Geosynthetics Applications in Civil Engineering; An
Introduction to value Engineering (VE) Technologies
Solutions that Las...
Introduction to Geosynthetics
Part I
ASTM (2006) D 4439 defines a geosynthetic as a
planar product manufactured from a pol...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geotextile Geonet Geocell Geogrids
Geocomposite Erosion Control Geosynthetics
GEOGRID TYPES
Different Types of Geogrids used for ground
Improvement:;; and
(a) Triaxial
(b) Biaxial (c) Uniaxial
New Fou...
Applications Of Geosynthetics
GROUND STABILIZATION/ IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION/ IMPROVEMENT….CNTD
PAVEMENTS: ROADS, PARKING BAYS, HARD STANDINGS
PAVEMENTS: RUNWAYS, APRONS & TAXIWAYS
HEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTS: PORTS AND HABOURS
PAVEMENTS: ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT
RAILWAYS
EROSION CONTROL
RETAINING, RE WALLS AND BRIDGE ABUTMENTS
BUILDING FOUNDATION IMPROVEMENTS
VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS
VALUE ENGINEERING
BENEFITS
 Construction cost-time savings
through the reduction of required
pavement material quantities...
Construction Time Savings Benefits
Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS
Description Quantity placed per day
[m3]
Area [m2] Layer thickness[m] Quantity in volume [m3] Ti...
VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS
Description Quantity placed
per day [m3]
Area [m2] Layer
thickness[m]
Quantity in
volume [m3]
Ti...
Construction Cost Savings Benefits
Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING
 The proposed road was crossing a 1.2km swampy stretch.
 The soils were peat with...
VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING
COST AS PER CONVENTIONAL DESIGN
DESCRIPTION UNITS LENGTH[m] WIDTH[m] DEPTH[m] QUANT...
VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING
COST AS PER THE GEOSYNTHETICS DESIGN
DESCRIPTION
UNI
TS
LENGT
H[m]
WIDTH
[m]
DEPTH
...
VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING
TRAFFIC BENEFIT RATIO (TBR)
 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑊18 = 𝑍 𝑅 × 𝑆0 + 9.36 × 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑆 𝑁 + 1 −
0.2 +
𝑙𝑜𝑔∆𝑃𝑆𝐼
2.7
0.4+
1094
𝑆 𝑁+1
5.19
+ 2.32 × 𝑙𝑜𝑔...
VERIFICATION OF TRAFFIC
BENEFIT RATIO (TBR) AND BASE
COURSE REDUCTION (BCR)
Determination of TBR and BCR based on Base Cou...
Example of Structural Benefits
Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
Comparison of Unreinforced and Reinforced UCS for
swampy BCS for Drilling Project of White Nile Oil in
Jonglei State, Sout...
NEAT BLACK COTTON SOIL
SAMPLES
Comparison of Unreinforced and
Reinforced UCS for swampy BCS for
Drilling Project of White ...
White Nile Oil in Jonglei State, Southern Sudan
Value Engineering Benefits-
Environmental Benefits
Subgrade Improvement – Reduction in Quantity
of Capping Layer
𝑇𝑆𝐺
𝑈𝐶𝑎𝑝
= 2253 × 𝑒−0.455×2
= 𝟗𝟎𝟔𝒎𝒎 𝑇𝑆𝐺
𝑈𝐶𝑎𝑝
= 2253 × 𝑒−0.45...
Projects in Kenya
PROJECT MATERIALS YEAR
1. Garsen Bridge
Gauff – China Roads and Bridges
Tensar GM Tube Gabions 1987
2. G...
Projects in Uganda
PROJECT MATERIALS YEAR
1. Kabale – Katuna Road
Typsa O’Sullivan & Graham – Stirling
Slip Failure Recons...
Projects in East and Central Africa than have utilized Geosynthetics
 Timboroa – Eldoret Road [1993]
 Webuye – Malaba Ro...
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Geosynthetics Applications in Civil Engineering by Sirmoi_Geosynthetics EA Ltd

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Geosynthetics Applications in Civil Engineering by Sirmoi_Geosynthetics EA Ltd

  1. 1. Geosynthetics Applications in Civil Engineering; An Introduction to value Engineering (VE) Technologies Solutions that Last GEOSYNTHETICS EAST AFRICA Ltd TEXTILE AND LEATHER CONFERENCE 2013 ORGANIZED BY KENYA BUREAU OF STANDARDS VENUE :BOMA HOTEL DATES: Thursday, 29th August 2013 Presentation: Sirmoi Wekesa Technical Director Geosynthetics EA Ltd
  2. 2. Introduction to Geosynthetics Part I ASTM (2006) D 4439 defines a geosynthetic as a planar product manufactured from a polymeric material used with soil, rock, earth, or other geotechnical-related material as an integral part of a civil engineering project, structure, or system. A number of geosynthetics are available, including geotextiles, geogrids, geomembranes, geonets, geomeshes, geowebs, and geocomposites.
  3. 3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS Geotextile Geonet Geocell Geogrids Geocomposite Erosion Control Geosynthetics
  4. 4. GEOGRID TYPES Different Types of Geogrids used for ground Improvement:;; and (a) Triaxial (b) Biaxial (c) Uniaxial New Four-axial New Quaxial
  5. 5. Applications Of Geosynthetics
  6. 6. GROUND STABILIZATION/ IMPROVEMENT
  7. 7. GROUND STABILIZATION/ IMPROVEMENT….CNTD
  8. 8. PAVEMENTS: ROADS, PARKING BAYS, HARD STANDINGS
  9. 9. PAVEMENTS: RUNWAYS, APRONS & TAXIWAYS
  10. 10. HEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTS: PORTS AND HABOURS
  11. 11. PAVEMENTS: ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT
  12. 12. RAILWAYS
  13. 13. EROSION CONTROL
  14. 14. RETAINING, RE WALLS AND BRIDGE ABUTMENTS
  15. 15. BUILDING FOUNDATION IMPROVEMENTS
  16. 16. VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS
  17. 17. VALUE ENGINEERING BENEFITS  Construction cost-time savings through the reduction of required pavement material quantities, whilst maintaining enhanced structural performance.  Elongated pavement structural life – span particularly as a result of incorporating the filtration/separation geotextile.  Reduction in maintenance requirements as a result of enhanced structural performance.  Environmental conservation - mainly due to reduction in material quantities and erosion control. Appropriate application of geosynthetics can realize the following benefits.
  18. 18. Construction Time Savings Benefits Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
  19. 19. VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS Description Quantity placed per day [m3] Area [m2] Layer thickness[m] Quantity in volume [m3] Time taken in Days [in weeks] Import place and compact ground stabilization material [cement] 300 311,550 0.2 62,310 200 days [28weeks] Import place and compact granular material for sub-base 193 311,550 0.4 124,620 646 days [92 weeks] Excavation to spoil of poor quality material 1000 51,031 1.5 76,546.50 77 days [11 weeks] Import, place and compact capping layer or backfill material 578 51,031 2.0 102,062 177 days [25 weeks] TOTAL DURATION TAKEN TO CONSTRUCT THE PAVEMENT* 156 weeks
  20. 20. VALUE ENGINEERED BENEFITS Description Quantity placed per day [m3] Area [m2] Layer thickness[m] Quantity in volume [m3] Time taken in Days [in weeks] Import place and compact granular material for sub-base 193 311,550 0.3 93,465 484 days [69 weeks] Top Soil stripping and disposal or grading* 680 51,031 0.15 7,654.65 12 days [2 weeks] TOTAL DURATION TAKEN TO CONSTRUCT THE PAVEMENT* 71 weeks *This might not be necessary especially if the water table is very high. Grading normally helps to create the platform for grid placement. • Time saved is approximately 50%.
  21. 21. Construction Cost Savings Benefits Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
  22. 22. VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING  The proposed road was crossing a 1.2km swampy stretch.  The soils were peat with low bearing capacities with CBRs of about 0.5%.  The design assumed the peat thickness to be 1.0m before getting on to hard ground.  The actual thickness was deeper than 1.0m; instead it went beyond 3m.  The contractor wanted to finish the section before the rains started.
  23. 23. VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING COST AS PER CONVENTIONAL DESIGN DESCRIPTION UNITS LENGTH[m] WIDTH[m] DEPTH[m] QUANTITY RATE TOTAL Excavate 1m thick to spoil m3 1200 15 1 18000 $ 5.33 $ 96,000.00 Fill 1m thick of rock m3 1200 15 1 18000 $ 16.00 $ 288,000.00 TOTAL AMOUNT $ 384,000.00
  24. 24. VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING COST AS PER THE GEOSYNTHETICS DESIGN DESCRIPTION UNI TS LENGT H[m] WIDTH [m] DEPTH [m] QITY RATE TOTAL Tensar TX 170 Geogrids [Supply and Placement] m2 1200 15 - 18000 $ 13.26 $ 238,653.60 TOTAL AMOUNT AS PER THE TENSAR PROPOSAL $ 238,653.60 AMOUNT SAVED $ 145,346.40 PERCENTAGE OF AMOUNT SAVED [%] 37.85 %
  25. 25. VE BENEFITS – ROAD OVER SWAMP CROSSING
  26. 26. TRAFFIC BENEFIT RATIO (TBR)  𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑊18 = 𝑍 𝑅 × 𝑆0 + 9.36 × 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑆 𝑁 + 1 − 0.2 + 𝑙𝑜𝑔∆𝑃𝑆𝐼 2.7 0.4+ 1094 𝑆 𝑁+1 5.19 + 2.32 × 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑀 𝑅 − 8.07  𝑊18 𝑈 = 𝟏𝟏𝟒𝟎𝟖𝟖 𝑬𝑺𝑨𝑳 𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒔  𝑊18 𝑠/𝑟 = 𝟔𝟔𝟖𝟎𝟑𝟔𝟐 𝑬𝑺𝑨𝑳 𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒔  𝑇𝐵𝑅 = 𝑁 𝑠/𝑟 25𝑚𝑚 𝑁 𝑈 25𝑚𝑚 = 𝟓𝟖. 𝟓𝟔  𝑊18 𝑟𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑑 = 𝑇𝐵𝑅 × 𝑊18 𝑢𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑑 = 𝟔𝟔𝟖𝟎𝟗𝟗𝟑 𝑬𝑺𝑨𝑳 𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒔 The AASHTO method , which considers the pavement as a multi-layer elastic system with an overall structural number (SN) that reflects the total pavement thickness and its resiliency to repeated traffic loading, is employed.
  27. 27. VERIFICATION OF TRAFFIC BENEFIT RATIO (TBR) AND BASE COURSE REDUCTION (BCR) Determination of TBR and BCR based on Base Course remaining life structural thickness 0 250 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 RemainingLifeBaseCourseStructural Thickness,fscXTD 2 No. ESAL Load Cycles (Traffic Passes) X106 Remaining Life Base Course Structural Thickness Thickness Structural Depreciation Curves Terminal Thickness Unreinforced Unreinforced EXTRAPOLATED Curve 125mm 102.0mm 200mm Scenario • No. filtrations/separation/reinforcement geosynthetics in unreinforced • Loss in base course structural thickness predominantly due to black cotton soil ingression • Reinforced pavement structure includes geotextile for filtration/separation and stress mobilization of black cotton soil 152mm Legend • = Remainig Life Layer Coefficient Ratio • = Design Thickness • = Reinforced Design Thickness • = Unreinforced Design Thickness • = Reinforced Structural Capacity Factor • = Unreinforced Structural Capacity Factor Premature FAILURE due to BCS subgrade Geosynthetics Reinforced
  28. 28. Example of Structural Benefits Enhanced Geotechnical Engineering Properties
  29. 29. Comparison of Unreinforced and Reinforced UCS for swampy BCS for Drilling Project of White Nile Oil in Jonglei State, Southern Sudan No. Unreinforced [Mpa] Reinforced [Mpa] Description % Increase Remarks 1 1.45 No soil reinforcement 2 1.45 2.1 Geogrid SS20G, 1/3H 45 >30<100 3 1.45 2.15 Geogrid SS20G, 1/5H 48 >30<100 4 1.45 2.2 Double Geogrid SS20G, 1/3H, 2/3H 52 >30<100 5 1.45 1.55 Mat 1/3H 7 >30<100 6 1.45 1.85 Mat 1/5H 28 ≈30<100 7 1.45 2.1 Double Mat 1/3H, 1/5H 45 >30<100
  30. 30. NEAT BLACK COTTON SOIL SAMPLES Comparison of Unreinforced and Reinforced UCS for swampy BCS for Drilling Project of White Nile Oil in Jonglei State, Southern Sudan
  31. 31. White Nile Oil in Jonglei State, Southern Sudan
  32. 32. Value Engineering Benefits- Environmental Benefits
  33. 33. Subgrade Improvement – Reduction in Quantity of Capping Layer 𝑇𝑆𝐺 𝑈𝐶𝑎𝑝 = 2253 × 𝑒−0.455×2 = 𝟗𝟎𝟔𝒎𝒎 𝑇𝑆𝐺 𝑈𝐶𝑎𝑝 = 2253 × 𝑒−0.455×9 = 𝟑𝟕. 𝟓𝒎𝒎 Capping Layer With Geosynthetic reinforcementWithout Geosynthetic Reinforcement
  34. 34. Projects in Kenya PROJECT MATERIALS YEAR 1. Garsen Bridge Gauff – China Roads and Bridges Tensar GM Tube Gabions 1987 2. Garsen / Lamu Junction Gauff Asphalt Reinforcement Experimental Tensar AR1 grids 1987 3. Aberdares – Nairobi Pipeline Horward Humphreys – Sogea Soil Erosion Control Tensar Mat 1989 4. Thika – Makutano Gibbs – TM AM Swamp Crossing Reinforcement Tensar SS2 Biaxial Geogrids 1990 5. Westlands – Limuru Dual Carriageway Gauff – Federecci Embankment Reinforcement Tensar SS2 Biaxial Geogrids 1991 6. Westlands – Limuru Dual Carriageway Gauff – Federecci Asphalt Reinforcement Tensar AR1 Geogrids 1992 7. Eldoret – Burnt Forest Reconstruction Gauff - Strabag Swamp Crossing Reinforcement Tensar SS2 Biaxial Geogrids 1993 8. Webuye – Malaba Reconstruction Nicholas O’Dwyer – Federecci Swamp Crossing Reinforcement Tensar SS2 Biaxial Geogrids 1993 9. Baricho – Mombasa Access Pipeline Rd Gauff – Sogea River Crossing Embankment Tensar SS2 1998 10. Garsen – Lamu Road Gauff – China Road and Bridge Embankment Reinforcement Tensar SS30-SS40 and 55RE 2003 11. Meru – Mikinduri – Maua Road [Phase 1] KeRRA – H-Young & Co EA Slope Protection & Erosion Control Tensar T-mat 400 2010 12. Lake Turkana BGP Marine Seismic Project BGP _ Tullow Oil Company Construction of sand access roads and heavily loaded plat forms – Tensar TriAx TX 160 2012
  35. 35. Projects in Uganda PROJECT MATERIALS YEAR 1. Kabale – Katuna Road Typsa O’Sullivan & Graham – Stirling Slip Failure Reconstruction with Tensar Geocell Mattress 1999 2. Kabale – Katuna Road Typsa O’Sullivan & Graham – Stirling Slip Reinforcement wrap around Tensar RE uniaxial Geogrid 2000 3. Kampala – Masaks Road Stirling Swamp Crossing Embankment Tensar SS20 Biaxial Geogrid 2000 4. Mbarara – Ibanda Road ACE Engineers - Energoprojekt Embankment Failure Reconstruction Tensar SS20 Biaxial Geogrid 2000 5. Malaba – Bugiri Road Gauff - Strabag Swamp Crossing Reinforcement Tensar SS2 Biaxial Geogrids 2000 6. Fort Portal – Kyejojo Road ACE Engineers - Energoprojekt Embankment Failure Reconstruction Tensar 80RE 2001 7. Kabala Water Project Bella Consult - Spencon Tensar SS30 2001 8. Semliki Oil Drilling BMS Mineral Services Tensar SS30 2002 9. Bugiri – Jinja Road Gauff – Basil Embankment Widening over Black Cotton Soil Tensar SS20Biaxial Geogrid 2004 10. Kampala Relief Road BCEOM - Salini Embankment Foundation Reinforcement over Swamps Tensar SS20Biaxial Geogrid 2005 11. Kampala Ring Road Salini Swamp Crossing reinforcement Tensar TriAx TX 160 Geogrid 2010
  36. 36. Projects in East and Central Africa than have utilized Geosynthetics  Timboroa – Eldoret Road [1993]  Webuye – Malaba Road [1993]  Thika – Makutano Road [1990]  Westlands – Limuru Dual Carriageway [1992]  Garsen – Lamu Road [2003]  Meru – Mikinduri Road [2010]  Isiolo Airport [2011]  Tullow Oil – Loading Platform for Oil rigs and Access Roads in Lake Turkana [2012]  Kabale – Katuna Road [1999]  Mbarara – Ibanda Road [2000]  Malaba – Bugiri Road [2000]  Kampala Relief Road [2005]  Bugiri – Jinja Road [2004] THANK YOU BY SIRMOI WEKESA Technical Director and Civil Engineer, GEOSYNTHETICS EA LTD Email: sirmoi@geosyntheticsea.com

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