CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTISTS IN THE FIELD OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY
SCIENTISTS IN FIELD OF
Dr SINDHU K
Dept of VPT,
• Pharmacology in present form is relatively recent branch of medicine, about
100 years old.
• But pharmacology existed in one/other form since the dawn of civilization.
• Throughout recorded history, mankind has employed drug substances for
treating diseases as well as for social & religious purposes
• In this presentation I tried to enlist the important personalities, scientists
& scholars who contributed in the field of veterinary pharmacology.
• Ayus = life, veda = science
• System of traditional medicine native to INDIAN sub-
• Deals mainly with different aspects of science of life & art
• Science of life includes – the use of herbs, massage & yoga
as exercise are applied in the prevention & treatment of
• In modern world, it is considered as complementary &
KAHUN PAPYRUS(1800 BC)
• Ancient Egyptian text discussing various
mathematical & medical topic
• Its fragments were discovered at town of El-Lahun
by Flinders Petrie in 1889 & are kept at the
university college London.
• Documented mainly gynaecological diseases,
fertility, pregnancy, contraception with their
diagnosis & treatment.
• Also known as KAHUN GYNAECOLOGICAL
EBERS PAPYRUS (1550 BC)
• Found in a tomb of a mummy in THEBES & now
preserved at the university of Leipzig, Germany.
• Compilation of number of diseases, 700 formulas &
remedies, 829 prescriptions for medicaments
employed in Egyptian medicine
• Disease information include gynaecological matters,
intestinal diseases & parasites, eyes & skin problem,
dentistry, surgical treatment of abscess & tumours,
bone setting & burns.
• various prescriptions including those of castor oil,
opium, colchicum, etc.
SHEN NUNG PEN TS`AO CHING (2700 BC)
• The earliest written compilation of drugs of Chinese herbal formularies
Pen Tsao, which is attributed to Emperor Shen Nung, who lived in about
• Recorded over 365 medicinal substances including many vegetables &
mineral preparations and a few animal product as well, some of which
are even applicable even today.
HIPPOCRATES (460-370 BC)
• One of the foremost among early Greek physicians & a
great teacher of medicine.
• Founder of Hippocratic school of medicine
• Known as “father of medicine”
• 1st person to recognize disease as an abnormal condition of
the body rather than as a visitation from evil
• He tried to organize science of medicine on the basis of
observations, analysis & balancing the 4 body humors;
classified disease as acute, chronic, endemic & epidemic.
• He also introduced use of metallic salts for the treatment of
various body disorders.
PEDANIUS DIOSCORDIES(30-90 AD)
• Ancient Greek physician & botanist, who practiced
during the time of roman emperor Nero
• In 70 AD, he compiled 5 volumes book in his native
Greek, known in latin De Materia Medica, focused
upon “the preparation, properties & testing of drugs”
which served as a precursor to all modern
• It describes about 600 plants of medicinal values &
provides knowledge about herbs & remedies used by
Romans, Greeks of antiquity.
CLAUDIUS GALEN (131-200 AD)
• Roman physician & philosopher of Greek origin.
• Galen earned a reputation as a practitioner & a
public demonstrator of anatomy as he performed
extensive dissections & vivisections on animals.
• Galen described many formulae containing plants
& animal drugs, which he compiled this knowledge
in 20 books called as Galenical works
• His theories dominated & influenced the medical
science for well over a million.
ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC)
• A Greek philosopher and scientist born
in Stagirus, northern Greece, in 384 BC laid a
scientific basis for medicine, who made & recorded
numerous observation on animals.
• Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms
in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" (scala
naturae or Great Chain of Being), placing them
according to complexity of structure and function
so that higher organisms showed greater vitality
and ability to move.
Aristotle pupil was
Who systematically classified
plants based on their individual
characteristics rather than their
recommended use in therapeutics.
THEOPHRASTUS (371-287 BC)
• A great Greek philosopher & natural scientist, called
as “father of pharmacognosy”
• He wrote 2 large books – enquire into the plants
-- on the causes of plants
• These books constituted the most important
contribution to botanical science during antiquity &
the middle ages
• Theophrastus classified medicinal plants on the
basis of their medicinal characteristics.
GEBER IBN HAJAR (702-765 AD)
• During 7th century, custodian of knowledge & developers
of medicine thought were found in muslim culture.
• An influential PERSIAN writer during this period was
Geber-Ibn-Hajar who classified drugs & poisions of his
time and recognized that the difference between a drug &
poision was a matter of dosage
• He has given statement that “Any drug can be toxic If
given in large enough amounts”
MUHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI(865-925 AD)
• Known as Rhazes, was a Persian physician & philosopher who made
numerous advances in medicine through own observations &
• He was the 1st physician to distinguish smallpox & measles through
his clinical characterization of the 2 diseases and also 1st physician
who systematically used alcohol in his clinical practice.
• Zakariya-al-Razi introduced the use of ‘mercurial ointments’ & his
development of apparatus such as Mortars, flasks, spatulas, phials
which were used in pharmacies until the recent times.
• He recorded his own clinical experiences & observations in
medical encyclopaedia comprising of 9 volumes called al-Hawi
in Arabic(called The Large Comprehensive / Continens Liber in
PARACELSUS (1493 -1541 AD)
• Regarded as the first systematic Botanist & is also credited
for giving Zinc its name , calling it Zincum.
• He pioneered the use of chemicals & minerals for treating
• Paracelsus introduced mercury in the treatment of syphilis
& distilled oils in medicine.
• He was also responsible for the creation of laudanum, an
opium tincture very common until 19th century.
• He gave the great statement “All substances are poisons;
there is none which is not poison. The right dose
differentiates a poison & a remedy.”
VALERIUS CORDUS (1514 -1544 AD)
• German physician & botanist who compiled 1st
PHARMACOPOEIA & carefully described
techniques to be employed in preparation of drugs.
• He is also widely credited with having pioneered a
method for synthesizing ETHER.
• He identified & described several new plant species.
• Cordus free thoughts & critical inquiry were in
contrast to the secrecy prevailing prior to his time
17TH & 18TH CENTURIES
• An era of nationalism & flowering individual genius.
• Drug trade flourished & medical experimentation began
• Various drugs like cinchona, coffee, tea, cocoa, alkaloids
• Few of them are enlisted here
• In 1785 Withering Published “ An
account of the foxglove and some of its
medical uses” .
• His observation on the use of digitalis
in the treatment of dropsy & ascites
due to congestive heart failure
• He also invented the botanical
EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823)
• Discovered & established the principle of
prophylactic immunization against smallpox &
was the first to describe Anaphylaxis.
• Thus Jenner set the stage for later development
of preventive medicine & immunological therapy
WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657 AD)
• Discovered the circulation of blood and indicated that
drugs were distributed to various parts of the body by this
CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723 AD)
• The great English architect made the 1st
intravenous injection of drugs into a dog,
but it was not until 1853 that the
hypodermic needle & syringe were devised
by alexander wood.
• This was to have a major influence on later
FRANCOIS MAGENDIE (1783 -1855 AD)
• French physiologist-pharmacologist, who in
association some of his pupils established the
foundation for modern pharmacology.
• He studied effects of ipecac, morphine,
hydrocyanic acid, strychnine, I2, potassium,
veratridine, quinine & published his work.
• He is known for describing the foramen of
• He is also notoriously known for the cruel side of
his experiments & dissections on live animals,
which provoked an antivivisection campaign.
CLAUDE BERNARD (1813 -1878 AD)
• French physiologist & student of Magendie, considered
as ‘father of Experimental Medicine’ for the use of scientific
methods & experiments in medicine.
• Bernard is mainly known for his discoveries concerning the role
of pancreas in digestion, glycogenic function of liver, regulation
of blood supply by vasomotor nerves.
• He also identified the site of action of curare (arrow poison) &
used curare, strychnine, carbon monoxide etc. in his studies.
• Similar to F.Magendie, he subjected cruelty on animals in his
experiments & practiced vivisection, which was opposed by his
family & many scientists with campaign against the practice of
FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADAM SERTURNER
(1783 - 1841)
• As a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn,
he was the first to isolate morphine
from opium. He called the isolated alkaloid
"morphium" after the Greek god of
• However, it only became widely used after
1815. In 1809, Sertürner opened his first own
pharmacy in Einbeck
• In 1822, he bought the main pharmacy
in Hamelin (Rathaus Apotheke), where he
worked until his death in 1841.
NOTE ON ISOLATION OF ACTIVE ALKALOIDS
• Following Friedrich Serturner who isolated specific narcotic substance
MORPHINE, there followed in rapid succession isolation of active
alkaloids from variety of medicinal plants trough work of;
Joseph Caventou (1795-1877)
Pierre Pelletier (1788- 1842)
Philip Geiger (1785-1836)
George Merck (1825-1873)
Albert Neimann (1840-1921)
(22 MARCH 1788 – 19 JULY 1842)
• Pierre-Joseph Pelletier was a
French chemist who did notable
research on vegetable alkaloids, and
was the co-discoverer
of quinine and strychnine
• George Merck (1867 as Georg Merck , † octomber
21, 1926 in New Jersey ) was a German-American
entrepreneur and founder of Merck & Co.
• George made a three-year apprenticeship as a merchant in a
drug wholesaler in Frankfurt am Main.
• He continued the training in France, England, the United
States and Canada continued. In 1889 he was involved in the
company E. Merck.
• As one of the newly founded subsidiary in the United States
sought a governor on the spot from the family, George Merck
moved in 1891 with his wife Frederike, nee Schenk (1856-
1943), to New York, where he founded the trading
company Merck & Co.
PHILIPP LORENZ GEIGER (1785–1836)
• German chemist and pharmacist;
Professor at the University of
Heidelberg from 1824 until his
death, credited with discovering
Coniine, Atropine, Colchicine and
other plant alkaloids
ALBERT NEIMANN (1840-1921)
• Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann (May 20, 1834 –
January 19, 1861) was a German chemist.
• In 1859 - he isolated cocaine, and he published his
finding in 1860.
• He published his finding in 1860 in his dissertation
titled Über eine neue organische Base in den
Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca
Leaves). This dissertation earned him his Ph.D. and
was published in 1860 in the journal Archiv der
RUDOLF BUCHHEIM (1820-1879 AD)
• German pharamacologist who established the 1st laboratory
devoted exclusively to the study of pharmacology at the
university of Dorpat in Estonia.
• Buchheim is remembered for his pioneer work in experimental
pharmacology & in turning pharmacology from an empirical
study of medicine into an exact science.
• He conducted extensive research in his laboratory to elucidate
actions of drug with in body.
• He introduced the bioassay to pharmacology & credited a
methodology for determining the quantitative & medical
aspects of chemical substances.
• He edited a book Art der Wirkung eliminating obsolete &
ineffectual medicines and practices.
OSWALD SCHMIEDEBERG (1838-1921 AD)
• German pharmacologist who established pharmacology as an independent scientific discipline
based upon experimental methodology.
• He worked under R.Buchheim at Dorpat & in 1872 became professor of pharmacology in the
university of Strasbourg, France (then germany) where he taught pharmacology for next 46
years & trained 150 pharmacologists.
• His work primarily dealt with finding the correlation between the chemical structures of the
substances & their effectiveness as narcotics.
• He introduced the technique of perfusing isolated organs & studied the effect of drug on them.
• He worked on drugs like Muscarine, Nicotine, Digitalis glycosides & various toxic heavy
• He published over 200 scientific books & articles and is often regarded as the ‘father of modern
THE FATHER OF MODERN
CRAWFORD W LONG (1815 - 1878)
• American surgeon and pharmacist best known for
his first use of inhaled diethyl ether as
• Introduced ether as a general anesthetic – 1842
• Long was honored in the "Famous American Series"
of postage stamps in 1940.
JOHN NEWPORT LANGLEY (1852-1925)
• British physiologist – pharmacologist, who determined
in 1901 that adrenomedullary extracts clicited
responses in different tissues which were similar to
those induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation, also
he advanced research in neurotransmitters and
chemical receptors, working with extracts from
• In the wake of these findings, he proposed in 1905 that
a receptive substances (receptors) was the site of
action of chemical mediators liberated by nerve
• The genesis of the concept of chemical synaptic
transmission has been attributed to Langley.
ALEXANDER WOOD (1817 - 1884)
• A Scottish physician, invented the first
true hypodermic syringe 1853.
• His biographer and brother-in-law, Rev Thomas
Brown (1811-1893), stated that Wood had taken the
sting of the bee as his model.
• Brown also noted that, 'At first this new hypodermic
method was employed exclusively for the
administration of morphia and preparations of
opium, but it is important to note that, from the
outset, Dr Wood pointed to a far wider application.
JOHN JACOB ABEL (1857-1938 AD)
• American biochemist & pharmacologist known
for isolation of epinephrine in 1898 and later of
insulin in crystalline form.
• He founded the ‘journal of biological chemistry’
in 1905 & ‘journal of pharmacology & experimental
therapeutics’ in 1909
• He is regarded as ‘Father of American
HANS H MEYER
(MARCH 17, 1853 – OCTOBER 6,
• Hans Horst Meyer was a German pharmacologist
• He studied medicine and did research in pharmacology.
• The Meyer-Overton hypothesis on the mode of action
on general anaesthetics is partially named after him.
• He also discovered the importance of glucuronic acid as
a reaction partner for drugs, and the mode of action
of tetanus toxin on the body.
• Hans Horst Meyer Medal awarded by the Vienna
Academy of Sciences
• Identified the muscarinic &
cholinergic actions of Ach.1914.
• Awarded Nobel prize (jointly
with Otto Loewi) in
physiology/medicine in 1936 for
OTTO LOEWI (1873-1961)
• Showed that Acetylcholine is a mediator
• Awarded Nobel prize in
physiology/medicine in 1936 jointly
with Henry Dale.
FREDERICK BANTING (1891-1941) &
CHARLES BEST (1899-1978)
• Canadian doctor Frederick Banting and American biomedical
scientist Charles Best co-discovered insulin in 1921.
• Frederick Banting, MD, and his then student assistant, Charles
Best, MD, extract insulin from dog pancreases.
• Banting and Best were working in laboratory space at the
University of Toronto provided by Professor J.J.R. Macleod. They
inject the insulin into dogs whose pancreases have been
removed, and the animals’ bloodsugar levels go down.
• James Collip purifies the extract so that it can be used in
humans. Banting and Macleod were awarded the 1923 Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine, though the contributions of all
four men have been recognized as important in the discovery of
ALEXANDER FLEMING (1928)
• Discovered Pencillin & found its
curative effect in various infectious
• Awarded Nobel prize in
physiology/medicine (lointly with
Ernst B Chain, Howard W Florey) in
1945 for this discovery.
GERHALD DOMAGK (1932)
• Introduced Prontosil as the first clinical
• Awarded Nobel prize in
physiology/medicine in 1939 for this
PAUL H MULLER (1899 -1965)
• Paul H. Müller synthesized
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and showed
that it was an effective insecticide.1939.
• He was the first person to win a Nobel Prize for
Medicine or Physiology who was not a medical doctor,
and one of the first whose work was primarily in a
corporate, rather than an academic environment.
• DDT, used to control mosquitoes spreading malaria,
typhus, and other diseases, undoubtedly saved
countless lives, but the compound was also used
widely as an agricultural insecticide.
ALBERT SCHATZ, ELIZABETH BUGIE,
SELMAN A WAKSMAN (1944)
• Discovered streptomycin, the first
effective antibiotic against
• Seman A Waksman was awarded
Nobel prize in physiology/medicine
in 1952 for this discovery
DANIEL BOVET (1907-1992)
Swiss born Italian pharmacologist
In the early 1930’s Bovet and his coworkers
conducted a series of experiments on Prontosil & they
concluded that Prontosil derived its therapeutic powers due to the presence of sulphanilamide
In 1937 Bovet and his research student Anne Marie Staub succeeded in synthesizing the first
In 1947 he discovered gallamine when he was looking for a synthetic substitute for
Isolated succinylcholine, a muscle relaxant now used in conjunction with anesthesia
during certain surgical procedures.
In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine for his
RAYMOND P AHLQUIST (1914-1983)
• An American pharmacist and pharmacologist.
• He published seminal work in 1948 that divided
adrenoceptors into α- and β-
adrenoceptor subtypes. And showed that a single
sympathetic mediator could produce both
excitatory and inhibitory responses
• This discovery explained the activity of several
existing drugs and also laid the ground work for
new drugs including the widely prescribed beta
EARL W SUTHERLAND (1962)
• Demonstrated that adenosine 3`,5` -
cyclic adenosine monophosphoric acid
(cAMP) functions as secondary
messenger in several hormonal
• The Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine 1971 was awarded to Earl W.
Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries
concerning the mechanisms of the
action of hormones".
BERNARD KATZ, ULF V EULER, JULIUS
• Awarded nobel prize "For their discoveries concerning the
humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism
for their storage, release and inactivation",
J R VANE, J B SMITH, A L WILLS (1971)
• Proposed separately that aspirin
produces its action by inhibiting
production of prostaglandins.
BENGT I SAMUELSSON, SUNE K BERGSTROM,
JOHN R VANE.
• Awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine for their discoveries
concerning prostaglandins & related substances (1982)
SIR COL. RAM NATH CHOPRA (1882-1973 AD)
• Pioneer in the field of experimental
pharmacology of indigenous drugs of INDIA.
• He enormously worked in the area of studies on
Indigenous drugs covering their chemical
composition, invitro & invivo tests for the active
principles, biochemical & biophysical changes in
• Acclaimed as the “father of indian pharmacology”
L MEYER JONES (1913-2002 AD)
• Regarded as ‘Father of Modern Veterinary
• He authored the 1st edition of ‘veterinary
pharmacology & therapeutics’ in 1954 and was
instrumental in shifting emphasis in the veterinary
curriculum from materia medica to the modern
science of veterinary pharmacology.
SIR JAMES W. BLACK, GERTRUDE B. ELION,
GEORGE H. HITCHINGS.
• The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988, "for their discoveries of
important principles for drug treatment"
ALFRED G. GILMAN, MARTIN RODBELL
• The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994, "for their discovery of G-
proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO,
FERID MURAD. (1998)
• The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998, "for their discoveries
concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD, ERIC
R. KANDEL. (2000)
• The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000, "for their discoveries
concerning signal transduction in the nervous system“.
BARRY JAMES MARSHALL & J
ROBIN WARREN, 2005.
• Barry James Marshall, (born 30 September 1951) is
an Australian physician, NOBEL PRIZE laureate
inPhysiology or Medicine, and Professor of
Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia.
• John Robin Warren AC (born 11 June 1937 in Adelaide) is an
Australian pathologist, Nobel Laureate and researcher who is
credited with the 1979 re-discovery of the bacterium
Helicobacter pylori, together with Barry Marshall
• Marshall and Robin Warren showed that the
bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cause of
most peptic ulcers, reversing decades of medical doctrine
holding that ulcers were caused by stress, spicy foods, and too
The science of pharmacology flourished in the medical & pharmacy
schools, during 20th century, and the focus of leadership shifted from
EUROPE to the USA.
This was due in part to the occurrence of 2 world wars & the emergence
of America as an industrial power.
The ability of chemists in the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize
new chemical substances removed our dependence on natural products
as a source of drugs.
All aspects of the science progressed rapidly during this century, with
appreciable gains in effective treatment and control of diseases.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF VETERINARY
The development is the same as that for humans.
Through much of medical history little distinction was made between
human & animal medicine, and both profession share common roots.
Early European schools of veterinary medicine were established in
conjugation with schools of human medicine.
Near the beginning of the 20th century the two professions & their schools
separated & developed more / less independently.
Since that time a cultural lag has existed between human & veterinary
medicine due to differences in size and economic factors.
The teaching of Materia Medica as a didactic course persisted in
veterinary schools until 1950`s. little was known/taught about
pharmacology of drugs in domesticated animals.
As with most aspects of veterinary medicine, veterinary pharmacology has
lagged behind its human counterpart by several years.
Today, however, veterinary pharmacology is a vital part of veterinary
medical education & research.
H Richard Adams, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 8th edition.
Harpal Singh Sandhu, Essentials of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Jim E Riviere & Mark G Papich, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
"All Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine". Nobelprize.org
Goodman and Gilman’s :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics : 12th