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Presentation ph d

  1. 1. Innovative fiber opticsensors: from theory toapplications Daniele Tosi PhD presentation Electronics Engineering 2008-2009
  2. 2. Overview Sensor networks market Optical fiber sensors Grating sensors Low-cost solutions Principles Results Processing PotentialDaniele Tosi, daniele.tosi@polito.it
  3. 3. Focus Sensor for measurement of mechanical and physical parameters • Direct: strain, vibrations, temperature, ... • Indirect: pressure, rotation, resonance, modes, level, ... Network Applications Cost controlDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  4. 4. Near future scenario Wireless Sensor Networks VS Fiber Optic SensorsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  5. 5. Market size $!!" #!!" Revenues (M$/year) +,-" !!!" ./," &!!" %!!" $!!" #!!" !" #!!(" #!!%" #!!)" #!!&" #!!*" #!!" #!"Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  6. 6. *!"# )!"# Market growth Market size (!"# $!!" !"# Wireless &!"# #!!" Global market Revenues (M$/year) %!"# +,-" $!"# !!!" ./," Optic !"# &!!" !)# !*# !+# !,# $!# $$# %!!" $!!" #!!" !" #!!(" #!!%" #!!)" #!!&" #!!*" #!!" #!"Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  7. 7. Market 49% Revenues 51% size 30% 70% $!!" WSN #!!" FOS 2008 2011 Revenues (M$/year) +,-" 5% !!!" 10% ./," &!!" # units 90% 95% %!!" $!!" #!!" !" #!!(" #!!%" #!!)" #!!&" #!!*" #!!" #!"Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  8. 8. Market size $!!" #!!" $6.2B $60 +,-"B Revenues (M$/year) !!!" ./," $320M &!!" $335M Telecom Sensors Wi-fi %!!" Sensors $!!" #!!" !" #!!(" #!!%" #!!)" #!!&" #!!*" #!!" #!"Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  9. 9. Near future scenario H FOS Cost WSN L Gen. Target Spec.Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  10. 10. Differentiation FOS WSN Size ∅ <1mm 6x4x3 cm Fiber immune to Active and passive Immunity EMI interference Distrib. + multiplex Punctual Distribution + punctual Slow multiplex 0.2 dB/km WiLD < 1km Attenuation Remote sensing Small cover areaDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  11. 11. FOS Sensitivity Interferometry 10 pm Doppler/TOF 1 nm Raman/Brillouin100 nm Active fibers 10 µm CCD/imaging 1 mm POF $100 $1k $10k $100k $1M CostDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  12. 12. FOS Sensitivity Interferometry 10 pm Doppler/TOF 28% 1 nm Raman/Brillouin FBG100 nm Research papers Active fibers 10 µm CCD/imaging 1 mm POF 42% $100 $1k $10k $100k $1M Cost RevenuesDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  13. 13. FBG principles FBG ➙ refractive index modulation inside the core of an optical fiber - wavelength/selectiveDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  14. 14. FBG principles Modulation period sensitive to: - mechanical strain - thermal expansion Λ Λ Strain TemperatureDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  15. 15. FBG principles Peak wavelength (nm) Strain (με) ΔL/L { 1 pm/µε 10 pm/°CDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  16. 16. FBG principles Peak wavelength (nm) ➙ Temperature compensation Strain (με) ΔL/L { 1 pm/µε 10 pm/°CDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  17. 17. FBG sensors Receiver Source ? FBG arrays Coupling ...Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  18. 18. FBG sensors Receiver Source ? FBG arrays Coupling ...Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  19. 19. FBG sensors Receiver Source ? FBG arrays Coupling ...Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  20. 20. FBG sensors Receiver Source ? FBG arrays Coupling ...Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  21. 21. Intensity detection Receiver Source FBG arrays Coupling ...Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  22. 22. FBG sensors Sensitivity Interferometry <<1nm Optical spectrum Active fibers 1nm Scanning filter FBG analyzer 100nm Intensity based Cost $1k $10k $100k $1MDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  23. 23. FBG sensors Sensitivity Interferometry <<1nm Optical spectrum Active fibers 1nm Scanning filter FBG analyzer 100nm Intensity based Cost $1k $10k $100k $1MDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  24. 24. Applications • performance • environment • immunity • safety • invasivenessDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  25. 25. Applications • performance • environment • immunity • safety • invasivenessDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  26. 26. Applications • performance • environment • immunity • safety • invasivenessDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  27. 27. Applications • performance • environment • immunity • safety • invasivenessDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  28. 28. Applications • performance • environment • immunity • safety • invasivenessDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  29. 29. Applications 2% 2% Remote structures 3% 7% Smart structures Security 13% 35% Industrial process Seismic Aerospace 15% Military 22% MedicalDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  30. 30. FBG sensors H FOS Cost WSN L Gen. Target Spec.Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  31. 31. Matched FBGs Sensing Fixed ∫(·) ➥ power meter Intensity modulationDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  32. 32. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  33. 33. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  34. 34. Matched FBGs 320 µε 0.18 mV/µεDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  35. 35. Matched laserDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  36. 36. Matched laserDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  37. 37. Matched laser BackreflectionDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  38. 38. Matched laser 6 5 1 mV/µε Voltage (V) 4 3 10 mV/µε 2 60µε 1 -150 -50 50 150 StrainDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  39. 39. FBGA Commercial FBGADaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  40. 40. Performances M. FBGs M. Laser FBGA Sensitivity ✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ Resolution ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ Range ✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓✓ # Sensors ✓✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ Stability ✓✓✓ ✓ ✓✓✓✓✓Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  41. 41. Performances M. FBGs M. Laser FBGA Sensitivity ✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ Resolution ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ Range ✓✓✓✓ ✓✓✓ ✓✓ # Sensors ✓✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓ Dynamic Stability ✓✓✓ ✓ ✓✓✓✓✓Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it Static
  42. 42. Performances Perform. Optical Min SNR -10 dB Sensitivity 800 nε RMSE 2.2 µε Overhead 0%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  43. 43. Signal processing Sensitivity Interferometry <<1nm Optical spectrum Active fibers 1nm SP Scanning filter FBG analyzer 100nm Intensity based Cost $1k $10k $100k $1MDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  44. 44. Signal processing Noise properties - FBG backreflection Autocorrelation(a.u.) PSD (dB) f/3kHz Time(s) με D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Self-mixing based interrogation techniques for high-Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it reflectivity fibre Bragg grating sensors”, Electronic Letters, vol. 44, 2008.
  45. 45. Signal processing Adaptive filter - RLS 40 taps Training Acquired Reference FilteredDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  46. 46. Signal processing Adaptive filter - RLS 40 taps Noise filtering Acquired Reference Filtered 14 dBDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  47. 47. Signal processing Capon power spectral density estimator J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis”, Proc. IEEE, vol. 57, 1969. FFT Param. Capon SNR -10 dB <-40 dB -25 dB Resolution 1/N ~<1/N Unlimited Properties None Required AdaptiveDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  48. 48. Signal processing Capon power spectral density estimator J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis”, Proc. IEEE, vol. 57, 1969. FFT Param. Capon SNR -10 dB <-40 dB -25 dB Resolution 1/N ~<1/N Unlimited Properties None Required 15 dB AdaptiveDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  49. 49. Performances Perform. Optical Optical + SP Min SNR -10 dB -39 dB Sensitivity 800 nε 5.6 nε RMSE 2.2 µε 0.4 µε Overhead 0% <1%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  50. 50. Setup Circuit DAQ Strain Climatic chamberDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  51. 51. SetupDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  52. 52. Temperature Climatic chamber OutdoorDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  53. 53. Temperature Climatic chamber Outdoor ➙ Temperature compensationDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  54. 54. Vibrations Aluminum barDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  55. 55. Vibrations FBG POF sensor 13 dB Surface wallDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  56. 56. Vibrations Wooden board 27.1 HzDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  57. 57. Setup Matlab sound WVF generator Acquisition DAQ card FBGDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it Laser/TEC
  58. 58. Setup Speaker Receiver FBGDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  59. 59. VoiceDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  60. 60. Voice recognition FBG InputDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  61. 61. Voice recognition Cepstrum ➙ FFT[Capon(voice)]Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  62. 62. Metronome 92 bpm 112 bpm 144 bpm www. metronomeonline.comDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  63. 63. Heartbeat 69.9bpm Criticalities: - FBG positioning - signal processingDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  64. 64. Potential 2% 2% Remote structures 3% 7% Smart structures Security 13% 35% Industrial process Seismic Aerospace 15% Military 22% MedicalDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  65. 65. Potential 2% Smart structures 2% Distributed7% sensor networks 3% Few sensing points, repeated 13% 35% 15% 22%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  66. 66. Potential 2% Remote structures 2% 3% 7% Remote sensing 35% 13% Lower cost solutions 15% 22%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  67. 67. Potential 2% Medical equipment 2% 3% 7% 13% 35% Increase smartness capability 15% Replacement / redundancy 22%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  68. 68. Potential 2% 3% 2% 7% 13% 35% Niche applications in adjacent fields 15% 22%Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  69. 69. Conclusion • Fiber optic sensors market: trends and opportunities • Applications range and requirements • The proposed solutions - low cost FBG sensors • The effect of signal processing • Experimental results and potential developmentsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  70. 70. References (1) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Dynamic strain measurement system with fiber Bragg gratings and noise mitigation techniques”, Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 20, 2009. (2) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “A low-cost fiber Bragg grating vibro-acoustic sensor for voice and heartbeat detection”, Applied Optics, vol. 47, 2008. (3) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Self-mixing based interrogation techniques for high-reflectivity fibre Bragg grating sensors”, Electronic Letters, vol. 44, 2008. (4) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Broadband source-based interrogation scheme of fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural health monitoring”, Key Engineering Materials, vol. 347, 2007. (5) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Optical microphone with fiber Bragg gratings and signal processing techniques”, Proc. SPIE, vol. 7098, 2008. (6) D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Low-cost fiber Bragg grating-based static and dynamic strain system for structural monitoring”, Proc. SPIE, vol. 7098, 2008.Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  71. 71. References (7) Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors”, Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 8, 1997. (8) A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Artech House, 1999. (9) W. W. Morey, “Distributed fibre grating sensors”, Proc. OFS Conference, 1997 (10) F. A. Bezombes, M. J. Lalor, D. R. Burton, “Contact microphone using optical fibre Bragg grating technology”, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 76, 2007. (11) A. Zaknich, Principles of Adaptive Filters and Self-Learning Systems, Springer, 2000. (12) J. Capon, “High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis”, Proc. IEEE, vol. 57, 1969. (13) D. B. Huff, M. S. Lebby, “Fiber optic sensing technology: emerging markets and trends”, Proc. SPIE, vol. 6619, 2007. (14) www.smartech.ch (15) www.bayspec.com (16) www.xbow.comDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  72. 72. Acknowledgments Guido Perrone Barry Posner Massimo Olivero Kevin Holmes Rena to Orta Nick Kurns Alb erto Vallan Terri Griffith Ivo Mo ntrosset Mary Furlong rancesco Profumo F accone Claudio M +o thers... John Canning Gaetano Pelli Mattias Aslund cano Antonio Strum Barbara Pizze ia Kevin Cook lla Silvio Abrate Maria Grazia Mike Stevenson Quieti Julia Gillard Tracy Harris Armen Berjikly Sebastian Sabogal Jake WallDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  73. 73. EndThank you for your interest
  74. 74. Spectral responseDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  75. 75. Matched laserDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  76. 76. Signal processing Data modelling RMSE reconstruction: 11.4με ➙ 0.32με (6 iterations) 15 dB D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Dynamic strain measurement system with fiber BraggDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it gratings and noise mitigation techniques”, Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 20, 2009.
  77. 77. FBG inscriptionDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  78. 78. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  79. 79. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  80. 80. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  81. 81. Matched FBGsDaniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  82. 82. Matched FBGs ∫(·)Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it
  83. 83. Matched FBGs Power(strain) ∫(·)Daniele Tosi - daniele.tosi@polito.it

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