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The effect of cultural activities to eutrophication or algal bloom

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• Water is playing a big role in the natural
processes that occur in the surrounding.
• This amount is important for earth...

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Algal Bloom in Malaysia (1976 to 2015)
• The blooms almost occurred annually and spread to other parts of Sabah
water main...

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Cultural Eutrophication Occur due to
Human Activities
• Eutrophication is a naturally occurring, slow, and
unavoidable pro...

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The effect of cultural activities to eutrophication or algal bloom

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The effect of cultural activities especially done by human that will harm the ecology of wetland

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The effect of cultural activities to eutrophication or algal bloom

  1. 1. • Water is playing a big role in the natural processes that occur in the surrounding. • This amount is important for earth's natural processes to occur and therefore sustain life on Earth. • 99% of the living space on the planet is found in the oceans due to their sheer volume. • With one species extinct from the ecosystem, the chains of relationships are disrupted. • An algal bloom is one of the big concern of the world nowadays as it’s polluted the water source. • An algal bloom are one of natural phenomenon, but there is a cultural factor that also contributed to this phenomenon. • Algal bloom effect the water by increasing in a density of microalgae species in the marine and freshwater that could cause adverse effects on the environments. • Harmful algal bloom (HAB) is on the rise all over the world. Estimate around 2000 cases of human poisoning recorded annually by HAB. • The algal bloom become the biggest inland water quality threat to life public health and the aquatic ecosystems. • The accumulation of algal-origin toxins in filter-feeding shellfish has caused human food poisoning.
  2. 2. Algal Bloom in Malaysia (1976 to 2015) • The blooms almost occurred annually and spread to other parts of Sabah water mainly in Sipatang, Kuala Penyu, Binsuluk and Kota Kinabalu. • In fact, the HABs problem was also reported along the coastal water of the west coast of water. • The increase of the density of algal bloom have caused massive fish or shrimp kills due to dissolved oxygen depletion in the environment. • The accumulation of ammonia excreted into the surrounding waters may act as the killing agent. • Thus, what may be the factor of these concern events? Timeline Harmful microalgae Location Impact References 1976 Pyrodinium bahamense Brunei Bay, West coast Sabah Shellfish contamination, 202 poisoned, 7 death Roy, 1977 1998 Pyrodinium bahamense East Coast Sabah No reports recorded Anton & Suibol, 1999 2001 Alexandrium minutum Tumpat, Kelantan 6 poisoned, one death Lim et al., 2004 2002 Prorocentrum minimum Tebrau Straits,Johor Bahru, Johor Water discoloration Usup et al., 2002 2003 - 2004 Cochlodinium polykrikoides Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Fish kills The Star Online (2014) 2005 Cochlodinium polykrikoides Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Water discoloration Anton et al., 2008 2006 Cochlodinium polykrikoides Kuching, Sarawak, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Water discoloration, fish kills Fisheries Research Institute, Bintawa, Sarawak; Anton et al., 2008 2007 Neoceratium furca Pangkor, Lumut, Penang Water discoloration Fisheries Research Institute, Batu Maung, Penang 2009 Pyrodinium bahamense Kota Kinabalu and surrounding areas Shellfish contamination Department, Sabah and Express Daily (2009) 2013 Pyrodinium bahamense West Coast Sabah Shellfish contamination, over 40 poisoned, 3 deaths The Star Online (2014) 2015 Cochlodinium polykrioides Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Fish kill Sabah Fisheries Dept., Sabahkini.com(201 5)
  3. 3. Cultural Eutrophication Occur due to Human Activities • Eutrophication is a naturally occurring, slow, and unavoidable process which an excessive plant and algal growth • The cultural eutrophication take placed when human activity and water pollution have accelerated. • Nutrient enrichment resulting the algal bloom came from anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, industry, and sewage disposal Agricultural Activities • According to The Report: Malaysia (2016), Malaysia is the world’s second-largest palm oil producer after Indonesia and a leading producer of natural rubber • The rate of phosphorus cycling on Earth has increased by four times, mainly due to agricultural fertilizer production and application. • Due to run off or leaching, the fertilizer are transmitted into water bodies. • These fertilizers promoting the growth of algae, causing eutrophication, and robbing the water of dissolved oxygen vital to other aquatic life. Domestic Sewage • Runoff pollution from septic systems, sewers and sewage sludge increase the flow of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into ecosystems. • Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can also increase nitrogen availability
  4. 4. Industrial Discharge • The rapid change in industrialization generates a tremendous amount of wastes that are affected the ecosystem. • The existing management for industrial wastes gives priority to end-of-pipe approach creating many environmental problems such as illegal dumping (Mohamed, 2009). Year Location Amount and type of waste Company 1989 Pantai Remis, Perak 1500 tonnes of toxic waste Unknown 1993 Bukit Merah, Perak Radioactive wastes Asian Rare Earth Plant, Mitsubishi Kasei 1995 Pangkor Island, Perak Forty-one drums of highly toxic potassium cyanide Unknown 1995 Penang Island 28 drums of trichiorofluoromethane Unknown 2001 Ulu Tiram, Johor 1,000 tonnes of metal ashes Foreign-based smelting company 2003 Ijok, Selangor 500 drums of paint sludge and glue Unknown 2016 Semenyih, Selangor Anonymous hazardous substances Semenyih Hi-Tech Park
  5. 5. Definition of Eutrophication • Origin of eutrophication is from the Greek words where eu means “well” and trophein means ‘feeding’. • Literally give the meaning of well feeding environment in water bodies ecosystem. • It’s means a ‘well nourished’ or “nutrient-rich” environment which the nutrient can ‘feed well the organism’. • The limnologist definition; eutrophication may be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter to an ecosystem. • The Marine Scientists, (GESAMP, 1990) definition; eutrophication means ‘enhanced nourishment’ and refers to the stimulation of aquatic plant growth by mineral nutrients, particularly the combined forms of phosphorus or nitrogen. • An excessive nutrient trigger algae to grow tremendously. Natural Eutrophication • Natural eutrophication is also called as the natural aging of lakes, rivers, and sea. • Over the period of time the nutrients, sediment, and plant material build up, which slowly fill the lake basin. • Eventually, it colonized by terrestrial vegetation. Cultural Eutrophication • Cultural mean human activities that promote the natural eutrophication. • Shortens the rate of aging from century to decades. • A process of speeds up the natural eutrophication process. • The sources came from the agricultural activities, human and industrial discharge which are mainly about the leaching of phosphorus and nitrogen into water bodies.
  6. 6. Definition of Algal Bloom • An algal is a single-celled plants that live in the ocean are known as phytoplankton. • Phytoplankton are primary producers that form the base of the ocean’s food web. • The phytoplankton are buoyant and live in the upper part of the surface of the water column which called the photic zone where sunlight is available. • The algal bloom is a phenomenon where there is a rapid increase in the density of algae in an aquatic system. • Occur when environmental conditions allow or promote exponential growth of phytoplankton due to nutrient pollution or enrichment. • Algae could multiply quickly in water bodies with an abundance amount of nitrogen and phosphorus when the water is warm and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) • A small percentage of algal species, can cause harm to humans and the environment through toxin production or excessive growth. • Some algal blooms pose an additional threat because they produce noxious toxins . • Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused, degradation of water quality. • The toxic of cyanobacteria not only harmful to fish or water ecosystem but also lead to the death of domestic animals, wildlife and humans through poisoning by blooms of toxic cyanobacteria.
  7. 7. Factors Contributing to Algal Bloom Due to Cultural Eutrophication According to the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences Academic & Science (CEES); the development of algal blooms is from a combination of environmental factors like : • Nutrients • Temperature • Sunlight • Ecosystem disturbance • Turbidity
  8. 8. Causes Leads to Cultural Eutrophication • Increasing Population • Food Demand • Urbanization Effect of Cultural Eutrophication • Water Quality • Acid Rain • Hypoxia • Blue Baby Syndrome Effects Uncontrolled Cultural Eutrophication to Environment and Ecosystem • Water body food chain are disturb • Decreasing of aesthetic value • Indirect impact to socio- economy
  9. 9. Malacca Straits The study has been conducted by Naquiddin et. al. (2014). Several sampling stations were located from Langkawi to Penang Island for the northern zone. The southern zone of Malacca Straits was done from Port Klang to Kukup Island Tasik Sri Serdang The water of life @ Serdang is undergoing an investigation by Faculty of Environmental Studies Student Association, UPM. This study is undergoing from March 2017 till February 2018. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among university and surrounding residents in Serdang about the importance of clean and healthy rivers The study conducted to see the effect of cultural activities toward increasing the rate of eutrophication. Even with a different area that added the factors on this case study but the result remain almost the same. This provided a stronger proof that despite the different environment and area but human activities do give an impact to the cultural eutrophication.
  10. 10. Comparison of Case Study Similarities Differences Have very high cultural activities and a famous where people come. Undergoing experiment High risk of cultural eutrophication with stagnant water body Shoreline vs Lake Discussion The blooms are believed to be due to the cultural eutrophication that operated along the marine coastal and the lake. For example, the coastal marine in Kota Kinabalu received nutrients from the Inanam river. In conclusion, both of coastal marine and the stagnant lake will continue to experience HABs problems which lead to algal bloom phenomenon as long as nutrient concentrations remain high in the area.
  11. 11. • The best prevention of HABs is to reduce the amount nutrients that enter the water bodies. • The targets are excessive nutrient from point sources such as domestic sewage and industrial discharge and non-point sources such as runoff from agricultural activities. • The external sources, nutrients exist internally within the sediment layer and cycle through the water column periodically. • This could be achieved through preventive measures and remedial measures.
  12. 12. Preventions of HABs • Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTW) • Riparian Vegetation • Aeration • Circulation • Hypolimnetic Oxygenation • Alum, ferric salts, clay (Coagulation and Flocculation) • Barley Straw Treatments of HABs • Aeration • Hydrologic manipulations • Mechanical mixing (circulation) • Reservoir drawdown/ dessication • Surface skimming • Ultrasound • Algaecides • Coagulation • Flocculation • Barley straw • Hypolimnetic oxygenation • Floating artificial wetlands • Increasing resource competition
  13. 13. • Cultural eutrophication developed in order to fulfil the world food demand as the population of the world keeps increasing year by year. • Also due to urbanization that keeps developed in each country to catch up with the needs and demand of the people around the world. • Some aspect has been neglected because of the eagerness of human to developed new technologies in improvising the lifestyle and to stay in the so-called better world. • There is some factor that can’t avoid such as the monsoon season and the rainfall which are called natural constraints.
  14. 14. • Prevention is always better than cure thus, prevention is the best solution before a big disaster happened and the cost of the treatment is not small. • The big challenge is to change the attitude of people in searching for the solution. • We always take things around us for granted and choose the easiest and fastest solution that can give immediate results and benefits without considering the aftermath for an example the crop yield. • This kind of solution is always the disastrous method that will give bad impact our future. • When a catastrophe happens, there nothing we can help with and at that time our realization would be meant nothing, thus bring awareness as fast and to as many as we can are very crucial.

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