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Seasonal storage of solar energy in Finland

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Janne Hirvonen -Seasonal storage of solar energy in Finland -Smart Energy Talks April 2018: How to decarbonize city district heating networks?

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Seasonal storage of solar energy in Finland

  1. 1. Seasonal storage of solar energy in Finland Smart Energy Talks, 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? Janne Hirvonen
  2. 2. Monthly solar radiation 2 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 11.4.2018 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Solarinsolation(kWh/m2) Month Spain (40 ºN), 1830 kWh/m²
  3. 3. Monthly solar radiation 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 3 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Solarinsolation(kWh/m2) Month Finland (63 ºN), 1090 kWh/m² Spain (40 ºN), 1830 kWh/m²
  4. 4. Monthly heating need and solar potential How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 4 11.4.2018 35 kWh/m2 25 kWh/m2 50 kWh/m2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Incidentsolarradiation(kWh/m2) Heatingdemand(kWh/m2) Month DHW SH passive SH standard Solar
  5. 5. Seasonal thermal storage 5
  6. 6. Borehole Thermal Energy Storage, BTES How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 6 11.4.2018
  7. 7. Drake Landing Solar Community How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 7 11.4.2018 52 houses in Canada, 98% of space heating through solar + BTES
  8. 8. Design for a Finnish solar village How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 8 11.4.2018 Solar collectors Heat pump Buffer storages Seasonal storage Heating grid 100 houses
  9. 9. Seasonal storage temperature and heat pump performance How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 9 11.4.2018
  10. 10. Different system designs
  11. 11. Solar thermal, centralized storage 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 11
  12. 12. Solar electricity, centralized storage 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 12
  13. 13. Solar electricity, decentralized storage 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 13
  14. 14. Simulation-based multi- objective optimization
  15. 15. Optimization with genetic algorithm How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 15 11.4.2018 nZEB-requirement: 120-200 kWh/m2/a 2 000 000 2 500 000 3 000 000 3 500 000 4 000 000 4 500 000 5 000 000 5 500 000 6 000 000 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 LCC(€/25a) Primary energy demand (kWh/m2/a) All results Optimal
  16. 16. Solar thermal vs. photovoltaics ST PV 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 16 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 LCC(€/m2/25a) Imported electricity (kWh/m2/a) ST 100 ST 500 PV 100 PV 500 Conventional HP
  17. 17. Cost distribution in solar electric system 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 17 REF 98% REF 98% REF 95% REF 90% REF 85% REF 80% REF 69% 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 Importedelectricity(kWh/m2/a) LCC(€/m2/25a) Optimal case # Tanks PV system WW-HP AW-HP BTES Pipe cost Building cost Operation cost Imported electricity
  18. 18. Effect on emissions When is solar energy utilized?
  19. 19. Monthly emission factors in Finland • Often lower emissions in summer • Emission mitigation potential from solar energy goes down • Seasonal storage mitigates emissions in winter • These factors assume bioenergy is emission-free 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 19 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Emissionfactor(g-CO2/kWh) 2012 2015
  20. 20. Emissions for solar community (2015) 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 20 Emissions (kg-CO2) Emissions mitigated (%) 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Emissions(kg-CO2) Month Seasonal storage Daily storage No PV 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Emissionsmitigated(%) Month Seasonal storage Daily storage
  21. 21. Summary • Solar energy is easy to store as heat • Cost of thermal storage is a fraction of electrical storage • Heat can be made from electricity through heat pumps • With seasonal storage, more than 90% of heating can be covered by solar energy even in Finland • Solar generation is the biggest expense, heat demand should be minimized before adding generation • Larger BTES size improves storage efficiency • With seasonal storage, the emission mitigation potential of solar energy can be utilized when the emission factors are highest 21 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 11.4.2018
  22. 22. Publications • Design of a simple control strategy for a community-size solar heating system with a seasonal storage • Hassam ur Rehman, Janne Hirvonen, Kai Sirén, 2016 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.06.183 • Neural network metamodelling in multi-objective optimization of a high latitude solar community • Janne Hirvonen, Hassam ur Rehman, Kalyanmoy Deb, Kai Sirén, 2017 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.06.040 • A long-term performance analysis of three different configurations for community-sized solar heating systems in high latitudes • Hassam ur Rehman, Janne Hirvonen, Kai Sirén, 2017 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.06.017 • Influence of technical failures on the performance of an optimized community-size solar heating system in Nordic conditions • Hassam ur Rehman, Janne Hirvonen, Kai Sirén, 2018 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.088 • Techno-economic optimization and analysis of a high latitude solar district heating system with seasonal storage, considering different community sizes • Janne Hirvonen, Hassam ur Rehman, Kai Sirén, 2018 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.01.052 11.4.2018 How to decarbonize city district heating networks? 22

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