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How the seasonality &
variability can be managed in
the clean district heating
system?
Francesco Reda, VTT & Karoliina Auv...
How to get rid of the
fossil fuels in the district
heating sector solving
the RES mismatch??
SET Vision 2050
Clean district heating & cooling network concept
Solar heat
collectors
Electrical
storage
Wind turbines
District heating n...
• Upgrade low temperature energy from the ground, lake, sea, air and
different waste heat sources such as wastewater, data...
Concept: new buildings
• Cooling necessary during summer season -> extracted
heat can be used for producing DHW or upgrade...
Concept: old buildings
• Extra temperature lift can be done on-site (exhausts heat
pumps + storages)
• In need of Energy e...
District heating with high temperature
heat pump in Drammen, Norway
• 63 000 inhabitants
• total 45 MW peak district
heati...
High temperature heat pump in
Drammen, Norway
● System COP 3,05 at 90°C
● Financial savings: 4 000 000 €/year vs.
burning ...
District heating with high temperature
heat pump in Bergheim, Germany
REFERENCE / SORUCE: http://www.ehpa.org/homepage/?eI...
• Backup generation for the cold winter periods: flexible
syngas (synthesized gas) CHP ~ from biomass,
municipal and agric...
Concept: Seasonal storage
● Overcome RES seasonal mismatch
● Charged with, solar heat collectors, during peak wind/solar
p...
Concept: Seasonal storage
REFERENCE: M.A. Sayegh, P. Jadwiszczak, B.P. Axcell, E. Niemierka, K. Bryś, H. Jouhara, Heat pum...
Concept: Seasonal storage typologies
Borehole thermal
energy storage with
a heat pump and
solar thermal
collectors
Hot wat...
Seasonal Aquifer Storage in Hamburg,
Germany
Winter heat supply for 8 000 households, to replace
Germany’s second largest ...
Solar district heating with seasonal
ground storage in Crailsheim, Germany
260 buildings, solar fraction 51%
REFERENCE / S...
Solar district heating with seasonal pit
storage in Marstal, Denmark
Winter heat supply for 1 500 households
100% renewabl...
Solar district heating with seasonal
ground storage in Okotoks, Canada
52 buildings, winter temperature -
33 °C, solar fra...
Conclusions
• Simulation are on-going to technically proof the
district energy concept vision
• Seasonal energy storage + ...
More information & please send your
comments to:
Senior scientist, D.Sc. (Tech.) Francesco Reda
francesco.reda@vtt.fi, +35...
Economy
Is clean energy competitive against
fossil fuels?
• Renewables would be
competitive, if market
prices would reflect the
ex...
Prices of thermal storages -
the larger the cheaper
TTES- Tank Thermal
Energy Storage
PTES- Pit Gravel Thermal
Energy Stor...
Storing heat
is cheaper to
store heat than
electricity
Energy storage prices
References
• Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy supply and consumption [e-publication].ISSN=1799-7976. 2016, App...
References
• Kevin Sartor, Pierre Dewallef, Integration of heat storage system into district heating networks fed by a bio...
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Francesco Reda - VTT - Karoliina Auvinen - Aalto University - How the seasonality & variability can be managed in the clean district heating system - Smart Energy Transition - Seminar 26.04.2018 - Aalto University - IRENA

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Francesco Reda - VTT - Karoliina Auvinen - Aalto University - How the seasonality & variability can be managed in the clean district heating system - Smart Energy Transition - Seminar 26.04.2018 - Aalto University - IRENA - Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment

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Francesco Reda - VTT - Karoliina Auvinen - Aalto University - How the seasonality & variability can be managed in the clean district heating system - Smart Energy Transition - Seminar 26.04.2018 - Aalto University - IRENA

  1. 1. How the seasonality & variability can be managed in the clean district heating system? Francesco Reda, VTT & Karoliina Auvinen, Aalto University
  2. 2. How to get rid of the fossil fuels in the district heating sector solving the RES mismatch??
  3. 3. SET Vision 2050
  4. 4. Clean district heating & cooling network concept Solar heat collectors Electrical storage Wind turbines District heating network, temperature approx. 65 °C Industrial heat pump Old residential buildings with solar PV, EVs, heat pumps and hot water storage tanks New residential buildings with solar PV and EVsOffice buildings, data centers etc. with solar PV, EVs and heat pumps Flexible syngas CHP (back-up power) District cooling network Seasonal heat storage School building with solar PV
  5. 5. • Upgrade low temperature energy from the ground, lake, sea, air and different waste heat sources such as wastewater, data centers, industrial processes etc. Concept: heat pump & large buildings Heat pump Industrial heat pump • Large office building compound/commercial centres/ schools could be connected to the network • Get the most out of synergies of different building energy profiles weekend
  6. 6. Concept: new buildings • Cooling necessary during summer season -> extracted heat can be used for producing DHW or upgraded (high temp) and stored in seasonal heat storage • No need of Water > 65 °C • Low heating consumption during the cold period • DHW consumption is more dominant (“peaky” heating demand) • Local integrated RES
  7. 7. Concept: old buildings • Extra temperature lift can be done on-site (exhausts heat pumps + storages) • In need of Energy efficiency improvements • Very high heating demand • Need Water >65°C during coldest days • Local integrated RES
  8. 8. District heating with high temperature heat pump in Drammen, Norway • 63 000 inhabitants • total 45 MW peak district heating network • 13 MW heat pump • 30 MW gas fired boiler (back- up for the peak duties) • 8 MW biomass boiler • heat pump covers 85% of the district heating demand REFERENCE / SOURCE: http://www.ehpa.org/homepage/?eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=3104 http://www.ehpa.org/technology/best-practices/large-heat-pumps/drammen-district-heating-norway/
  9. 9. High temperature heat pump in Drammen, Norway ● System COP 3,05 at 90°C ● Financial savings: 4 000 000 €/year vs. burning fossil fuels ● Environmental savings: ○ 6 700 000 litres/year less demand of fossil fuels ■ equivalent of - 101 000 000 km/year less driving ○ CO2 reduction: - 12 663 tons/year HEAT PUMP Summer Winter Heating Capacity 2 MW 13.2 MW Heat source Sea water cooling from 8°C to 4°C Heat sink- Water loop temperature 60 °C to 80°C 60°C to 90°C COP 2.8 3.05
  10. 10. District heating with high temperature heat pump in Bergheim, Germany REFERENCE / SORUCE: http://www.ehpa.org/homepage/?eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=3104 HEAT PUMP info Heating capacity 865 kW Heat source Excess heat from open pit mining (27 ◦C) Heat sink- water loop temperature 45°C to 85°C (up to 90°C) COP 3.1 • Composition: total 1 MW peak district heating network, public facilities supply • 865 kW heat pump • 2 x 12.6 m3 storage • 314 kWel - 220 kW CHP unit • total efficiency of heat pump and CHP around 167% • Environmental savings: -26% fossil fuel demand per year and CO2 reduction -32%
  11. 11. • Backup generation for the cold winter periods: flexible syngas (synthesized gas) CHP ~ from biomass, municipal and agricultural waste Concept: back-up Flexible syngas CHP Circular Economy SOLID WASTE SYNGAS
  12. 12. Concept: Seasonal storage ● Overcome RES seasonal mismatch ● Charged with, solar heat collectors, during peak wind/solar power production and when electricity prices are low by means heat pump
  13. 13. Concept: Seasonal storage REFERENCE: M.A. Sayegh, P. Jadwiszczak, B.P. Axcell, E. Niemierka, K. Bryś, H. Jouhara, Heat pump placement, connection and operational modes in European district heating, Energy and Buildings, Volume 166, 2018, Pages 122-144, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.02.006. • Balancing the low or negative electricity market prices during peak wind power production times • Storing heat is significantly cheaper than storing electricity • Levelizing district heating operation by peak shaving • Steadier heat pump operations higher efficiency
  14. 14. Concept: Seasonal storage typologies Borehole thermal energy storage with a heat pump and solar thermal collectors Hot water tank thermal storage with a heat pump and solar collectors. Water-gravel pit storage with a heat pump and solar collectors Aquifer Storages Reference: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114010545
  15. 15. Seasonal Aquifer Storage in Hamburg, Germany Winter heat supply for 8 000 households, to replace Germany’s second largest coal power plant REFERENCE / SOURCE: https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/climate-targets-grave-danger-union-wants- energiewende-ministry/hamburg-successfully-tests-aquifer-heat-storage-system
  16. 16. Solar district heating with seasonal ground storage in Crailsheim, Germany 260 buildings, solar fraction 51% REFERENCE / SOURCE: http://www.bine.info/en/publications/publikation/sonnenenergie-in-der-erd speichern/
  17. 17. Solar district heating with seasonal pit storage in Marstal, Denmark Winter heat supply for 1 500 households 100% renewable with 35% solar fraction REFERENCE / SOURCE: http://sunstore4.eu 15 000 m2 75 000 m3
  18. 18. Solar district heating with seasonal ground storage in Okotoks, Canada 52 buildings, winter temperature - 33 °C, solar fraction 85% REFERENCE / SOURCES: http://task45.iea-shc.org/data/sites/1/publications/IEA-SHC-T45.B.3.1-TECH-Seasonal-storages-Borehole-Guidelines.pdf ; https://www.rehau.com/us-en/mechanical-and- plumbing/geothermal-ground-loop/project-profiles/drakes-landing ; https://www.dlsc.ca/DLSC_Brochure_e.pdf 2 293 m2 144 Boreholes - 33 700 m3 2x120 m3
  19. 19. Conclusions • Simulation are on-going to technically proof the district energy concept vision • Seasonal energy storage + HPs + RES together can potentially manage the seasonality & variability in a Carbon Free District Energy infrastructure alleviating electricity “market failure” • Countries are looking at the most cost-beneficial seasonal energy storage solutions, Finland has to find its way..
  20. 20. More information & please send your comments to: Senior scientist, D.Sc. (Tech.) Francesco Reda francesco.reda@vtt.fi, +358 40 8403680 @frFrancescoReda Stakeholder relations director, researcher, M.Sc. (Tech.) Karoliina Auvinen karoliina.auvinen@aalto.fi, +358 50 4624727 @karoliinauvinen www.smartenergytransition.fi
  21. 21. Economy
  22. 22. Is clean energy competitive against fossil fuels? • Renewables would be competitive, if market prices would reflect the external costs of GHG emissions - not happening • Market failure can be “corrected” by higher carbon prices or subsidies
  23. 23. Prices of thermal storages - the larger the cheaper TTES- Tank Thermal Energy Storage PTES- Pit Gravel Thermal Energy Storage BTES- Borehole Thermal Energy Storage ATES - Aquifier Thermal Energy Storage
  24. 24. Storing heat is cheaper to store heat than electricity Energy storage prices
  25. 25. References • Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Energy supply and consumption [e-publication].ISSN=1799-7976. 2016, Appendix figure 1. Total energy consumption 2016 . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 28.2.2018]. Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/ehk/2016/ehk_2016_2017-12- 08_kuv_001_en.html • Statistics: Energy prices [e-publication]. ISSN=1799-800X. 3rd Quarter 2017, Appendix figure 3. Fuel prices in heat production . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 28.2.2018]. Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/ehi/2017/03/ehi_2017_03_2017-12-07_kuv_003_en.html • Statistics: Energy prices [e-publication]. ISSN=1799-800X. 3rd Quarter 2017, Appendix figure 4. Fuel prices in electricity production . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 28.2.2018]. Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/ehi/2017/03/ehi_2017_03_2017-12-07_kuv_004_en.html • Pöyry Management Consulting Oy. 2017. Hajautetun uusiutuvan energiantuotannon potentiaali, kannattavuus ja tulevaisuuden näkymät Suomessa. Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja. Saatavissa: http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/80901/Hajautetun%20uusiutuvan%20energiantuotannon%20potentiaali.pdf • Javier López Prol. 2016. Renewables’ Competitiveness: Beyond the Levelized Cost Of Electricity (LCOE). Available: https://climatefootnotes.com/2016/07/29/renewables-competitiveness-beyond-the-levelized-cost-of-electricity-lcoe/ • Auvinen Karoliina. 2017. Kannattaako hiiltä ja öljyä korvata uusiutuvan energian investoinneilla Suomessa? Available: http://smartenergytransition.fi/fi/kannattaako_hiilta_korvata_uusiutuvalla_energialla/ • Vad Mathiesen Brian. 2017. Presentation: DENMARK SEEKS TO CREATE GREEN GROWTH WITH THE GOAL OF 100 PERCENT RENEWABLE ENERGY USE BY 2050 – HOW TO GET RID OF COAL? Available: https://www.slideshare.net/SmartEnergyTransition/brian-vad- mathiesen-denmark-seeks-to-create-green-growth-with-the-goal-of-100-percent-renewable-energy-use-by-2050-smart-energy-transition-aalborg- university-aalto-university-breakfast-seminar-august-29-2017 • D. Mangold, T. Schmidt. The next Generations of Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage in Germany. Steinbeis Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable Thermal Energy Systems. • Fortum. 2018. Tiedote saatavissa: https://www.fortum.fi/media/2018/03/fortum-avaa-ensimmaisena-suomessa-kaukolampoverkkonsa-kaikille- puhtaan-energian
  26. 26. References • Kevin Sartor, Pierre Dewallef, Integration of heat storage system into district heating networks fed by a biomass CHP plant, Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 15, 2018, Pages 350-358, ISSN 2352-152X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2017.12.010 • M.A. Sayegh, P. Jadwiszczak, B.P. Axcell, E. Niemierka, K. Bryś, H. Jouhara, Heat pump placement, connection and operational modes in European district heating, Energy and Buildings, Volume 166, 2018, Pages 122-144, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.02.006. • Elisa Guelpa, Giulia Barbero, Adriano Sciacovelli, Vittorio Verda, Peak-shaving in district heating systems through optimal management of the thermal request of buildings, Energy, Volume 137, 2017, Pages 706-714, ISSN 0360-5442, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.107 • Nguyen Le Truong, Ambrose Dodoo, Leif Gustavsson, Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply, Energy, Volume 142, 2018, Pages 1114-1127, ISSN 0360-5442, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.071 • M.A. Sayegh, P. Jadwiszczak, B.P. Axcell, E. Niemierka, K. Bryś, H. Jouhara, Heat pump placement, connection and operational modes in European district heating, Energy and Buildings, Volume 166, 2018, Pages 122-144, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.02.006 • Global Solar Thermal Energy Council. April 2018. Big Solar Germany: Utility-scale solar heat at record-low 36 EUR/MWh. Available: http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/big-solar-germany-utility-scale-solar-heat-record-low-36- eurmwh?utm_source=Newsweaver&utm_medium=email&utm_content=All+Subscribers&utm_campaign=Solarthermalworld.org+New sletter+April+2018

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