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Rate Controlled Sintering - Application    in Advanced ceramic process                              E .SIVANAGI REDDY     ...
OUTLINE 0F THE TALK•   Ceramics•   Sintering•   Types of sintering•   Process of sintering•   Consequence of sintering•   ...
ceramics• A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the  action of heat and subsequent cooling• Ceramics t...
Sintering• Sintering is the process by which a powder compact is    transformed to a strong, dense ceramic body upon heati...
Stages of SinteringThree stages:1.   Initial stage :2.   Intermediate Stage :3.   Final stage:
Factors effecting          sintering•   Temperature•   Time duration•   Green density•   Uniformity of green density•   At...
FE-SEM micrograph of Mg/1 wt% HAp sintered atdifferent times, (a) 1 min, (b) 2 min, (c) 3 min and(d) 4 min
Material transport mechanismsTransport           Material        Material sink   Related parametermechanism           sour...
Rate-Controlled Sintering  Rate – controlled sintering is done in two ways  I. controlling Heating rate  II. controlling t...
Summary• Sintering is the process by which a powder  compact is transformed to a strong, dense  ceramic body upon heating•...
References• Suk-Joong L. Kang, Sintering : Densification, Grain growth and Microstructure   Elsevier(2005)• M.N Rahaman,  ...
ceramic sintering
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ceramic sintering

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ceramic sintering

  1. 1. Rate Controlled Sintering - Application in Advanced ceramic process E .SIVANAGI REDDY 12ACPA02
  2. 2. OUTLINE 0F THE TALK• Ceramics• Sintering• Types of sintering• Process of sintering• Consequence of sintering• Rate controlled sintering• Summary
  3. 3. ceramics• A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling• Ceramics that with minor exceptions have been developed with in the last 50 years or so are called advanced ceramics.• Advanced ceramics include ceramics for electrical, magnetic, electronic, and optical applications
  4. 4. Sintering• Sintering is the process by which a powder compact is transformed to a strong, dense ceramic body upon heating.• Sintering could eliminate most pores in porous green body and compress residual pores, and bring grain growth and improve binding among grains• Driving force for sintering: Lowering of free energyI. The curvature of particle surfaceII. An extremely applied pressureIII. Chemical reaction
  5. 5. Stages of SinteringThree stages:1. Initial stage :2. Intermediate Stage :3. Final stage:
  6. 6. Factors effecting sintering• Temperature• Time duration• Green density• Uniformity of green density• Atmosphere• Impurities• Size distribution• Particle size
  7. 7. FE-SEM micrograph of Mg/1 wt% HAp sintered atdifferent times, (a) 1 min, (b) 2 min, (c) 3 min and(d) 4 min
  8. 8. Material transport mechanismsTransport Material Material sink Related parametermechanism sourceLattice diffusion Grain Neck Lattice diffusivity, Df boundaryGrain boundary Grain Neck Grain boundarydiffusion boundary diffusion, DbViscous flow Bulk grain Neck Viscosity, ȠSurface diffusion Grain Surface Neck Surface diffusivity, DsLattice diffusion Grain Surface Neck Lattice diffusivity, D lGas phasetransport Gas surface Neck Vapour pressure 1. Evaporation/ difference Δp condensation Gas surface Neck Gas diffusivity, Dg 2.Gas diffusion
  9. 9. Rate-Controlled Sintering Rate – controlled sintering is done in two ways I. controlling Heating rate II. controlling temperatureSEM images of KNN sintered samples at: a) 1060, FE-SEM micrograph of Mg sintered at differentb) 1080, c) 1100 and d) 1120°C for 2 h heating rate, (a) 200 °C/min, (b) 400 °C/min, (c) 500 °C/min and (d)1200 °C/min
  10. 10. Summary• Sintering is the process by which a powder compact is transformed to a strong, dense ceramic body upon heating• The driving force behind sintering is lowering of free energy.• Three stages of sintering depends of different parameters.• Rate controlled sintering basically done in Temperature and heating rate controlling methods.
  11. 11. References• Suk-Joong L. Kang, Sintering : Densification, Grain growth and Microstructure Elsevier(2005)• M.N Rahaman, Ceramic processing and Sintering 2/e CRC Press(2007)• M.W Barsoum Fundamentals of Ceramics CRC Press(2003)

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