more expensive than the television.• In Spanish, inequality is expressed by using one of the following formulae:• más (menos) + adjective + que más (menos) + adverb + que más (menos) + noun + que• Here are some examples:• Tú eres más alto que yo. You are taller than I. Mónica habla más lentamente que Carmen. Monica speaks more slowly than Carmen. Tengo menos libros que Arsenio. I have fewer books than Arsenio•
SUPERLATIVES• There are two types of superlative: relative and absolute.• Relative: John is the smartest boy in the class. Absolute: John is very smart. The relative superlative describes a noun within the context of some larger group.• John is the smartest boy in the class. Mary is the youngest person in the room. Of the three, Moe is the meanest.• The absolute superlative does not describe the noun in the context of a larger group.• John is very smart. The book is extremely expensive. The food is indescribably tasty. The absolute superlative for adjectives has three possible forms.• muy + adjective sumamente + adjective adjective + ísimo (-a, -os, -as)
conditional• To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infintive:• ía ías ía íamos íais ían• COULD, WOULD, SHOULD
FUTUREThe future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.• I will go to the beach next month. I shall write the letter next week.• But, the future tense is not used to express a willingness to do something. For this, use the verb "querer."• ¿Quieres ir a la tienda? Will you go to the store?• Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.• hablaré hablarás hablará hablaremos hablaréis hablarán
Future irregulars• There are twelve common verbs that are irregular in the future tense. Their endings are regular, but their stems change. Since the endings are the same as all other future tense verbs, we show only the "yo" form, and have underlined the irregular stem. We have also grouped them according to their patterns of change.• caber yo cabré• poner yo pondré• decir yo diré• haber yo habré• salir yo saldré• hacer yo haré• poder yo podré• tener yo tendré• querer yo querré• valer yo valdré• saber yo sabré• venir yo vendré
Trigger words• Manana sera• La proxima semana• En marzo, en febrero, en agosta.. etc,.
FUTURE VS CONDITIONAL• Future is I will do this, you will do that• Conditional is I should do this, you could do that.
POR VS PARA• Used to indicate motion or a general location. Around through along or by. Pasamos por el Destination, deadline or specific parque por el rio.• Used to indicate duration of an time in the future, when para is action: for during in followed by an infinitive is in order• Reason or motive for an action to. Describes the purpose of a noun because of on account of on behalf of. “it’s a tire for the car”, is a recipient• Lo hizo por su familia. of something. Comparison with• Object of a search: for or in others or an opinion for. In the search of• Vengo porti a las ocho. employ of.• Means by which something is done by.• ellos viajan por la autopiste.• Exchange or subtitution• Units of measure.• Used in expresions (aound here, for example, finally)
• Preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed,• imperfect is used to past actions that are NOT seen as completed.
CommandsTu+ Tu- Ud Uds nosotrosPut in tu form, Put in YO form Yo form , Opposite No stemdrop S opposite Opposite vowel, change change vowel, add s Vowel stem, add N
DOP• The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.• Bill hit the ball. Bill hit what? Bill hit the ball.• Sherry hit Bill. Sherry hit whom? Sherry hit Bill.• me (me) te (you-familiar) lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)• nos (us) os (you-all-familiar) los, las (them, you-all-formal)• Tengo = I have Tengo la pluma. = I have the pen. La tengo. = I have it
Present Perfect• he has ha hemos habéis han• i have studied, i have eaten
Adverbs• Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding - mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. This ending corresponds to -ly in English.• Ex. Clara• Claramente
Subjunctive• Mainly a mood, opposite of indicative• I want John to go to the store. (The clause "I want" tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.)• I hope that John goes to the store. (The clause "I hope" tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.)• creer que ... to believe that ...• no dudar que ... to not doubt that ...• es cierto que ... it is certain that ...• es claro que ... it is clear that ...• es evidente que ... it is certain that ...• es obvio que ... it is obvious that ...
progressive• In Spanish, the present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in the comer: comiendo process of taking place. It is not used for (comer - er + iendo) future actions. hacer: haciendo• I am studying now. (hacer - er + iendo) (use present progressive) vivir: viviendo• I am studying with María tonight. (do not use present progressive) (vivir - ir + iendo) escribir: escribiendoestar (escribir - ir + iendo)• estoy estás está Juan está comiendo pan. estamos estáis John is eating bread están• hablar: hablando (hablar - ar + ando)• trabajar: trabajando (trabajar - ar + ando)• estudiar: estudiando (estudiar - ar + ando)