UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS CATEDRA DE METODOLOGÍA WRITING Author: Luis Villar CARACAS, JUNE 2012
What is writing?Writing is a method of representinglanguage in visual or tactile form. Writingsystems use sets of symbols to representthe sounds of speech, and may also havesymbols for such things as punctuation andnumerals.
Writing systems A set of visible or tactile signs used torepresent units of language in a systematic way, with the purpose of recording messages which can be retrieved by everyone who knows the language inquestion and the rules by virtue of which its units are encoded in the writing system.
8 Characteristics of Good, Effective WritingA common misconception among writers is that good writing can only beachieved with years of experience, which is far from the truth.1. You make a clear point. Don’t let your readers have to ask themselveswhat your point is.2. A common mistake is length. Good writing is never too long, never tooshort. It is concise, not elaborating on too many separate areas.3. There is information to back up your point. No one is able to store theworld’s information in their head. It’s a simple fact. You need to link tosources within your content, include images, diagrams, and other forms ofmedia to draw in the readers.4. The writing is logical. Understand that somepeople don’t want to read through the entirepost. Few people do, especially as the contentlength increases. Although words are words, aparagraph blurred together with no spacesbetween any sentences or words is just along word. People won’t read it.
5. Good grammar, English, and spelling. Just because you can’taccomplish these two to three main areas of good writing doesn’t mean thatyou have “failed” as a writer. Simply improve on these, and readers willthank you.6. Readers become engaged. With the focused point and effective writingstyle that you have developed (remember, it takes time), readers will becomeengaged in what you have to say.7. Rules are broken all over the place. Writing like everyone else is easy.Writing as yourself; creating, developing, and mastering a style is the hardpart. Similarity is the greatest enemy for writers – once you become unique,there is little to stop you from reaching great heights.8. Finally, and one of most important of all, is that great writers and thewritings that they create are from their heart, not just created to profit orfor gains. Text is one of the most powerful mediums out there. When youread text, you can get a good idea of how the writer feels about what they arewriting about, even though no clear evidence is given. Readers can drawconclusions that you aren’t writing your best copy due to the fact that you aretired and exhausted from writing. This is something that can’t happen as longas you run your writing.
Types of Writing:•Cause/effect: Writing about meaningful relationshipsbetween events and their results. A cause is whatmade an event happen and an effect is what happensas a result of that event.•Comparison/contrast: When you write aboutsimilarities and differences, you are writing acomparison/contrast essay.•Definition: Writing that tells what something means.•Description: When you are writing a description essay,you are "painting a picture" with words.•Narration: A narration essay is a writing that tells astory.•Persuasive: In persuasive essays, you are writing toconvinces others by presenting solid, supportedarguments.•Process analysis: In a process analysis essay, youwrite to explain how to do something or how something
Difficulties with WritingAttention ProblemSpatial Ordering ProblemPeople who struggle with spatial orderinghave decreased awareness regarding the spatialarrangement of letters, words, or sentences on a page.Sequential Ordering ProblemPeople who struggle with sequential ordering have difficultyputting or maintaining letters, processes, or ideas in order.Memory ProblemBecause so many writing processes need to be automatic,active working memory is critical. People may have difficultyrecalling spelling, grammar, and punctuation rules, accessingprior knowledge while writing, or organizing ideas.
Language ProblemGood writing relies on a person language abilities improvingsteadily over time.Graphomotor ProblemPeople with graphomotor problems struggle to coordinatethe small muscles of the fingers in order to maneuver a penor pencil, especially as assignment length increases.
Stages of the Writing Process •Prewriting. Students generate ideas for writing: brainstorming; reading literature; creating life maps, webs, and story charts; developing word banks; deciding on form, audience, voice, and purpose as well as through teacher motivation. •Rough Draft. Students get their ideas on paper. They write without concern for conventions. Written work does not have to be neat; it is a sloppy copy. •Reread. Students proof their own work by reading aloud and reading for sensibility. •Share with a Peer Revisor. Students share and make suggestions for improvement: asking who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about parts of the story the peer does not understand. •Revise. Improve what the narrative says and how it says it: write additions, imagery, and details. Take out unnecessary work. •Editing. Work together on editing for mechanics and spelling. Make sure the work is goof proof. •Final Draft. Students produce their final copy to discuss with the teacher and write a final draft. •Publishing. Students publish their written pieces: sending their work to publishers; reading their finished story aloud, making books, etc.
BIBLIOGRAPHYThe Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writings Systems10 Characteristics of Good, Effective Writing by Kevinon January 7, 2009Writing Resourceshttp://ksdl.ksbe.edu/writingresource/typeswriting.htmlGardner and Johnson (1997) Stages of the WritingProcess