520 years of Russian-Georgian relations 1491-2011
1491-1801 <ul><li>In 1491, diplomatic relations between Russia and Kakheti (eastern Gergia) were started. Kakheti was the last independent Georgian state before the Muslim conquest.
In 1589, Alexander II of Kakheti officially pledged his allegiance to Tsar Feodor I of Russia, but the alliance was never actually implemented in practice. This was done to avoid the complete conquest by Iran.
1774: Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. After this Georgia was free from the Ottoman Empire.
1783: Treaty of Georgievsk is signed by emissaries of Georgia and Russia. In 1801, Georgia joined Russia. </li></ul>
Georgia under the Russian Empire 1801-1918 <ul><li>From 1803 to 1878, as a result of numerous Russian wars against Turkey and Iran, several formerly Georgian territories were annexed to the Russian Empire
In 1811, the autocephaly (i.e. independent status) of the Georgian Orthodox Church was abolished, the catholicos Anton II was deported to Russia and Georgia became an exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Georgia was only part of Russia where was big influence of Mensheviks. After 1918 Russian Revolution they took the power in Georgia. </li></ul>
Democratic Republic of Georgia <ul><li>On May 26, 1918, Democratic Republic of Georgia declared independence.
On February 14, 1919, Georgia held parliamentary elections won by the Social Democrats with 81.5% of the votes.
On December 16, 1920, refused entry into the League of Nations for Georgia.
On February 25, 1921, Soviet Russia annexed Georgian territory. </li></ul>
Georgia under the USSR <ul><li>From March 12, 1922 to December 5, 1936 it was part of the Transcaucasian SFSR together with the Armenian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR.
In 1936, Georgia became the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
On March 9, 1956, about a hundred Georgian students were killed when they demonstrated against Nikita Khrushchev's policy of de-Stalinization that was accompanied by general criticism of the whole Georgian people and culture.
On October 28, 1990, democratic parliamentary elections were held, and on November 15 the nation was renamed the "Republic of Georgia." It declared its sovereignity on April 9, 1991, under Zviad Gamsakhurdia. </li></ul>
Famous Russian Georgians <ul><li>Pyotr Bagration (Bagrationi) (1765-1812) A general of the Russian army, hero of War of 1812 (one of Napoleonic Wars). Dead after the Battle of Borodino.
Nino Chavchavadze (1812-57) A daughter of the famous Georgian Knyaz (Prince) and poet Alexander Chavchavadze and wife of Russian diplomat, playwright and poet Alexandr Griboyedov. “Your wit and your feat are immortal in the Russian memory, but why did my love outlive you?” - she wrote on his grave in Tbilisi.
Joseph Stalin (Jughashvili) (1878-1953) Head of USSR, dictator and the Bolshevik revolutionary. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bulat Okudzhava (1924-97) poet and songwriter
Eduard Shevardnadze (born 1927) Foreign minister of USSR from Gorbachev team, president of Georgia from 1995 to 2003
Zurab Tsereteli (born 1934) sculptor and architect
Nino Katamadze (born 1972) Jazz singer and artist
Merab Jordania (born 1976) footballer </li></ul>Famous Russian Georgians
The 2 nd Republic of Georgia <ul><li>Zviad Gamsakhurdia was a President from 1991 to 1992. On December 27, 1991, U.S. based Helsinki Watch NGO issued a report on Human Rights violations made by the government of Gamsakhurdia. The report included information on documented Freedom of Assembly, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press violations in Georgia, on Political Imprisonment, Human Rights abuses by Georgian government and paramilitary in South Ossetia, and other human Rights violations.
On January, 6 1992 Gamsakhurdia ousted by military opposition («Mkhedrioni» and «National Guardia»)
In February 1992, the fighting escalated in South Ossetia, with sporadic Russian involvement. Facing interior instability and political chaos, Shevardnadze agreed to negotiations to avoid a confrontation with Russia. A cease-fire was agreed upon and on 14 July 1992, a peacekeeping operation began, consisting of a Joint Control Commission and joint Russian – Georgian – Ossetian military patrols. </li></ul>
<ul><li>On March, 7 1992 Shevardnandze arrived to Georgia from Moscow. Shevardnadze was appointed acting chairman of the Georgian state council in March 1992. When the Presidency was restored in November 1995, he was elected with 70% of the vote.
Gamsakhurdia was hiding in Chechnya. He named himself «The President of Georgia in law» after his overthrow. On March, 13 1992 he recognized the state independence of The Chechen Republic.
1992-1993: Georgian-Abkhaz conflict (Patriotic War, according by Abkhazia) with Russian (Cossacs) and Chechen (Shamil Basayev) invasion.
The 1993 Civic War in Georgia between Military Council and Gamsakhurdia forces. Georgian army left Abkhazia for fighting Gamsakhurdia. On December, 31 Gamsakhurdia killed himself. </li></ul>The 2 nd Republic of Georgia
<ul><li>November 2003: The Rose Revolution. Shevardnadze outsed by Saakashvili. On presidential elections in January, 2004 Saakashvili won with 96,27%. On the elections in 2008 he had 53,47%.
2006 Russian-Georgian espionage controversy. Four Russian officers and at least ten Georgian citizens were detained on espionage charges in Tbilisi and other cities of Georgia.
2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other. Wine trade with Russia is responsible for 80-90% of the total wine exports in both countries. Today Georgian wines not imported to Russia.
Ossetian conflict of 08-08-08 One of the most controversial military conflict in modern history with many inconsistencies and inaccuracies. This conflict is completely defines the current relations between Russia and Georgia. </li></ul>The 2 nd Republic of Georgia The 2 nd Republic of Georgia The 2 nd Republic of Georgia
Current relations <ul><li>Today Russia and Georgia doesn't have diplomatic relations. On the border only one chek point is works.
Russian government refuses to negotiate with Saakashvili. Because of this, problem is frozen.
The main part of Georgians not have legal possibility to visit Russia. Russians are visiting Georgia with visas which receiving in the Tbilisi International Airport after their arrival or in Swiss Embassy in Moscow.
All Russians who visited Abkhazia and South Ossetia from the Russian border are criminals in Georgian law (illegal crossing of state border).
On June 2011 Shevardnadze said about the need to recognize the independence of the Abkhazia and South Ossetia for talks without mediators for integration into Georgia. </li></ul>
Relations between RSDUY and YSG <ul><li>June 2008: Tbilisi, Black Sea Area cooperation meeting.
Oktober 2008: Tsavkisi, IUSY international conference “No alternative to peace”. During this, RSDUY and YSG signed a declaration against war in South Ossetia.
November 2009: Borjomi, Training session on "Conflict transformation between Georgia and Russia"
July 2011: Attersee, Russian-Georgian-German workshop during the 2011 IUSY Festival
Coming soon: Russian-Georgian forum for peace </li></ul>