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Why are there so
many policies?
Jani Lukkarinen, Mikael Hildén, Eeva Primmer
Finnish Environment Institute
SET annual semi...
2
The number of reported
policies and measures
varies hugely
e.g., France reported 200,
Lithuania reported 10
Schoenefeld ...
The impact of policies on GHG
emissions is highly skewed
3
Hildén et al (2014) Environmental Politics, 23:5, 884-905,
DOI:...
Questions
• Why do we have so many policies?
• Can we make sense, trace the coherence and
form sensible groups out of clim...
Policies involve multiple sectors
5
Schoenefeld et al (2016): Climate Policy,
DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2016.1248887
Averagenu...
So what is going on?
• A few strong policies + lots of decoration?
• Institutional and organizational factors (March & Ols...
Analytical framework
7
Policies and Measures
Index for Climate Policy
Activity (CPA)
Transition analysis:
’creative destru...
8
Intensity (CPA)
Integration
Scope
Objective
Budget
Implementation
Monitoring
Transition analysis
6 constructive componen...
5 clusters
9
Low intensity
High intensity
Renewable energy
Energy efficiency
C5 ’status quo’
C4 Soft measures
C3 Control p...
5 clusters
10
Low intensity
High intensity
Transport
Buildings
C5 ’status quo’
C4 Soft measures
C3 Control policies
C2 Reg...
Cluster 1:
Economic incentives
11
Choosing the winners, boosting the newcomers?
• Renewable energy subsidies and investmen...
Cluster 2:
Regulatory-fiscal policies
A balanced group of transition policies?
• No dominant policy sector
• Framework pol...
Cluster 3:
Control policies
A seldom seen son of the climate policy family?
• Includes only buildings and waste regulation...
Cluster 4:
soft measures
The power of knowledge and voluntary action?
• The largest group
• Consists of energy efficiency,...
Cluster 5:
’Status quo’
Laissez-faire or weak signals of change?
• Mainly agriculture and land-use planning
policies
• Rel...
Distribution of sector
policies across clusters
Economic
incentives
Regulatory
-fiscal
Control
policies
Soft
measures
’Sta...
Lessons
• Policies have a range of different roles and functional
logics based on their intensity and other characteristic...
Thank you!
jani.lukkarinen@ymparisto.fi
18Thanks also to Visa Kivisaari who participated in the analysis
Extra material
• List of policies
• CPA values
• ’Creative-destructive’ figures
19
20
TEM energy policies (6)
Decisions-in-principle for nuclear power
Renewal of electricity taxation
Support for LNG termin...
21
Buildings (9)
Act on energy certificates for buildings
Building regulations (2003,2008, 2010)
Renewed Building regulati...
Policy intensity values
22
Intensity
Measure
Mean
Integration 0,6
Scope 0,3
Objective 0,06
Budget 0,08
Implementation 0,67...
23
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Others (6)
Agriculture & forestry (6)
Waste management (4)
Land-use planning (2)
Buildings ...
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Jani Lukkarinen - Mikael Hildén - Eeva Primmer - Why are there so many policies - Finnish Environment Institute - SYKE - Smart Energy Transition - Annual Seminar - 15.2.2017 - Aalto University

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Jani Lukkarinen - Mikael Hildén - Eeva Primmer - Why are there so many policies - Finnish Environment Institute - SYKE - Smart Energy Transition - Annual Seminar - 15.2.2017 - Aalto University - Strategic Research - Academy of Finland

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Jani Lukkarinen - Mikael Hildén - Eeva Primmer - Why are there so many policies - Finnish Environment Institute - SYKE - Smart Energy Transition - Annual Seminar - 15.2.2017 - Aalto University

  1. 1. Why are there so many policies? Jani Lukkarinen, Mikael Hildén, Eeva Primmer Finnish Environment Institute SET annual seminar 15.2.2017
  2. 2. 2 The number of reported policies and measures varies hugely e.g., France reported 200, Lithuania reported 10 Schoenefeld et al (2016): Climate Policy, DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2016.1248887
  3. 3. The impact of policies on GHG emissions is highly skewed 3 Hildén et al (2014) Environmental Politics, 23:5, 884-905, DOI: 10.1080/09644016.2014.924205
  4. 4. Questions • Why do we have so many policies? • Can we make sense, trace the coherence and form sensible groups out of climate policy mix? • Are there blank areas and what do they tell us about climate and energy policies? ►Policy intensity & transition potential 4
  5. 5. Policies involve multiple sectors 5 Schoenefeld et al (2016): Climate Policy, DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2016.1248887 Averagenumberofsectorsassignedperpolicy
  6. 6. So what is going on? • A few strong policies + lots of decoration? • Institutional and organizational factors (March & Olsen, 1983) • Groups of policies that have transformative force? • Innovation policy mixes for sustainability transitions (Kivimaa and Kern, 2016) • Ritualistic policy making? • Symbolic commitment (Baker, 2007) 6
  7. 7. Analytical framework 7 Policies and Measures Index for Climate Policy Activity (CPA) Transition analysis: ’creative destruction’ Clustering the policies Policy logic and functions Policy gapsInspiration: Schaffrin et al. (2015) Kivimaa & Kern (2016)
  8. 8. 8 Intensity (CPA) Integration Scope Objective Budget Implementation Monitoring Transition analysis 6 constructive components 4 disruptive components Cluster analysis 0 2 4 6 8 10 Other policy instruments Renewable energy Energy efficiency Transport Buildings Land-use planning Waste management Agriculture & forestry Analysis of 39 policies Coding by 2 independent researchers + iteration
  9. 9. 5 clusters 9 Low intensity High intensity Renewable energy Energy efficiency C5 ’status quo’ C4 Soft measures C3 Control policies C2 Regulatory-fiscal policies C1 Economic incentives
  10. 10. 5 clusters 10 Low intensity High intensity Transport Buildings C5 ’status quo’ C4 Soft measures C3 Control policies C2 Regulatory-fiscal policies C1 Economic incentives
  11. 11. Cluster 1: Economic incentives 11 Choosing the winners, boosting the newcomers? • Renewable energy subsidies and investment support schemes • Very high intensity • Stated emmission reduction objectives • High and diverse constructive score; very little disruptiveness
  12. 12. Cluster 2: Regulatory-fiscal policies A balanced group of transition policies? • No dominant policy sector • Framework policies in waste and energy efficiency • High intensity • Emphasis on market formation • Creative-destructive policies 12
  13. 13. Cluster 3: Control policies A seldom seen son of the climate policy family? • Includes only buildings and waste regulation • Medium-strong intensity • Strong disruptiveness, lacking constructiveness Note: the planned ban on the use of coal is an example of a potentially very disruptive policy 13
  14. 14. Cluster 4: soft measures The power of knowledge and voluntary action? • The largest group • Consists of energy efficiency, transport, building and agricultural policies • Low average intensity score, but large variation • Constructive emphasis on knowledge development, legitimation and resource mobilisation 14
  15. 15. Cluster 5: ’Status quo’ Laissez-faire or weak signals of change? • Mainly agriculture and land-use planning policies • Relatively high intensity due to well-defined implementation and monitoring schemes • No real constructive or disruptive effect 15
  16. 16. Distribution of sector policies across clusters Economic incentives Regulatory -fiscal Control policies Soft measures ’Status quo’ Renewable energy 3 1 Energy efficiency 1 3 Transport 2 2 Buildings 1 4 3 1 Land-use 2 Waste 1 2 1 Agriculture & forestry 2 4 Other 3 2 1 16
  17. 17. Lessons • Policies have a range of different roles and functional logics based on their intensity and other characteristics revealed by coding. • It is possible to identify policies that have particular strenghts either as pushing for new or removing support from existing solutions. • More renewal than destruction – a need for rethinking policymaking? • The ’non-effective’ policies may act as glue – or bridges, connecting old symbolic policies and preparing for new untackled issues? 17
  18. 18. Thank you! jani.lukkarinen@ymparisto.fi 18Thanks also to Visa Kivisaari who participated in the analysis
  19. 19. Extra material • List of policies • CPA values • ’Creative-destructive’ figures 19
  20. 20. 20 TEM energy policies (6) Decisions-in-principle for nuclear power Renewal of electricity taxation Support for LNG terminals Electricity market liberalisation Energy subsidies to companies and communities for energy efficiency and renewabes Investment subsidy for main energy plans Renewable energy (4) Promoting wind power Promoting wood chips Promoting biogas in electricity and heat production Promoting biogas in road transportation Energy efficiency (4) Act on Ecodesign and Energy Labelling (1005/2008, amendment 1009/2010) Energy Audit Programme Energy Efficiency Agreements 2008-2016 and the expected extension until 2035 (Voluntary energy efficiency agreements) Consumer energy advice Transport (4) Promoting the use of biofuels in the transport sector Renewing of the vehicle fleet Energy efficiency in the transport sector Influencing modal splits and curbing the growth in vehicle kilometers
  21. 21. 21 Buildings (9) Act on energy certificates for buildings Building regulations (2003,2008, 2010) Renewed Building regulations (2012) Information dissemination and campaigns targeted to residents and other users of buildings Subsidies for energy efficiency in buildings (single houses, residential apartment houses and row houses) Towards zero-energy buildings Energy extension, "energy expert"-activity Revision of the Land Use and Building Act (EV 123/2012 vp - HE 81/2012 vp) Ministry of the Environment Decree (4/13) on improving the energy performance of buildings undergoing renovation or alteration. Land-use planning (2) Land-use planning Improved regulation of the development of major retail centres Waste management (4) Government decision on packaging and packaging waste 962/1997, 1025/2000, 987/2004, 817/2005, 2014/518 Government decree on landfills (861/1997, revised 2006), Biowaste strategy (2004) General reform of waste legislation; Act on Waste (646/2011); Decree on Waste (179/2012); Waste Tax Act (1126/2010) New Decree on Landfills(331/2013) Energy-efficiency in agriculture (5) Biomass boiler houses in farms Fresh grain silos Energy efficiency of unheated cattle buildings and heat recovery in pig farms Farm reparcelling Farm Energy Programme and energy advice to the farms Land-use, land-use change and forestry (1) National Forest Strategy 2025
  22. 22. Policy intensity values 22 Intensity Measure Mean Integration 0,6 Scope 0,3 Objective 0,06 Budget 0,08 Implementation 0,67 Monitoring 0,57 CPA Index 0,38 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 All policies arranged by the index value
  23. 23. 23 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Others (6) Agriculture & forestry (6) Waste management (4) Land-use planning (2) Buildings (9) Transport (4) Energy efficiency (4) Renewable energy (4) Creative & disruptive functions

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