A p blication of e.Republic publication e.Repu c p January/February 2011 T H E FA C E O FTERROR DOMESTIC THREATS HAVE FORCED MESTIC LAW ENFORCEMENT TO THE ‘HOME GAME’ inside: Are we underestimating the cyber-threat?Issue 1 — Vol. 6 The emergency manager with multiple hats.
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ON THE COVER Contents 28 The Face of Terror The localized face of terrorism has forced law enforcement to the ‘home game.’ FEATURES 22 The Looming Cyber-Threat Underestimating the cyber-threat to our nation’s critical infrastructure would prove perilous. 34 Donning Multiple Hats Should the role of emergency manager be a full-time job or can the duties be shared? DEPARTMENTS 38 PUBLIC SAFETY AND SECURITY Demystify the Message Understanding social science research on emergency warnings is key to developing alert and warning plans that grab the public’s attention. 42 DISASTER RECOVERY Recovery Doesn’t Just Happen Most communities lack disaster recovery planning experience, but examples of effective efforts provide lessons learned and help create best practices. 44 TRAINING AND EDUCATION ‘Prepared not Scared’ A partnership between the Girl Scouts of the USA and federal agencies seeks to help establish a culture of preparedness. iSTOCKPHOTO.COM4
Reader Feedback personnel and other emergency respond- per attack does happen, those will be a hot commodity, ers involved in distributing countermea- and I wouldn’t put it past opportunistic criminals to sures should be offered the anthrax vaccine sur see the benefit of acquiring a stockpile of antibiotics.” beforehand since personal protective equip- bef — Zach Falb ment (PPE) is not foolproof. Have the USPS me workers volunteering in these distribution wo Enhancing Rail Security plans been informed that six out of nine pla An online comment in response to the November/ HAZMAT experts became infected at the HA December 2010 article Safeguarding the Rails points Hart Senate Office Building attack in 2001 Ha out an additional method for augmenting railroad despite using PPE? Do these USPS person- de security. nel understand that the anthrax vaccine is ne available and when given before exposure/ av “One group which should not be overlooked is infection, the vaccine is the best protection against the legion of rail fans across the country; not only both antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive do these people often have detailed knowledge ofLetter Carrier Safety anthrax? I wonder if the USPS volunteers under- rail systems, they’re also frequently indulging in In response to the cover story, Marshaling the stand the risks involved in participating as couri- their hobby of train watching. As such they’re aPostal Service, in the November/December 2010 ers of antibiotics without being first immunized. perfect force multiplier for enhancing security.issue, online readers discussed the possible health and Incidentally about half a million doses of Strate- Some railroads have already created ‘rail fan secu-safety issues for the letter carriers involved in distrib- gic National Stockpile anthrax vaccine is being rity’ programs, actively recruiting rail fans and giv-uting medical countermeasures following a biological destroyed each month. All this begs the question: ing them an 800 number to call in the event theyattack involving anthrax on a metropolitan area. Why not proactively vaccinate those responding to see something suspicious, or even something like an anthrax attack with short-dated vaccine rather a minor equipment defect. Expansion of such pro- “The plan to use USPS letter carriers to dispense than allowing those doses to go to waste?” grams would be a great, and inexpensive, way toantibiotics to civilians at risk during a confirmed — Thomas K. Zink, M.D. enhance rail security.”wide-area anthrax attack assumes the anthrax — Tom S.strain used in the attack is antibiotic-sensitive. This “What I’m curious about is the safety and secu- Your opinions matter to us. Send letters to the editor atassumption may be a faulty one since we now know rity of the letter carriers when delivering antibiot- email@example.com. Please list your telephone number for conﬁrmation. Publication is solely at the discretion of thethat antibiotic-resistant anthrax exists. And even if ics. What precautions are being planned if someone editors. Emergency Management reserves the right to editthe anthrax used is sensitive to antibiotics, USPS wants to steal the antibiotics they’re delivering? If an submissions for length.Emergency Management Events14-18 February 15-16 February 22-25 February 3 March 7-11 MarchRSA CONFERENCE BORDER SECURITY EXPO PUBLIC HEALTH ALL-HAZARDS/ IWCE CONVERGENTSan Francisco Phoenix PREPAREDNESS SUMMIT ALL-STAKEHOLDERS SUMMIT COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS Atlanta Seattle CONFERENCELearn about emerging threats in The expo features exhibit hall Las Vegasinformation security and how to displays of cutting-edge tech- The summit offers interac- The All-Hazards/All-Stakeholderssafeguard against them. nology, workshops and speaker tive sessions and workshops Summit will address man-made At IWCE, visit more than 330 presentations on critical issues, focused on building, enhancing and natural hazards — ﬁres, exhibitors showcasing theWWW.RSACONFERENCE.COM and free certiﬁed training for and sustaining our nation’s ﬂoods, earthquakes, terror hardware, applications, interop- law enforcement professionals. ability to plan for, respond to events — facing the Seattle area erability and integration that and recover from disasters and and address best practices in will make your systems more20-25 March WWW.BORDERSECURITYEXPO.COM other public health emergencies. preparing for and mitigating effective and efficient. 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Point of View Reaching Younger Audiences Creating the “culture of preparedness” that the emergency at that age,” said Patti Thompson, communications manager management community talks about can only truly be achieved for IEMA. “So it just seemed like the video game route was by making disaster preparedness second nature to citizens. something new to do, a new direction to go.” When I think about instilling lessons in people’s lives, that Thompson said the agency was going to work with the Illi- means starting when they are young and ingraining them with nois State Board of Education to get notices sent to teachers the necessary skills and knowledge. to make them aware of the game, with the goal of teachers However, reaching younger audiences can be difficult. implementing it into their curriculum. Although many children are eager to learn about disasters IEMA seeks to keep children’s interest through an online — images of snowstorms, tornadoes, etc. can leave a lasting leader board that tracks players’ best times. “They play it impression — the message on how they can prepare not only through once, and it’s pretty much a learning experience the themselves but also their families is something that needs to first time through,” Thompson said. “Then they can play it be reiterated. But finding the best way to repeat that message over and over, and there’s a clock that times how long it takes in a fun yet informative way can be difficult, and that’s why the them [to complete] each segment.” message should be taught through means that children enjoy Illinois isn’t the only agency hoping to spread prepared- and find engaging — like video games. ness messages through video games. The American College of When I think about instilling lessons in people’s lives, that means starting when they are young and ingraining them with the necessary skills and knowledge. In November 2010, the Illinois Emergency Management Emergency Physicians is using a U.S. Department of Home- Agency (IEMA) released The Day the Earth Shook, a video land Security grant to develop the video game Disaster Hero. Best Public Safety/Trade game that uses an earthquake scenario to demonstrate the The project is expected to be completed this year, and will focus 2009 Maggie Award need for a disaster supply kit as well as to identify safe loca- on what to do before, during and after a disaster. According to tions in a building during an earthquake. To make it accessible a statement, the game will target multiple audiences, including to everyone in the state, IEMA posted the game on its Ready children, early teens, parents, caregivers and teachers. Illinois website, www.ready.illinois.gov. The Day the Earth By packaging the disaster preparedness message in a form Shook targets middle schoolers, an age group for which the that children already enjoy, IEMA and the American College agency lacked a preparedness messaging program. of Emergency Physicians are on the right path to starting the2010 Magazine of the Year Top 3 Finalist “We knew that we needed to do something that would be culture of preparedness for younger generations. k Less Than $2 Million Division fun, but they’re too old for coloring books and activity books Elaine Pittman Associate Editor Questions or comments? Please give us your input by contacting our editorial department at firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit our website at www.emergencymgmt.com. 10 L E A D , F O L L O W O R G E T O U T O F T H E W AY.
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In the News Nearly a decade after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, in December 2010 counterterrorism officials said they had made it easier to add individuals’ names to the terrorist watch list. The second iteration of the Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment was scheduled to be launched in January — the ﬁrst version went live in 2005 — and new criteria says that a credible, single- source tip can lead to a name being added to the watch list. Approximately 440,000 people are on the list, which is a 5 percent increase over 2009, The Washington Post reported. Although a majority of the names on the watch list are of non-U.S. citizens, law enforcement and intelligence agencies are ramping up efforts to thwart anPHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA increasing issue: terrorist threats from U.S. citizens. The issue is explored in this month’s cover story on page 28. 12
ADVERTISEMENT Managed Emergency Communications Systems Functional Requirements for Next Generation MNSBerkly Trumbo, Siemens Industry Inc. considering a holistic approach to mass from their emergency communications notification. Emergency Management systems is but a fraction of the capability,Functional Requirements for professionals have been left with a complex the whole truly being greater than the sumNext Generation MNS array of disparate systems to use when of its parts.While the latest update to NFPA redefines seconds count the most.Mass Notification as “Emergency A managed systems approach to emergencyCommunications Systems (ECS)”, the end communications systems is becoming auser community is formulating expectations Communication is the backbone popular topic between IT, Facilities, andrelated to the future functionality of today’s of effective emergency management. Public Safety stakeholders. A site audit ofalerting solutions. a campus footprint can reveal a wealth Being able to reach everyone in a of network devices that are capable ofNumerous best practices have surfaced timely matter with the proper delivering an emergency message butsince alerting technology began its rapid, information is the key to making the are not configured to do so. Thinking of amain stream adoption and the NFPA is right decisions and mitigating variety of end point devices as underutilizedlooking to incorporate pressure tested negative outcomes.” assets, one can ask the crucial questionprotocols in the new code. The latest “how do I make marginal adjustments that -Lt. M. Smith Tennyson Commander,updates refer to “wide-area” and “distributed will yield exponential returns related to Governmental Securityrecipient notification” in addition to St Johns County Sheriff’s Office functionality?” LCDs, sirens, LEDs, desktopbuilding notifications. Wide area being the computers, and the ever-present fire panelgeography surrounding a building on a are but a few examples of devices that areparticular campus and distributed recipient Leveraging the Network for Premise only serving in a fraction of their capacity.notification as “expanded beyond the Based Solutionsfacility and the area, to be accomplished A popular model which comprises the The response which serves thisthrough means such as telephone calls, text foundation of most Mass Notification question best is to use a premise basedmessaging, and emails”. Systems currently deployed is a web-based, solution, bundling all end point devices multi modal offering residing completely under a single managed emergencySo far, colleges, corporations and outside of the IT infrastructure of a business communications architecture effectivelygovernment entities have made significant or campus. This model is based on sound creating a system of systems.investments in technology platforms and logic considering continuity of operationsend point devices towards a goal of safer, planning but many times, the IT network Consolidating Command andmore secure campus environments but on-campus is one of the institution’s Control Communicationsstill have not solved all critical messaging greatest IT assets. It is common for CIOs A managed emergency communicationschallenges. As an industry, emergency to invest a large percentage of their system can include web based alerting ascommunications has vaulted forward from overall budget into the infrastructure and one part of a holistic approach to criticalthe days of single tone sirens but new oftentimes buildings are so “wired” that the messaging. To date, volume has been thegaps in functionality are appearing when degree of functionality end users are getting underlying theme of mass notification
ADVERTISEMENTbut we are moving towards a blended requirement of scalable users more options regarding a consolidated approach to criticalfunctionality to include accuracy and granularity in campus communications and incident management professionals arecommunications. Emergency Management professionals have seeking scalable solutions which will make the most of past andidentified the need to have a laser focus after delivering the first future investments.wave of warnings. Pinpointing a building, floor, or office/classroomoffers a unique value proposition when considering scenarios About Siemens Industry Inc.wherein conditions affecting the people inside a structure are For more than 110 years, Siemenschanging or are different for one location versus another. Having a has been a leader in building controls innovation, fire solutions,single user interface which manages all end point devices and allows and security systems. With 400 locations throughout Northdirect communications with predefined groups or one particular America, Siemensmodality will prove to be an invaluable feature of future message is positioned to provide customized services and support for ourmanagement. clients’ specialized needs. For more information visit www.siemens.com/ keyword “Sygnal”.ConclusionExperts agree that the right technology mix can act as a forcemultiplier in incident management. Well constructed plans and About the Authorhighly capable individuals are doubly effective when given the Berkly Trumbo is a Mass Notification Systems (MNS) specialistcorrect tools to utilize during an emergency. with responsibility for Florida and the Caribbean related to emergency communications technologies. Mr. Trumbo can beEmergency communications systems are evolving towards a reached at email@example.com or 954/ 364-6820.managed system model as opposed to a collection of disjointed,boutique applications. Advances in technology are affording end ass noti ation in a oor i ing safety net or networking nightmare? Sygnal™ mass noti cation gives you a complete range of products for any project. In critical moments, your customers need to send messages with con dence, and they rely on you to choose the right spec for their needs. Sygnal mass noti cation is industry-leading technology you can specify for every customer, whether it’s a single building or a complex campus. Sygnal gives customers the ability to reach people inside, outside and at their side, for maximum contactability when it matters most. ou get the con dence of recommending the best they get the con dence that they can reach them all. usa.siemens.com/buildingtechnologies Answers for infrastructure.
EM Bulletin Rebuilding Critical Infrastructure CONSTRUCTION IS UNDER WAY on Maine’s seventh and largest high-tech bridge, replacing standard concrete and steel construction with a lightweight and portable carbon-fiber tube structure. The new technology is designed to ward off corrosion, double a bridge’s structural lifespan, and signifi- cantly reduce construction time and repair costs. Off-site, carbon-fiber tubes are inflated, shaped into arches and infused with resin to harden them. The tubes are then moved to the foundation’s location and filled with concrete, PHOTO COURTESY OF THE MAINE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION producing arches as strong as steel. The arches are then covered with a fiber-reinforced decking and buried under several feet of sand. The carbon fiber protects the resin from harsh weather and extreme climates, which safety experts say is the greatest cause of bridge corrosion. In standard steel bridges, de-icing road salts and saltwater infiltrate the concrete and corrode the steel bar, which causes it to expand and crack the concrete, weakening the bridge. The design was developed by the University of Maine Advanced Structures and Composites Center and has been named “bridge in a backpack” technology because its com- ponents are lightweight and portable.Tapping Solar Power A NORTH DAKOTA electric cooperative turned toan alternative energy source to provide power to SheridanCounty ranchers whose power was knocked out by an April2010 ice storm. The storm dropped nine inches of snow onBismarck, knocking out power to thousands in the centraland southwestern regions of the state and caused more than$33 million in damage mostly to utilities, according to arequest for public assistance filed by then-Gov. John Hoeven. Rather than rebuild a section of transmission line thatprovided power to the ranchers’ pasture wells, the VerendryeElectric Cooperative installed two solar power sites capableof generating 470 watts. The installations in McHenry andSheridan counties were funded with $11,201 in FEMA haz-ard mitigation grant money. FEMA estimated that $29,000 PHOTO COURTESY OF BRIAN HVINDEN/FEMAwas saved compared with the cost of reinstalling the approx-imately mile-long power line. “In lieu of building in new power lines to a remote site to apasture well, if it’s summer pasture, we’ll put in solar instead ofbuilding in a power line,” said Randy Hauck, member servicesmanager for the Verendrye Electric Cooperative, “because wecan do that at a cheaper cost than building in the power line,and it provides the same service.”16
Security Search NEBRASKA LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS are implementing a search platform to connect to 17 different law enforcement data sources including records manage- ment and computer-aided dispatch systems. Instead of sift- ing through information by hand — which is what staff at the Nebraska Information and Analysis Center (NIAC) currently do — NIAC awarded a contract to Memex for its Patriarch platform, which will help officials search disparate databases across the state with a single query. The platform provides the bridge between law enforce- ment officers and private-sector partners who see something PHOTO COURTESY OF NEBRASKA INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER suspicious and the fusion center analysts who vet and store the data, or pass it along as appropriate. NIAC awarded a contract to Memex at a cost of just under $3 million for implementation of its Patriarch platform in May 2010. The implementation is ongoing. “Within the state, we’re defining agencies that are willing to share information with us,” said Kevin Knorr, captain of the NIAC, “and then we go out and set up a mirrored server. We put it in their facility, a mirrored server that extracts that information, which they will allow or will share with us or the fusion center. Then that information is indexed through the Memex server [and] provided as a response to a query.”Cyber-Security Monitoring STATE AND LOCAL governments are closer than ever tohaving a single view available of the cyber-attacks and securityvulnerabilities they face, thanks to groundbreaking work by across-sector organization that’s bringing them together. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE MULTI-STATE INFORMATION SHARING AND ANALYSIS CENTER The nonprofit Multi-State Information Sharing and Analy-sis Center (MS-ISAC) is on the cusp of significant growth, saidthe organization’s chair, Will Pelgrin, in November 2010. Andnew participants will be able to use a threat-monitoring centerrecently launched by the MS-ISAC that will give state and localgovernments better security intelligence in near real time. By June, 14 states, seven local governments and one U.S.territory will have their active threat monitoring done atthe new MS-ISAC operations facility, Pelgrin said. In 2003,MS-ISAC began with just a handful of participating govern-ments. Now all 50 states and many local governments havepartnered at some level with the organization. The center’s mission encompasses threat detection, pre-vention and protection, and recovery for state, local, terri-torial and tribal governments. The organization has made areal-time dashboard of top cyber-threats available online. Emergency Management 17
Major Player By Jim McKay James Demby Senior Technical Adviser, FEMA James Demby is the senior technical and policy adviser and program manager for the FEMAPHOTO BY DAVID KIDD National Dam Safety Program. He advises Sandra Knight, FEMA’s deputy federal insurance and mitigation administrator for mitigation, on matters pertaining to national dam safety. Demby is a professional engineer registered in Virginia and has worked for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. His work for the corps included geotechnical design projects; analysis federal perspective. Then you have state dam safety Alabama — although it does not have a legis- of military construction; and civil works projects representatives who bring expertise from the state lated dam safety program — has begun actions such as barracks complexes, military family perspective, and you have representatives from the over the last couple of years to identify the state’s housing projects, hazardous waste sites, highway private sector. You bring in these experts to look dams, and to establish, inventory and provide that bridge foundation design, federal navigation at dam safety issues from a national perspective. information to the National Inventory of Dams. channels, and levees and ﬂood control structures. The state is taking steps toward getting a program. One state doesn’t have a dam safety program. The first step is getting a sense of what the need is. What’s the signiﬁcance of that? What is the role of the National Dam In Alabama dams are regulated by the state. What about the lack of knowledge of the people Safety Program? That means they’re not being inspected, and across the country who live below dams, in The purpose of the Dam Safety Program is to there’s not a requirement for emergency action terms of the danger they’re in? reduce the risk to life and property from dam planning for high hazard-potential dams. That We provide national assistance grants to state failure; that’s the short answer. Part of that is means that within the state, they don’t necessarily dam safety programs. The hope is that they bringing together expertise and resources from have a good sense of the hazards that dams poten- will coordinate with local and state emergency federal and nonfederal communities. In the tially pose to people downstream. managers to identify the risks within their state, Dam Safety Program we have participation from By not having a dam safety program that’s legis- and with that coordination with the state dam various federal agencies that have some type of lated by the state, it can’t participate in the National safety officials and emergency managers, develop role in dams — in ownership, regulating dams Dam Safety Program, whereby FEMA provides state specific strategies within their state to address the or building dams; they have some role from the assistance grants that go to dam safety activities. dangers. One area within the Dam Safety Program 18
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Major Player Hoover Dam is considered to be one of the top 10 construction achievements of the 20th century.is public awareness. That’s one of the functional state and the number of dams nationally that fallactivities identified in the National Dam Safety under the National Inventory of Dams.[Program] Act. One concern that’s been raised from the states That’s one of the things we realized we need is that it might be more effective if the money isto improve on with the Dam Safety Program based more on risk as opposed to just a straight— providing more of an outreach strategy to formula based on the number of dams. That waycommunicate the risk from a broad perspective you make sure the federal investment is going to[of the dangers] to populations downstream of the areas that have the most risk.dams. On our current grants that we put out for2010, we have some language to try to address the What areas are most at risk? Do people in thosegap in awareness of dangers downstream. One of areas know how at risk they are?the initiatives in the 2010 state assistance grants The states are the front line for dam safetywas to encourage state safety officials, once they because 85 percent of the nation’s 83,000 dams areidentify dams that are unsafe or at risk, to coor- regulated by states. With that said, state officialsdinate and provide that information to state and should have a good understanding of the dams PHOTO COURTESY OF HOOVERDAMBYPASS.ORGlocal emergency managers and local decision- that are at risk in their states.makers, like mayors or city council members, so It’s imperative that state dam safety officialsthey’ll have the situational awareness of a dam communicate that information and work withthat poses a threat to a community. state and local emergency managers so that there is good situational awareness at the state and localYou’ve said money probably should be distrib- levels of dams that potentially threaten popula-uted differently. Can you elaborate? tions downstream. Currently money is distributed based on the From a national perspective, that is informationlanguage in the Dam Safety Act, and that’s based we don’t collect as part of the National Dam Safetyon a distribution of the number of dams in the Program. With the National Inventory of Dams, what we do have is information on the hazard- potential classification. But that’s not really a risk- based classification. It’s a classification on: If the dam fails there is — say, for high-hazard classifi- Demby holds a framed photo of the Fort cation — probably loss of life. Significant hazard Peck Dam taken by Margaret Bourke- White. The Montana dam was featured on potential means if that there’s a dam failure there the ﬁrst cover of Life magazine in 1936. would be substantial economic impact down- stream. There’s a low-hazard classification; that is if the dam fails, there would be no impact to life or property. But those are not risk-informed clas- sifications; they’re based on consequences. How concerned are you about the threat of a terrorist attack on the nation’s dams? The Infrastructure Protection Office in the Department of Homeland Security primarily addresses the terrorist threat. The whole dam sector is broken down into two parts: FEMA has the responsibility of dam safety and DHS specifi- cally looks at the security side — so they’re more focused on the terrorist-sabotage area. With that said, as far as the critical infrastruc- ture and the sectors identified as part of the crit- ical infrastructure, dams are one of the critical infrastructure areas, so there is great concern. We PHOTO BY DAVID KIDD want to make sure that there is a national frame- work and approach to make sure that our critical infrastructure is being hardened and protected from terrorist threats. k20
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