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Finland - Your testbed for the next generation research & medical innovation

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What makes Finland the most advanced testbed in the world?

Free to use presentation for marketing Finland as a testbed for the research & medical innovation.

What makes Finland the most advanced testbed in the world?

Free to use presentation for marketing Finland as a testbed for the research & medical innovation.

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Finland - Your testbed for the next generation research & medical innovation

  1. 1. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  2. 2. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  3. 3. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N PHARMA R&D SPEND USA Market, Modified from: USFDA, PhRMA
  4. 4. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N RISING COSTS THROUGHOUT THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  5. 5. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N RISING COSTS THROUGHOUT THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  6. 6. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CHALLENGE: A LOT OF UNUTILIZED DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES Example of data sources Modified from: Frost & Sullivan
  7. 7. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  8. 8. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  9. 9. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N FACTORS THAT IMPACT INDIVIDUAL HEALTH OUTCOMES
  10. 10. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  11. 11. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  12. 12. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  13. 13. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  14. 14. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  15. 15. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N Photo(c)JussiHellsten/VisitHelsinki
  16. 16. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N “Every resident in the sparsely populated country has access to an extensive set of services, yet total per capita healthcare costs remain lower that in most comparable countries.”
  17. 17. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE R&D intensity as % of GDP, 2014 Modified from source: Eurostat, 2014
  18. 18. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N Photo(c)JussiHellsten/VisitHelsinki
  19. 19. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N “Finlands National Patient Archive – Kanta – covers already 80 % of the population.” / autumn 2015
  20. 20. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE Quality of registries
  21. 21. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE Example of health histories from two persons from the national biobanks with a 40 year follow-up DISEASE HISTORY AGE 20 30 40 50 Photosareusedforillustratrativepurposesonly.PhotosbyIStockphoto.Posedbymodel.
  22. 22. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  23. 23. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N “Tissue specimens have been collected since the 1930s and have been linked to digital data since the 1980s.”
  24. 24. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE THL Biobank - example of one Finnish Biobank
  25. 25. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE THL Biobank - example of one Finnish Biobank
  26. 26. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE THL Biobank - example of one Finnish Biobank
  27. 27. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE SISU-project - Sequencing Initiative Suomi
  28. 28. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N Photo(c)JussiHellsten/VisitHelsinki
  29. 29. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N “A population-based survey among Finnish adults showed a generally positive attitude towards biomedical research.”
  30. 30. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE Finnish people & participating
  31. 31. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  32. 32. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N “We have the best biobank act in the world.” - the leading Biobank Experts in Finland
  33. 33. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE The Biobank Act of 2013
  34. 34. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE The Biobank Act of 2013 - Recalling made easy
  35. 35. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE Digital Health Hub isaacus 2017 Empowering People and Boosting Health Innovations
  36. 36. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N CASE Digital Health Hub isaacus 2017 Combining Data from Different Sources Example of data sources Modified from: Frost & Sullivan
  37. 37. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  38. 38. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  39. 39. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  40. 40. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  41. 41. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  42. 42. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  43. 43. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  44. 44. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  45. 45. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  46. 46. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  47. 47. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N
  48. 48. YOUR T ES TB ED FOR NEXT GENERA TION RESEARCH & INNOVA TIO N

Editor's Notes

  • Let’s start about talking about some challenges we are tackling right now.
    The way we conduct medical research and the way we innovate is changing fundamentally.
  • We also spend more on research every year - and every year we get a little less out.
    Combined with the global pressure to control rising healthcare spend, this is leading us into a dead end.

    Source/modified from: USFDA, PhRMA
    http://theconversation.com/lack-of-new-drugs-is-being-overcome-by-new-ways-of-delivering-old-ones-33109



    Background information: http://www.phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2015_phrma_profile.pdf
    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)*
    Average time to develop a drug = more than 10 years Percentage of drugs entering clinical trials resulting in an approved medicine = less than 12%

    *Previous research by the same author estimated average R&D costs in the early 2000s at $1.2 billion in constant 2000 dollars (see DiMasi JA, Grabowski, HG. The cost of biopharmaceutical R&D: is biotech different? Manage Decis Econ. 2007;28:469-479). That estimate was based on the same underlying survey as the author’s estimates for the 1990s to early 2000s reported here ($800 million in constant 2000 dollars), but updated for changes in the cost of capital.



  • Process has not changed during last 50 years – it is highly expensive to bring new medicines to the market
    In every phase of the drug lifecycle we spend more and more.
  • There is a lot of untapped potential in all phases of the drug development process. One of the most potential focus area is in better target priorization.
  • Modified from: Frost & Sullivan

    Challenge: Information lies in different silos

    We know alot about genomics, lifestyle, social and environmental factors as well as the impact of healthcare interventions, each on their own. The challenge is combining and making sense of this data. We have the skills, the data and the technology, but we lack the infrastructure to reap the benefits. Or do we? (answer on slide 39)



  • Sounds simple but why this is so difficult?
  • Source: McGinnis, et al, Health Affairs; 21(2), 2002

    We need to understand as much as possible about the research subjects on an individual level. There are broadly speaking 4 factors that impact individual health outcomes.

  • More and more countries are waking up to this challenge (Britain, Estonia, Denmark etc.)

    What makes Finland different? Why to work with Finland? What can we offer?
  • Intro about Finland / Society background of Finland
    Missio: Luoda kuvaa vakaasta ja turvallisesta maasta, joka tuottaa uusia innovaatioita ja josta löytyy huippuosaamista

    Finland is an economically and politically stable society, has been a member of the EU since 1995.
    For many years Finland has also been among the top countries globally in terms of R&D spending per capita.

    Sources:

    Education Ranking, 2015-2016 (out of 140 economics): http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/competitiveness-rankings/#indicatorId=GCI.A.04
    Corporate etchis, 2015-2016 (out of 140 economics): http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/competitiveness-rankings/#indicatorId=GCI.A.01.02.01
    Global innovation ranking, 2015-2016 (out of 140 economics): http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/competitiveness-rankings/#indicatorId=GCI.C.12
    Tech-Ready country, 2015 (out of 143 economics): http://knowledge.insead.edu/entrepreneurship-innovation/the-worlds-most-tech-ready-countries-2015-3953
    Corrupt country, 2014 (out of 175 countries and territories): http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results

    Muita nostoja: http://issuu.com/investinfinland/docs/iif_factbook_v12?e=18056138/13604240
  • Extra kevennysslide
  • Sounds good so far – doesn’t it. So what makes Finland the optimal testbed for next generation research & medical innovation?
  • We have a strong foundation which is build on well-functioning healthcare system and government backing.
    On top of that we have digital health data and genomic data which can be connected/linked to our healthcare system.
    We also have engaged people who are willing to participate and willing to give their health data to be used.


    We have well-functioning healthcare system, which is our foundation
    We have digital health data
    We have engaged people
    We have genomic data & biobanks
    We have government backing

  • What well-functioning healthcare system means?

    Lääketutkimus on erittäin reguloitua ja tarkkaa: 
    Terveydenhuoltojärjestelmän LUOTETTAVUUS JA TURVALLISUUS
    Koulutettu ja osaava henkilökunta 
    järjestelmää kehitetään jatkuvasti ja siihen laitetaan rahaa ja resursseja 
    Erikoissairaanhoito maailman luokan tasoa 
    Reguloitu ja tarkasti määritelty toimintaympäristö ja prosessi 

    Source: “Every resident in the sparsely populated country has access to an extensive set of services, yet total per capita healthcare costs remain lower that in most comparable countries.”
    https://www.sitra.fi/julkaisut/raportti82.pdf?download=Lataa+pdf
    Page 24
  • Modified from source: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7092226/9-30112015-AP-EN.pdf/29eeaa3d-29c8-496d-9302-77056be6d586

    http://www.goodnewsfinland.com/eurostat-finland-s-r-d-intensity-highest-in-eu/

    Innovaatiotoiminta Suomessa: http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/inn/2012/inn_2012_2014-06-05_tie_001_fi.html
  • What we mean by saying we have digital health data?
  • Source & Status: Autumn 2015: medical data of 4.3 M people + ePresciptions for 4,63 M (84 % of population) / Sitra
    OmaKanta will be up and running by 2017

    Rekisterien luotettavuus vrs. Amerikkalainen järjestelmä (paperinen vrs sähköinen)
    Genomidatan ja terveysdatan yhdistäminen on tulevaisuuden lääkkeiden kehittämistä!
    Rekisterien yhdistäminen

    Information systems (eHealth)
     
    The storage of electronic medical patient data is universal in Finland as 100% of the GP practices register at least one type of patient data (*).
     
    • EHR coverage 100% (public prim and sec healthcare) , 80% (private)
    • EHR information exchange 90% (public, hospital districts)
    • Electronical referrals and discharge letters 95%
    • Wide use of national solutions (ePrescription, eArchive, eAccess)

    *Source: http://ehealth-strategies.eu/database/documents/Finland_CountryBrief_eHStrategies.pdf


    Health Data in Finland
     
    “All major health care providers (hospitals, primary health care units, pharmacies) annually deliver person-level data collected and abstracted from their patient administration systems to government agencies who are by law the responsible register-keepers. The National Institute for Welfare and Health (THL), the Social Insurance institution of Finland, Statistics Finland and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health are the central sources of health system data. Individual level data can be linked using the unique and national personal identification code. Data linkage is allowed provided that the researcher has received permission from the authorities.” (*)

    Source: http://www.healthdatanavigator.eu/national/finland


    Healthcare registries
     
    The reliability of the existing Finnish patient records that have been collected and itemised over 50 years is among the highest by global comparison.
     
    “Record keeping in general has a long tradition in Finland. The registration of vital statistics, including for example births, deaths and marriages, was initiated as early as 1749. Most national data collection was based on aggregated data collection, but the development of computer technology made the collection of personal-level register information feasible. The first nation-wide, computerised disease register, the Cancer Register was started in 1952. A system of unique identification numbers was launched in 1964 along with general sickness insurance, and by 1968 all Finnish citizens and permanent residents had received their own number.” (*) The reliability of the patient records that have been collected and itemized is among the highest by global comparison.
     
    In the future, all patient data will be stored in the national Patient Data Repository. The repository is part of the health care information system, the National Archive of Health Information (Kanta). The Patient Data Repository is a healthcare service data system in active use, and it is used with the patient records system. It allows centralised electronic archiving of patient records and long-term storage of the data. Patient Data Repository already holds medical records for 2.9 million citizens
     
    *Source: https://www.ntnu.no/ojs/index.php/norepid/article/download/284/262


  • Source: https://rekisteritutkimus.wordpress.com/rekisterit/rekisterit-rekisterinpitajan-mukaan/
  • What we mean by saying we have genomic data & biobanks?
  • Source: 6,8 million potential tissue samples
    http://www.bbmri.fi/fi/researchers-tools/sample-counter/


    High-quality biobanks
     
    Biobanks’ task is to collect and maintain samples, such as tissue and blood samples of human origin as well as related medical data and act as mediator for health-promoting medical research. The data from biobanks can be combined with patient records and national health registries. In addition, Finnish Biobank Act enables wider and more efficient research use of the existing sample collections.

    Samples available:
    Blood samples (whole blood, plasma, serum and cell
    fractions)
    Tissue samples
    DNA and RNA isolated from tissues and tissue lysates
    Secretion samples (e.g. urine, faeces, saliva, sputum, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid)
    Cytological samples (e.g. fine needle aspiration samples,brushing and irrigation samples)
    Cells cultivated from tissues

  • SISu-projekti (Sequencing Initiative Suomi) on kansainvälinen tutkimusryhmien välinen yhteistyöprojekti, jonka tavoitteena on kehittää työkaluja genomiseen lääketieteeseen. Tutkimusryhmät tuottavat kokogenomi- ja eksomisekvenssidataa suomalaisista näytteistä ja tarjoavat dataa tiedeyhteisölle.


    http://www.nationalbiobanks.fi/index.php/biobank-info
    http://www.sisuproject.fi
  • What we mean by saying we have engaged people?
  • Source: Finnish people's attitudes towards biomedical research and it sponsorship / Elina Hemminki, Aaro Tupasela, Piia Jallinoja, Arja R. Aro, Karoliina Snell, and Sinikka Sihvo
    http://www.academia.edu/10764379/Finnish_peoples_attitudes_towards_biomedical_research_and_its_sponsorship

    Väestön sivistystaso:
    Koulutustason ja yleisen valveutuneisuuden ansiosta suomalaiset osaavat hakeutua nopeasti hoidon piiriin eli tutkimuksiin ja hoitoihin

    Väestön tutkimusmyönteisyys:
    Suomalaisten syöpäpotilaiden positiivinen suhtautuminen lääketieteelliseen tutkimukseen on kansainvälisesti selkeä vahvuus
    • Potilaat osallistuvat mielellään kliinisiin tutkimuksiin ja pysyvät niissä pitkään mukana
    • Omien tietojen käyttö sallitaan herkästi myös tutkimus- ja tuotekehityskäyttöön
    • Esimerkiksi vain murto-osa suomalaisista on kieltänyt omien näytteidensä käytön osana biopankkitoimintaa

    Luottamus ammattilaisiin

    Teknologiaosaaminen:
    Suomesta löytyy kovaa tietoteknistä osaamista sekä ihmiset käyttävät mobiililaitteita
  • Source: 95 % of sample donators have given consent of their samples:
    http://www.slideshare.net/mobile/SitraHyvinvointi/heli-salminenmankonen-auria-biopankki-kansalaisen-trkein-talletus

    Source: 85 % of 340 000 women participated in screening of breastcancer:
    https://www.thl.fi/fi/web/seksuaali-ja-lisaantymisterveys/ajankohtaista/-/asset_publisher/bBWzx2QwVcBG/content/kohdunkaulan-syovan-ja-rintasyovan-seulontoihin-osallistuminen-on-vahentynyt/10531

    Source: over 85 000 people participated in vaccination research / Suomalaisten panos rokotteiden kehittämiselle onkin poikkeuksellinen, esimerkiksi vuonna 2010 rokotetutkimuksiin osallistui yli 85 000 henkilöä.
    Source: over 30 000 people volunteered for 284 different medical research / Vuonna 2013 Suomessa yli 30 000 vapaaehtoista tutkimushenkilöä osallistui 284:ään eri lääketutkimukseen
    http://www.laaketutkimukset.fi/tietoa-laaketutkimuksista


    Source population: http://www.vaestorekisterikeskus.fi

  • What we mean by saying we have government backing?
  • Suomen etu rekisteritietojen yhdistäminen, jonka mahdollistaa Biopankkilaki + henkilöturvatunnus
  • The Biobank Act:

    The Biobank Act introduced in 2013 made it possible to transfer the diagnostic samples taken by healthcare professionals over several decades to the biobanks. Taking new samples in health care or for medical research always requires the consent of donors. Donors can give a so-called extended consent which allows their sample to be used in all research of the field, without new consent being asked for every new research project.

    Provides a broad consent
    Possibility to link to registers
    Possibility for genetic research
    Possibility to recall participants

    Many studies can be performed without a new ethical approval
    Industrial collaboration possible even if original consent does not mention it




  • Biopankkilain etu lääkeyrityksille: samasta tutkimusryhmästä haluttujen potilaiden recall-mahdollisuus (rekisteritiedot yhdistettävissä ja henkilöt löydettävissä henkilötunnuksen avulla  tämän mahdollistaa biopankkilaki)
     nopeuttaa tutkimusprosessia ja vähentää kustannuksia + tautien ehkäisystä voidaan tehdä kohdistettua ja tehokkaampaa vrt. Käytäntö muihin maihin (lehti-ilmoituksilla haetaan sopivan geenipoolin omaavia ihmisiä tutkimuksiin)
  • Source: http://www.slideshare.net/SitraHyvinvointi/isaacus-national-health-data-hub

  • Source: http://www.slideshare.net/SitraHyvinvointi/isaacus-national-health-data-hub

    As you remember from the beginning, the challenge was combining all the data which was produced by different data sources - the information lied in different silos.
    What Finland can offer is that through Digital Health Hub the data is easily combined from different sources.



  • Summary:
  • Summary;

    As I told you we have well-functioning healthcare system, we have a lot of digital health data and engaged people. We have genomic data, biobanks and government backing.

    Summary of the strengths:
    - Finnish patient records that have been collected and itemised over 50 years
    - EHR coverage 100%
    - National Patient Data Repository holds medical records for 2.9 million citizens
    - Data from biobanks can be combined with patient records and national health registries
    - Finnish Biobank Act enables a broader use of the sample collections than in other European countries for medical research and protects the rights of the sample donor
     

  • Our next strategy is to have a Digital Health Hub up and running for 2017.
  • Countries with Biobank:
    Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
    Asia: China, India, Japan, Korea, Malesia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand
    Afrikka: Gambia, Uganda, South-Africa,
    Middle east: Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE
    Others: Australia, Canada, USA, New Zealand, Russia
    Latin America: LACTumorbank Network (governmental cancer institutions): Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Equador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Biopankki on lääketieteellinen kokoelma, joka sisältää DNA:ta, verta tai muita näytteitä ihmisen elimistöstä sekä lisäksi tietoja kunkin näytteenantajan terveydestä ja elintavoista. (Tiede 3/2006: Biopankin kynnyksellä (s.17)
    Biobanks can be established within academic medical or research institutions, pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies or as stand-alone organizations.
    Types of Biobanks: Population based biobanks for genetic research and clinical/disease-orientated biobanks that collect biological samples from patients, aiming at discovery and validation of genetic and
    non-genetic risk factors of diseases.


    Sources:
    http://specimencentral.com/biobank-directory/
    http://bbmri-eric.eu/memberstates
    http://www.nature.com/gim/journal/v9/n3/full/gim200726a.html
    http://www.esbb.org/biobanks.html
    http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC57831.pdf
    About Biobanks: https://www.google.fi/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwiTt_3OnLjJAhUK2SwKHffLDsAQFggfMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9789401795722-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1493350-p177035425&usg=AFQjCNE0teYnvHY6qgVa4WpreuUbHXtzfA



    LATINALAINEN AMERIKKA:
    LACTumorBank Network: governmental cancer institutions: Kolumbia, Kuuba, Mexiko, Peru, Equador, Argentiina, Uruguay, Chile, Panama, Venezuela, Brasilia
    http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/inca/Claudio_Gustavo_Stenaff_Latin_America_and_Caribbean.pdf

    MALTA
    http://www.um.edu.mt/biobank

    UUSI-SEELANTI
    http://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/handle/10092/2594
    https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/en/faculty/cbr/our-centre/biobank.html

    AFRIKKA: Uganda, Cape Town
    http://www.b3africa.org
  • Countries with Biobank + Universal Healthcare
    Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
    Asia: Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand
    Middle east: Israel, Kuwait, UAE
    Others: Australia, Canada, New Zealand
    Latin America: LACTumorbank Network (governmental cancer institutions): Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Panama, Venezuela


    Source: 58 countries with universal health care in 2009, according to Stuckler, et al.[1]
    Stuckler, David; Feigl, Andrea B.; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin (November 2010). "The political economy of universal health coverage. Background paper for the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, 16–19 November 2010, Montreaux, Switzerland" (PDF). Pacific Health Summit. Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research. p. 16. “Figure 2. Global Prevalence of Universal Health Care in 2009; 58 countries: Andorra, Antigua, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, UAE, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela.”

    Lähde: http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/06/heres-a-map-of-the-countries-that-provide-universal-health-care-americas-still-not-on-it/259153/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_health_care
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_health_care#/media/File:Universal_health_care.svg

  • Countries with Biobank + Universal healthcare + National Identification Number
    Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
    Latin America: LACTumorbank Network (governmental cancer institutions): Chile

    Unique national identification number: selitetään auki missä maissa on vastaavanlaiset henkilötunnukset käytössä, kuin Suomessa + miksi unique: koodaus.
    Suomalaisen henkilötunnuksen algoritmin kehitti Erkki Pale, joka toimi toisessa maailmansodassa salakieliasiantuntijana.
    Henkilötunnus mahdollistaa ihmisten seuraamisen, rekisteritietojen yhdistämisen  laajojen tietoaineistojen muodostuminen (mm. Potilastiedot voidaan linkata näytteeseen  digitaalinen fenotyyppaus

    Eroavaisuus maiden kesken: henkilötunnuksen perusrakenne.
    vastaava tunnus kuin Suomessa otettiin käyttöön muissakin Pohjoismaissa, vieläpä samoihin aikoihin.
    Henkilötunnuksen perusrakenne on kaikissa Pohjoismaissa samanlainen, vaikkakin yksityiskohdissa on poikkeavuuksia.
    Ihmisten numerointi tällä tavoin oli siis suosittu ajatus.


    Source: https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henkilötunnus
    Muualla vastaavanlaista henkilötunnusta käytetään muun muassa Ruotsissa (personnummer), Norjassa (fødselsnummer), Tanskassa (personnummer tai CPR-nummer), Islannissa (kennitala), Virossa (isikukood), Alankomaissa (burgerservicenummer), Belgiassa (rijksregisternummer), Ranskassa (code INSEE), Itävallassa (Sozialversicherungsnummer), Sveitsissä (AHV-Nummer), Liettuassa (asmens kodas) ja Chilessä (Rol Único Nacional tai RUN).

    Yhdysvalloissa on samankaltainen järjestelmä (social security number, SSN), vaikka sitä ei alun perin luotukaan samanlaiseen tarkoitukseen. SSN:ia ei anneta ihmiselle jo syntymästä, joten on mahdollista elää Yhdysvalloissa ilman sellaista, joskin sen puute vaikeuttaa käytännön asioiden hoitamista.

    Suomalaisen henkilötunnuksen koodauksen avaus:
    http://www.tuomas.salste.net/doc/hetu/tunnus.html


    Taustaa suomalaisesta henkilötunnuksesta:
    Henkilötunnus on nykyisin kaikilla suomalaisilla. Suomalainen henkilötunnus on 11-merkkinen merkkijono. Se sisältää henkilön syntymäpäivän, yksilönumeron ja tarkistusmerkin. Lisäksi tunnuksesta käy ilmi sukupuoli. Tunnus on tarkoitettu henkilöiden erotteluun tietojärjestelmissä siten, että oikeat tiedot kohdistuvat oikeaan henkilöön.

    pp = syntymäpäivä (01..31)
    kk = syntymäkuukausi (01..12)
    vv = syntymävuosi (00..99)
    välimerkki ilmoittaa syntymävuosisadan: + = 1800, - = 1900, A = 2000-luku
    nnn = yksilönumero, naisilla parillinen, miehillä pariton (002..899)
    t = tarkistusmerkki

    Henkilötunnus alkaa syntymäpäivällä. Se ilmoitetaan 6-numeroisella luvulla.
    Syntymäpäivän ja henkilötunnuksen loppuosan välissä on välimerkki. Siitä näkee syntymävuosisadan. Välimerkki on 1800-luvulla syntyneillä plusmerkki (+), 1900-luvulla syntyneillä yhdysmerkki (-) ja 2000-luvulla syntyneillä A-kirjain.
    Henkilötunnuksen loppuosan kolme ensimmäistä merkkiä ovat yksilönumero. Sen avulla erotellaan toisistaan ihmiset, joilla on sama syntymäpäivä.
    Yksilönumeron viimeinen numero kertoo sukupuolen. Miehillä numero on pariton, naisilla parillinen. Miehillä henkilötunnuksen loppuosa on siis jokin seuraavista: xx1x, xx3x, xx5x, xx7x tai xx9x. Naisilla loppuosa on vastaavasti xx0x, xx2x, xx4x, xx6x tai xx8x.
    4) Henkilötunnuksen viimeinen merkki on tarkistusmerkki. Merkillä varmistetaan, että tunnuksessa olevat numerot ovat oikeat.Tarkistusmerkkin laskukaava: Henkilötunnuksesta otetaan välimerkki pois. Tunnuksen 9 ensimmäistä merkkiä tulkitaan 9-numeroiseksi luvuksi, joka jaetaan luvulla 31. Jakojäännös muutetaan tarkistusmerkiksi henkilötunnuksen tarkistusmerkkitaulukon avulla.


  • Countries with Biobank + Universal healthcare + national identification number + genetically isolated population
    Eurooppa: Finland, Iceland

    Source: http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/11/20/2507.full


    The struggle to identify susceptibility genes for complex disorders has stimulated geneticists to develop new approaches. One approach that has gained considerable interest is to focus on genetically isolated populations rather than on the general population.

    In general, the statistical power to detect a real association or linkage is limited by the background noise in the population under study. This noise consists of all possible combinations of environmental and genetic factors present in the population. Therefore, in heterogeneous populations, large sample sizes would be needed to obtain sufficient statistical power to detect genetic risk factors. More homogeneous populations such as genetically isolated populations have been proposed as a possible alternative for these large sample sizes, because environmental variation might be lower and the genetic make-up of these populations is expected to be less complex owing to founder effects, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The use of genetically isolated populations is not new; for example, in Finland, there are numerous examples of Mendelian disorders with increased prevalence (29). This has been especially valuable for mapping rare recessive disorders. but many researchers believe this could be a solution for more complex disorders as well because of the relatively uniform genetic background of the population. Some culturally and genetically isolated populations have a more similar way of living, eating habits and natural environment that reduces environmental variation. Often these populations have been founded by a small number of individuals, followed by a period of genetic isolation, during which genetic drift might have been seen and population expansion mainly occurred by population growth and not by immigration. In addition, if genealogical records are available, the kinship coefficient of patients can be determined, which is often higher than in heterogeneous populations. In countries from Scandinavia, for example, state healthcare registries have been maintained over centuries

  • Recalling option made easy by biobank act + national identification number

    Suomessa on kansainvälisesti ainutlaatuinen biopankkilaki, joka avaa sairaaloiden ja tutkimuslaitosten näytekokoelmat kaikkien tutkijoiden käyttöön. Kun siihen yhdistetään Suomen muut vahvuudet: kattavat rekisterit, sähköiset potilastiedot ja tutkimusmyönteinen väestö  mahdollisuudet uuteen tutkimus- ja liiketoimintaan ovat huikeat
  • Intro about Finland / Society background of Finland
    Missio: Luoda kuvaa vakaasta ja turvallisesta maasta, joka tuottaa uusia innovaatioita ja josta löytyy huippuosaamista

    Finland is an economically and politically stable society, has been a member of the EU since 1995.
    For many years Finland has also been among the top countries globally in terms of R&D spending per capita.

    Sources:

    Education Ranking, 2014-2015 (out of 144 economics): http://www3.weforum.org/docs/img/WEF_GCR2014-15_Education_Image.png
    Global innovation ranking, 2014-2015 (out of 144 economics): http://www3.weforum.org/docs/img/WEF_GCR2014-15_Innovation_Image.png
    Tech-Ready country, 2015 (out of 143 economics): http://knowledge.insead.edu/entrepreneurship-innovation/the-worlds-most-tech-ready-countries-2015-3953
    Corrupt country, 2014 (out of 175 countries and territories): http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results
    Global Competitiveness, 2014-2015 (out of 144 economics): http://www3.weforum.org/docs/img/WEF_GCR2014-15_Global_Image.png


    Muita nostoja: http://issuu.com/investinfinland/docs/iif_factbook_v12?e=18056138/13604240

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