5 продвинутых технологий Cisco, которые нужно знать


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Руслан Савченко, инструктор онлайн-школы SkillFactory – о самом интересном из программы курсов CCNP Route и CCNP Switch от Cisco и о том, какие знания в области маршрутизации и коммутации нужно иметь, чтобы решать по-настоящему сложные задачи.

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5 продвинутых технологий Cisco, которые нужно знать

  1. 1. 5 продвинутых технологий Cisco, которые нужно знать Ruslan Savchenko 09.08.2013 rsavchenko@getccna.ru ведущий:
  2. 2. # CCNP is:  Routing: EIGRP, OSPF, RIP, BGP  Switching  Routing and switching troubleshooting CCNP is NOT:  Voice  Wireless  Security  Specific WAN protocols (MPLS, advanced BGP) What Is CCNP-R&S Coverage
  3. 3. #  CCENT: install and verify basic IP network with supervision  CCNA: also… configure and maintain a multisite enterprise network, as directed  CCNP: also… plan and troubleshoot enterprise networks with advanced solutions, collaborating with network specialists  CCIE: also… independently troubleshoot and optimize network performance in complex and integrated enterprise networks Certification for Network Engineers
  4. 4. # Cisco Career Certifications
  5. 5. # Switching (SWITCH)
  6. 6. # SWITCH is:  Campus layer 2 management (VLANs, STP –all flavors)  Campus layer 3 management (Inter-VLAN Routing, first hop redundancy)  Campus network management (network design, security, voice) SWITCH is NOT:  “Only layer 2”  Deep wireless, security or voice What Is Switch Coverage
  7. 7. # Enterprise Campus Architecture
  8. 8. # VLAN Deployment  End-to-end VLANs Users are grouped into VLANs independent of physical location If users are moved within the campus, their VLAN membership remains the same  Local VLANs Recommended solution in the enterprise campus architecture Users are grouped into VLANs depending of physical location If users are moved within the campus, their VLAN membership changes
  9. 9. # Trunk Configuration  Configure VLANs  Disable trunk negotiation  Configure trunk mode  Set native VLAN to unused VLAN  Allow only required VLANs on trunks
  10. 10. # Common Trunk Link Problems  Trunks can be configured statically or autonegotiated with DTP  For trunking to be autonegotiated, the switches must be in the same VTP domain  Some trunk configuration combinations will successfully configure a trunk, some will not
  11. 11. # Issues with 802.1Q Native VLAN  Native VLAN frames are carried over the trunk link untagged  Native VLAN must match at the ends of a trunk  A native VLAN mismatch will merge traffic between VLANs  Default native VLAN is VLAN 1  Configure an unused VLAN as native VLAN on trunks
  12. 12. # Spanning Tree Standards  802.1D-1998: The legacy standard for bridging and STP  CST: Assumes one spanning-tree instance for the entire bridged network, regardless of the number of VLANs  PVST+:A Cisco enhancement of STP that provides a separate 802.1D spanning tree instance for each VLAN configured in the network  802.1D-2004: An updated bridging and STP standard  802.1s (MST):Maps multiple VLANs into the same spanning-tree instance  802.1w (RSTP):Improves convergence over 1998 STP by adding roles to ports and enhancing BPDU exchanges  PVRST+: A Cisco enhancement of RSTP using PVST+
  13. 13. # Spanning Tree Recommendations  Use PVRST+ or MSTP for best convergence  Take advantage of the Cisco STP toolkit  Keep STP domain as simple as possible  Do not disable STP—it protects against unplanned loops  Use routed links if possible
  14. 14. # Cisco STP Toolkit  PortFast: configures access port as edge ports which transition directly to forwarding state  BPDUGuard: disables a PortFast-enabled port if a BPDU is received  BPDUfilter: suppresses BPDUs on ports (not recommended)  RootGuard: prevents external switches from becoming roots  LoopGuard: prevents an alternate port or root port from becoming the designated port if no BPDUs are received  UplinkFast*: provides from 3 to 5 seconds convergence after link failure  BackboneFast*: cuts the convergence time by max_age for an indirect failure
  15. 15. # Process switching Slowest method—every packet examined by CPU, all forwarding decisions made in software Fast switching (route caching) Faster method—first packet in each flow examined by CPU, forwarding decision cached in hardware for subsequent packets in flow Cisco Express Forwarding (topology-based switching) Fastest method—hardware forwarding table created regardless of traffic flows, all packets switched using hardware Switching mode for multi-layer switches Cisco Layer 3 Switching Methods
  16. 16. # Configure SVI and Routed Interface switch(config)# ip routing switch(config)# interface vlan10 switch(config-if)# ip address switch(config-if)# no shutdown switch(config)# interface vlan20 switch(config-if)# ip address switch(config-if)# no shutdown
  17. 17. # HSRP Configuration
  18. 18. # HSRP and Spanning Tree  Configured active router should be the same as STP root bridge  Blocked uplink caused traffic to take less than optimal path
  19. 19. # GLBP Operation
  20. 20. # GLBP Weights and Decrements
  21. 21. # GLBP Configuration
  22. 22. # Routing (ROUTE)
  23. 23. # ROUTE is:  IGP Routing: EIGRP, OSPF, RIP  Path control: route maps, filters, redistribution, policy-based routing  ISP connection management: standard BGP  IPv6  Branch offices and remote workers connectivity: VPN, GRE ROUTE is NOT:  Voice  Wireless  Security  Specific WAN protocols (MPLS, IS-IS, advanced BGP)  Multicast What Is Route Coverage
  24. 24. # Example: Enterprise network
  25. 25. # Routing Protocol Comparison
  26. 26. # OSPF. Link-State Protocols
  27. 27. # Link-state routing requires a hierarchical network structure: Transit area (backbone or area 0) Normal areas (non-backbone areas) Area Terminology and Router Types ABR:Area Border Router ASBR:Autonomous System Boundary Router R5, R6:Internal routers R1:Backbone router
  28. 28. # OSPF Packet Types
  29. 29. # Example of Different LSAs
  30. 30. # Types of Areas
  31. 31. # Design Limitations of OSPF  If more than one area is configured, one of these areas has be to be area 0—backbone area  All areas must be connected to area 0  Area 0 must be contiguous
  32. 32. # No Direct Physical Connection to Area 0  Area 20 added with no physical access to area 0  A virtual link provides logical path to the backbone  The OSPF database treats the link between routers ABR1 and ABR2 as a direct link
  33. 33. # Discontinuous Area 0  Two companies merge without a direct link between them  Virtual links are used to connect a discontinuous area 0  A logical link is built between routers ABR1 and ABR2  Virtual links are recommended for backup or temporary connections too
  34. 34. # EIGRP Capabilities and Attributes  Advanced distance vector  Multicast and Unicast instead of broadcast address  Support for multiple network-layer protocols  100% loop-free classless routing  Fast convergence  Partial updates  Flexible network design
  35. 35. # EIGRP Capabilities and Attributes  Support for VLSM and discontinuous subnets  Provides load balancing across equal-and unequal-cost pathways  Easy configuration for WANs and LANs  Manual summarization at any point  Sophisticated metric
  36. 36. # Example: EIGRP Tables
  37. 37. # Successor and Feasible Successor
  38. 38. # Example: Successor and Feasible Successor Solve Loop Issue R1 receives information about the 10.0.0./8 from R8 and R4 FD on R1 is smaller than AD from R4 and the update from R4 is not FS
  39. 39. # Verifying EIGRP Neighbors
  40. 40. # Factors that Influence EIGRP Scalability  Amount of routing information exchanged between peers  Number of routers  Depth of topology—the number of hops that information must travel to reach all routers  Number of alternate paths through the network
  41. 41. # EIGRP Query Process Stuck-in-Active The router must get replies to all its queries for a lost route to start calculating successor information If any reply to the query is lost or missing within three minutes:  The route is SIA  The router resets the neighbor relationship with the neighbor that fails to reply
  42. 42. # Enterprise Network to ISP Connection Options  Single-homed  Dual-homed  Multihomed  Dual-multihomed
  43. 43. # BGP Routing Between Autonomous Systems  BGP is to provide an interdomain routing system  BGP guarantees the exchange of loop-free routing information  BGP works differently than IGPs  BGP is a policy-based routing protocol  Control traffic flow using multiple BGP path attributes
  44. 44. # Basic EBGP Configuration
  45. 45. # BGP Path Selection Decision Process Consider only (synchronized) routes with no AS loops and a valid next hop, and next steps for evaluation are:
  46. 46. # Set AS Path with Route Map
  47. 47. # Redistribution Techniques
  48. 48. # Two-Way Multipoint Redistribution Issue
  49. 49. # Questions?
  50. 50. # Thank you!