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The design of ethical algorithms in autonomous machines

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EuroIA 2018, Dublin, 29.09.2018
information architecture, user experience design, robotics, autonomous machines, self-driving cars, driverless cars, sex-robots, ethical algorithms, philosophy, ethics, machine ethics, digital ethics, the psychology of aesthetics, Rawlsian algorithm, uncertainty

Published in: Design
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The design of ethical algorithms in autonomous machines

  1. 1. ze The design of ethical algorithms in autonomous machines SŁAWOMIR MOLENDA / Sii Poland @uxevolution /in/slawomir-molenda EuroIA 2018
  2. 2. But I’m not a __________ We are at the inflection point right now. AI and robotics engineers need emphatic information architects and designers, philosophers and ethicists to create more human technology. There’s a rising trend in digital ethics Lutz Schmitt, “Being an evil mastermind – part 2”, EuroIA 2018
  3. 3. © Waymo © ipalrobot.com © realdoll.com © F. Osada / T. Seguin / DRASSM / Stanford University Communications
  4. 4. The algorithmic integration of ethical reasoning into artificial autonomous system. Virginia Dignum, Ethics and Information Technology (2018) 20: 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-018-9450-z Ethics by design
  5. 5. Ethics The entire set of behaviours that maintains and perpetuates the society. Joanna J. Bryson, “Patiency is not a virtue: the design of intelligent systems and systems of ethics”
 Ethics and Information Technology (2018) 20:15-26
  6. 6. New algorithmic reality Topological Visualisation of a Convolutional Neural Network MNIST Digit Classification: 2 http://terencebroad.com
  7. 7. How to design an ethical algorithm? 1. Research and then draw the big picture. © http://renyuan.co/work/sorting 2. Identify and organise individual steps needed to solve the problem.
  8. 8. The bielefeld anthropomorphic robot head “Flobi”.
 Lütkebohle, I., Hegel, F., Schulz, S., Hackel, M., Wrede, B., Wachsmuth, S., & Sagerer, G. (2010).
 The underlying cross-cultural contexts of AI THE BIG PICTURE 1
  9. 9. Anthropomorphism HOMUNCULUS Homunculus in the Vial. Illustration of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust. https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/magazine/man-made-a-history-of-synthetic-life related to human-like behaviour, intelligence and having emotions
  10. 10. Autonomy related to identity, free will, ethical framework and moral responsibility GOLEM © NBCUniversal ‫אמת‬ Truth
  11. 11. Consciousness related to evolution, self-awareness, self-knowledge, intentionality, but also lethal behaviour MAEVE © Home Box Office, Inc.
  12. 12. UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO Biohybrid robotics finger joint with contracting and expanding muscles on an artificial skeleton.
  13. 13. Image from Ex Machina 2 The underlying aesthetics contexts THE BIG PICTURE
  14. 14. The psychology of aesthetics Associated with a cognitive response to the objects and shape our expectations Give perception of the embedded ethics and may alter our moral views AESTHETIC EXPERIENCES AESTHETIC OBJECTS © Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.
  15. 15. Robots cause harm Metropolis directed by Fritz Lang, 1927 © theredlist.com MASCHINENMENSCH
  16. 16. Robots become partners © 66.media.tumblr.com LT. COMMANDER DATA “It is interesting that people try to find meaningful patterns in things that are essentially random.“
  17. 17. Robots become super intelligent HAL 9000 “Look Dave, I can see you're really upset about this. I honestly think you ought to sit down calmly, take a stress pill, and think things over.”
  18. 18. © LucasFilm/Disney Robots become malfunctioning R5-D4
  19. 19. A robot… (0) may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. (1) may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. (2) must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with (1) (3) must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with (1) or (2)
  20. 20. A robot can’t fully understand (0) may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. (1) may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. (2) must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with (1) (3) must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with (1) or (2)
  21. 21. hp Ethics is not simply reducible to a set of rules
  22. 22. What if killing an innocent person will save many lives? Can we accept an absolute number at which we overrule the principle? Is it 10, 100 or 100,000 people? “We should never kill an innocent person” Ethics is not simply reducible to a set of rules hp
  23. 23. Inspired by the book of Marcus Weeks 
 What would Nietzsche do? How the greatest philosophers would solve your everyday problems”
  24. 24. When we say, that something is morally good, we are referring to some objective truth and moral facts. MORAL REALISM
  25. 25. © Genis Carreras © http://studiocarreras.com/philographics
  26. 26. Moral disputes can’t be resolved Is it even possible to agree on universal ethical rules and write an algorithm for them?
  27. 27. Like answers to mathematical problems, moral judgments can be objective in the sense that they can be right or wrong, by being true or false. Derek Parfit, On what matters, Volume Two
  28. 28. Sex robots USE CASE #1 © https://realbotix.com
  29. 29. Industrial robots Service robots Carer robots for the elderly Life-assisting robots Sex robots Marrying robots Robotics development
  30. 30. © https://realbotix.com A. Understand verbal and non-verbal language B. Express and/or perceive human emotions C. Model and/or self-learn desired behaviour D. Exhibit personality Sex robots capabilities in the future
  31. 31. The promises of sex robots RealDoll Customisation, https://www.realdoll.com/product/quinn-1-0 • Built to fulfil wildest fantasies and sexual needs of different sexual orientations • Replication of human sexual characteristics including external genitals • Capable to move and speak
  32. 32. Sexual objectification of women and children https://campaignagainstsexrobots.org Campaign against sex robots Technology reinforces violence towards prostituted persons The reference and analogy to sex-workers
  33. 33. The design is about posing the right questions
 — before the correct answers The answers should come from legal authorities, psychologists, sex experts, machine ethicist, and UX researchers/ designers. Designing algorithms for sex robots © https://realbotix.com
  34. 34. • Should it be able, in extreme cases, to refuse performing the act? • Should the appearance be politically correct, in terms of race and ethnicity, and what does this mean concretely? • How to handle frustration, uncertainty, shame, disgrace and jealousy caused by the sex robot? • How to process and evaluate the data the sex robot collects? Oliver Bendel: Love and Sex with Robots: Second International Conference, London, UK, December 19-20, 2016 Example questions for designing ethical sex robots
  35. 35. © Home Box Office, Inc. What humans define as sane is a narrow range of behaviours. Most states of consciousness are insane. Bernard, Westworld
  36. 36. Prerequisites
 for designing ethical robots Predict the consequences of human- robot interactions. 1. Set of ethical rules against which we can test possible actions and consequences. 2. PREDEFINED
 ETHICAL FRAMEWORK MACHINE-LEARNED ETHICS
  37. 37. Ontology / taxonomy Clear and functional definitions should be created to be useful for research, design and engineering of future sex robots. (J3016) Taxonomy and definitions of terms related to on-road motor vehicle automated driving systems
 Society of Automotive Engineers EXAMPLE for designing ethical sex robots
  38. 38. Organising data Classify possible and uncertain actions and their consequences in normative terms. Carvalho, Joana Rita and Pedro J Nobre. “Predictors of men's sexual desire: the role of psychological, cognitive-emotional, relational, and medical factors.” Journal of sex research 48 2-3 (2011): 254-62. PREDICTORS OF MEN'S SEXUAL DESIRE for designing ethical sex robots
  39. 39. Data flows Should I have sex? “Should I text him” by Becca Clason Should I proceed? for designing ethical sex robots
  40. 40. Driverless cars USE CASE #2 Statistically, the least reliable part of the car is ... the driver. Chris Urmson © Waymo
  41. 41. Selected activities in a lifetime Years(average) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Sleep W ork Car Eat& Drink Internet Pubs Books Sex 0,330,951,01 3,233,664,33 10,31 26,23 Time well spent?
  42. 42. Challenges in self- driving cars PRIVACY TRUST TRANSPARENCY RELIABILITY TESTING SAFETY ETHICS SECURITY LAW CONTROL
  43. 43. “The more the world becomes automated, the more opportunity there is for mischief and calamity.” David Hanson,
 founder of Hanson Robotics
  44. 44. https://robohub.org/simulation-based-internal-models-for-safer-robots 1 blue robot starts at the left and has the goal of safely reaching the right hand end of the corridor. Meanwhile 5 red robots robots are moving randomly and are equipped with obstacle avoidance behaviours. Collision avoidance
  45. 45. Jaywalking Autonomous vehicles are equipped with machine learning algorithms to recognise and react on unusual behaviour . © Waymo
  46. 46. Traffic chaos
  47. 47. https://spectrum.ieee.org/transportation/self-driving/the-big-problem-with-selfdriving-cars-is-people Pedestrians © Bryan Christie Design Without fear of being hit by driverless cars, pedestrians can effectively cause traffic jams and other traffic problems.
  48. 48. Trolley problem A train is heading straight towards five people, but you can rescue them by changing the direction of the train to a side-track. Unfortunately, there is a person on the side-track who will die as a result of pulling the switch.
  49. 49. Moral machine moralmachine.mit.edu
  50. 50. Fake ethical dilemmas? “…pure mental masturbation dressed up as moral philosophy.” https://www.forbes.com/sites/patricklin/2017/04/03/robot-cars-and-fake-ethical-dilemmas “…it’s more acceptable these days to ignore edge cases, presumably because addressing those rare scenarios doesn’t seem worth the effort relative to the rare payoff.”
  51. 51. Hypothetical judgments vs reality Dries H. Bostyn, Sybren Sevenhant, Arne Roets. Psychological Science, 2018 Of Mice, Men, and Trolleys: Hypothetical Judgment Versus Real-Life Behavior in Trolley-Style Moral Dilemmas.
  52. 52. Crash optimization or targeting? Waymo LLC patent Teller, Eric, and Peter Lombrozo. 2015. Consideration of risks in active sensing for an autonomous vehicle. US 9176500 B1, filed June 11, 2014, and issued November 3, 2015. Bad event Risk magnitude Probability (%) Risk penalty Getting hit by a large truck 5,000 0,01 0,5 Getting hit by an oncoming vehicle 20,000 0,01 2 Getting hit from behind by vehicle 10,000 0,03 3 Hitting pedestrian who runs into the middle of the road 100,000 0,001 1
  53. 53. The extensive surveillance infrastructure and facial recognition are a powerful tracking tools. https://www.teslarati.com/china-surveillance-ai-startup-4-5b-valuation
  54. 54. Rawlsian Algorithm Maximin — the action that maximises the minimum value. In a zero-sum game, this is identical to minimising one's own maximum loss. Treat another player’s interests as equivalent to your own, while remaining self-interested.
  55. 55. One ethical framework is not enough? • Utilitarian ethics. Best for the overall good & happiness • Kantian ethics. Laws applying equally to all — to make everything fair, and not give some people an unjustified advantage • Virtue ethics. Make people act responsibly and carefully when they use self-driving cars Nyholm S. The ethics of crashes with self-driving cars: A roadmap, I. Philosophy Compass. 2018;13:e12507. https://doi.org/10.1111/phc3.12507
  56. 56. Uncertainty 
 I cannot define the real problem, therefore I suspect there’s no real problem, but I’m not sure there’s no real problem.
 Richard Feynman, International Journal of Theoretical Physics (1982)
  57. 57. Known, unknown, unknowable How can we know what is morally right to do when we don't know what effects our actions will have? We need to develop new moral theory that deals with uncertainty at its most fundamental level.
  58. 58. Dealing with uncertainty Image: “Dealing with uncertainty or why a designer needs to know how to draw” by Anna Kholina
 https://uxdesign.cc/dealing-with-uncertainty-or-why-a-designer-needs-to-know-how-to-draw-9cd96d877275 1. Embrace your paranoia! 2. Be sceptical, be ridiculous 3. Employ storytelling 4. Practice generative methods 5. Make things visual
  59. 59. Thank you! @uxevolution slawomir-molenda EuroIA 2018

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