Triangle of conflictsWater Energy Environment Food
Land type Area Natural Fuel and yield % area of (mio km2) Productivity (tons per ha / corresponding (tons of carbon GJ per ha) ecosystem fixed per hectare required to and year) cover 2030 demand Tropical and 10.5 10.7 Palmoil 110%!!! subtropical biodiesel evergreen forest (5 / 189) Tropical and 4.7 7.67 Jatropha 765%!! Subtropical Dry biodiesel Forest (1.5 / 56.7 ) Tropical Savanna, 6.7 6.65 Caneethanol 270 %!! Woodland (4.34 / 116) Mid lattitude 14 5.30 Miscanthus 95 %!! forests, abandoned cellulosic croplands ethanol* (4.4 / 120) Warm 33 1 – 3.50 Algaebiodiesel 5.4 – 8.2 % Shrubland/grassla (20 / 756) nd or desertTable 1 - Comparison of land use impact of various biofuel crops to the area of suitableecosystems available assuming full coverage of 2030 projected liquid fuel demand of 210exajoules (1 Exajoule is 1 billion gigajoules).*50% of cellulosic biomass is deduced for process energy!
Example 1: Water Does not include floodwater runoff from towns, roads or agriculture that require treatment!800 - 1600 m 3 evaporation per ton biodiesel,2030 demand for liquid fuels would be 5.55 billion tons5.55 bln times 1600 = 8800 billion m3Recovery of 25% of projected water demand in the form ofwaste, drainage water would suffice to produce 20% ofprojected global fuel demand.
90% of developing World’sWater untreated!Conventional treatment costsenergy, dissipates nitrogen!Acting now for establishinginfrastructure!!
Sea Water (Or Fossil Ground Water): it’s not that simple!For 4.5% Salinity:• 75 tons biomass (25 GJ per ton) per year, pumping of 90000 m3 required;• 1.50 GJ of pumping energy per ton of biomass• 6% for maintaining 4.5% salinity at 100 m elevation;• ca 50% recoverable as hydroelectricity, ideal for storage of surplus solar or wind energy!• Fossil electricity prohibitive due to low efficiency
Salt Tolerance of Nannochloropsis sp 140 Con (2.7 % NaCl) 35 1.3% Na cl 120 4% Na cl 30 100 Chl (mg/l) Chl (mg/l) 25 80 20 60 Control 40 1.3% Nacl 15 4% Nacl 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time(days ) 0 2 4 6 Time (days) 8 10 8 6 5 6 DW (mg/ml) 4 DW(mg/ml) Con (2.7 % Na Cl) 4 3 1.3% Na cl C ontrol 4% Na cl 1.3% N acl 2 2 4% N acl 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time(days ) Time (days )Growth of Nannochloropsis under control Growth of Nannochloropsis under nitrogenconditions at 3 different salt concentrations stress at 3 different salt concentrationsdetermined as chlorophyll concentration determined as chlorophyll concentration(top) or dryweight (bottom) (top) or dryweight (bottom)
Land Elevation! Climate 100 m elevation costs 3% of energy produced for pumping! 250000 km2 250000 km2 250000 km2 250000 km 2Population 250000 km 2 Below 200 m
Examples 2: NutrientsNot a burden, a blessing in algal sustainability assessments!http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aquatic_Dead_Zones.jpg
Pollution by agriculture --Integrated resource management Pollution by agriculture Integrated resource managementIsrael: Cattle contributes 35 % of total water pollutionFAO: Livestock farming is responsible for 18 % of global greenhouse gas emissions
Nutrient Run-Off and Dead ZonesMany areas around the world are suffering from the problem of eutrophication. The Gulfof Mexico, Caspian Sea, Bering Sea and Arabian Sea. The Gulf of Mexico already has ahuge Dead Zone which the scientists warn could expand further.Phytoplankton concentration along the North American CoastlineEfficient Use Of FertilizersMost fertilizers contain Phosphorus and Nitrogen on which these algae thrive hence it isthat we use fertilizers that a) are biodegradable and b) contain lesser quantities of theseelements. Also the farmers need to irrigate their lands in a scientific manner. Each croprequires a definite amount of water to give the best yield hence the farmers shouldn’tover-irrigate their lands since it could lead to more voluminous runoffs.
Nitrogen Load Mississippi41% of Continental US water discharge!35% of Continental US area!
Modern Farming Produces Enormous Nitrogen Surpluses 200 mio hectares of European farmland times 50 kg recoverable excess: 10 million tons of nitrogen per year!
Immediately ApplicableIntegrated Biological Systems for Exploitation of Humid Agro-Industrial Waste Resources IBSEHAWR - FP7 Useful Waste
PURPOSE: GHG NEGATIVEENERGY NEUTRAL PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
Biological resource recovery from agro-industrial waste: Several Project Ideas developed, Four to five project ideas with implementation details! NEW CALLS REQUIRED! Algal Pond: Biogas Reactor Biomass for Fodder or Energy Biogas Nutrients CO2 Gas Turbine Water Flow Constructed Wetland: Agro-Industrial Biomass for Fodder or Energy Enterprise
Full System Integration (Project ALTEC): The Challenge – Co-location of Resources The Answer – Integrated Infrastructure Development Electricity, Process Heat Biogas Fertilizer Fermentation residues Biogas plant O2 Algae Residues Biomass or Fossil CO2 Algae Oil dehydration extraction Power plant Algae Algae oil Effluent Nutrients Bioethanol plant Biodiesel plantCane Ethanol:Ca 80% of biomass as CO2! Waste Water Urban Treatment Plant community Petrol stationAgain Brazil!
Integrated Exploitation of Agro-Industrial Emissions More Favorable Economic and Environmental Balance!
Resource Recovery from Landfill Effluent 17-4before 0.30 0.25 Control 0.20 Pond1 OD Pond2 0.15 Pond3 0.10 Pond4 0.05 0.00 250 300 350 400 450 500 Degradation of Recalcitrant Toxic Organics nm Total N and P 1600 1400 1200 1000 ppm 800 600 400 200 0 N (ppm) Effluent Pond 1 Pond 2 Pond 3 P (ppm)Identification of Novel Interesting Algal Species 95% Nitrogen Recovery as Struvite (pond 1) and biomass (ponds 2 and 3), load reduction from 1400 ppm to ca 70 ppm
Cultivation of Scenedesmus on BiogasRecover 10 from waste 5 for reuse Effluent = Recover 10+5=15 available, 7.5 for reuse Growth of Scenedesmus in mBG11 or ConditionnedRecover 10 +7.5 Biogas Effluent = 17.5 availabe 8.75 for reuse Recover 10 + 1.4 mBG11 d ry w eig h t (m g /m l8.75 = 18.75, 9.4 1.2 Biogas effluent for reuse 1 Recover 10 0.8 10, Recover 8 18, recover 9 0.6 19, recover 9.5 0.4 19.5 0.2 10 0 11 +8 0 2 4 6 8 12+ 9.5 13+10.75 days 14+ 12 15+ 13 16+14 A local Scenedesmus strain displays similar maximal growth rates in mBG11 as in N- and other conditioned 1:20 diluted biogas effluent. No bacterial or other contaminations were nutrient pool observed in the effluent during 10 days of cultivation, resources were exhausted after tripled in 30 years 6 days (picture right).
Implications on LCA A Scientists ViewMajor Reassessments Required for Integrated Production Systems: Abiotic Depletion (water, nutrients, fossil fuels) can be negative in algae if nutrients and water are recovered from waste materials etc! Eutrophication: can be negative if wastewater is treated and effluent is adequately polished! GWP: can be reduced if methane and N2O emissions from organic waste and sludge are reduced! Land (and other impacts): may be reduced if protein production is incorporated (integrated fuel-food LCA)! Land is not land: must be corrected for land value, land scarcity, productivity and biodiversity potentials, economic and environmental value!
Waste Water in – Treated Water out!! Algal Biodiesel Water Footprint Numbers are Arbitrary! Algal Biodiesel Eutrophication - Ecotoxicity
Nitrogen Recovered - Exported as fertilizer Algal Biodiesel
Exploitation of Algal Blooms Chlorophyll-a distribution
Integrated Remediation Approach Lake Nutrient Rich Harvest and Dry Algae Mat and Water- Lake Water Hyacinth 15000 tons/year Nutrient Green Depleted Algae Water CO2 Ponds Gasification Plant Algae Suspension Tilapia Pond Electricity: 4 MW Heat: 6 MWBiochar –Soil Enrichment – Carbon Sequestration Fish
Integrated Carbon Capture – CostWaste Water Treatment – AlgalBiomass Arawa: 6 blnResource Mapping Algal Cultivation for Returns? Waste water treatment – Energy Red Sea-Dead Sea Channel Waste Water + CO2 from Aqaba Power Plant Red sea-Deadsea 2 • 1 Mio Inhabitants billion m3 per year • 200000 Cattle and Livestock pumped, half used for • Intensive Agriculture-Drainage Water algae, 2/3 recovered (loss 450 mio cubes) (or • About 30000 t N / 3000 t P per year supplemented by waste • 1 mio tons Algae at 3% N and drainage waters): • Water required 450 mio cubes, 15 cubes/sec • 300000 tons oil – 10% of annual consumption • Land required: 150 km2
Not a Task for 3-Men StartupsA Question of National Infrastructure(with corresponding economic rules!)
All That’s Required: VISIONCost $ 20 bln, return maybe in 50 years,But significant socioeconomic and environmental impact