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Enzymes and their roles in the bioremediation

quickly analyse...just starting..bioremediation..tell me what I don't know..cheers!

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Enzymes and their roles in the bioremediation

  2. 2. Outline  Background  Bioremediation  Enzymes  Major enzymes used in bioremediation  Case Study  Advantages of bioremediation  Limitations of bioremediation  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. Background A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants are involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. Bioremediation is the use of living organism for the recovery or clean up of contaminated medium. Environment Atmosphere Earth Water Space Fig.1: contaminated medium
  4. 4. Bioremediation
  5. 5. Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate the conversion of substrates into products by providing favourable conditions that lower the activation energy of the reaction. They have active sites. They function based on their classification according to the E.C Number system.
  6. 6. Fig 2:Mechanism of enzyme action
  7. 7. Enzymes Used In Bioremediation (Contd) Microbialperoxidases Microbial oxidoreductases  Microbial Laccases Microbial Oxygenases Monooxygenases Microbial dioxygenases
  8. 8. Case Study of Enzymes Used in Bioremediation Very effective in the bioremediation of PAHs  LIPs catalyse reactions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide Lignin peroxidase obtained from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is effective against methylene blue and azure B dyes Lignin Peroxidase
  9. 9. Horseradish Peroxidase  HRP is a proxidase that is secreted by the root hairs of the horseradish plant  Catalyse oxidation of phenols, biphenols, anilines and benzidines etc.
  10. 10. Manganese Peroxidase MnP is a hydrogen peroxide dependent enzyme, but it can only oxidize organics when in the presence of Mn(Il). . hanism of MnP Figure 3: Mechanism of Manganese Peroxidase
  11. 11. Manganese Peroxidase(Contd.) MnP oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn(III), which acts as an obligatory oxidation intermediate for the oxidation of of various compounds. The Mn(IlI) ions migrate away from the enzyme and start the oxidation of the lignin and other compounds. compounds.
  12. 12. Advantages of Bioremediation It is relatively expensive No building needs to be dug up and removed The method has been used effectively on oil spills and clean ups in the past As long as there is toxic waste, the bacteria continues to feed on it.
  13. 13. Limitations of Bioremediation Bacteria direction difficult to control Lots of germs will be spread around Most people are concerned that these bacteria may be able to make people sick.  It is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable
  14. 14. Conclusion Bioremediation is a powerful tool to clean up contaminated sites. Regardless of which aspect is used, it offers a safer and more cost effective way to clean up contaminated sites. It’s advantages generally outnumber its disadvantages owing to the number of sites that have been cleaned up using this method and its increasing popularity.
  15. 15. References R. S. Peixoto, A. B. Vermelho, and A. S. Rosado; 2011; Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects; Volume 2011; 1-7.  Snehal S. Menhon slide share    41934065  l