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  2. 2. BACKGROUND • Pharmacology in present form is relatively recent branch of medicine, about 100 years old. • But pharmacology existed in one/other form since the dawn of civilization. • Throughout recorded history, mankind has employed drug substances for treating diseases as well as for social & religious purposes • In this presentation I tried to enlist the important personalities, scientists & scholars who contributed in the field of veterinary pharmacology.
  3. 3. AYURVEDA(4000-600BC) • Ayus = life, veda = science • System of traditional medicine native to INDIAN sub- continent. • Deals mainly with different aspects of science of life & art of healing. • Science of life includes – the use of herbs, massage & yoga as exercise are applied in the prevention & treatment of diseases. • In modern world, it is considered as complementary & alternative medicine.
  4. 4. KAHUN PAPYRUS(1800 BC) • Ancient Egyptian text discussing various mathematical & medical topic • Its fragments were discovered at town of El-Lahun by Flinders Petrie in 1889 & are kept at the university college London. • Documented mainly gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception with their diagnosis & treatment. • Also known as KAHUN GYNAECOLOGICAL papyrus
  5. 5. EBERS PAPYRUS (1550 BC) • Found in a tomb of a mummy in THEBES & now preserved at the university of Leipzig, Germany. • Compilation of number of diseases, 700 formulas & remedies, 829 prescriptions for medicaments employed in Egyptian medicine • Disease information include gynaecological matters, intestinal diseases & parasites, eyes & skin problem, dentistry, surgical treatment of abscess & tumours, bone setting & burns. • various prescriptions including those of castor oil, opium, colchicum, etc.
  6. 6. . • .
  7. 7. SHEN NUNG PEN TS`AO CHING (2700 BC) • The earliest written compilation of drugs of Chinese herbal formularies Pen Tsao, which is attributed to Emperor Shen Nung, who lived in about 2700 BC. • Recorded over 365 medicinal substances including many vegetables & mineral preparations and a few animal product as well, some of which are even applicable even today.
  8. 8. HIPPOCRATES (460-370 BC) • One of the foremost among early Greek physicians & a great teacher of medicine. • Founder of Hippocratic school of medicine • Known as “father of medicine” • 1st person to recognize disease as an abnormal condition of the body rather than as a visitation from evil spirits/witches. • He tried to organize science of medicine on the basis of observations, analysis & balancing the 4 body humors; classified disease as acute, chronic, endemic & epidemic. • He also introduced use of metallic salts for the treatment of various body disorders.
  9. 9. PEDANIUS DIOSCORDIES(30-90 AD) • Ancient Greek physician & botanist, who practiced during the time of roman emperor Nero • In 70 AD, he compiled 5 volumes book in his native Greek, known in latin De Materia Medica, focused upon “the preparation, properties & testing of drugs” which served as a precursor to all modern pharmacopoeias. • It describes about 600 plants of medicinal values & provides knowledge about herbs & remedies used by Romans, Greeks of antiquity.
  10. 10. CLAUDIUS GALEN (131-200 AD) • Roman physician & philosopher of Greek origin. • Galen earned a reputation as a practitioner & a public demonstrator of anatomy as he performed extensive dissections & vivisections on animals. • Galen described many formulae containing plants & animal drugs, which he compiled this knowledge in 20 books called as Galenical works • His theories dominated & influenced the medical science for well over a million.
  11. 11. ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC) • A Greek philosopher and scientist born in Stagirus, northern Greece, in 384 BC laid a scientific basis for medicine, who made & recorded numerous observation on animals. • Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" (scala naturae or Great Chain of Being), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.
  12. 12. THEOPHRASTUS Aristotle pupil was theophrastus Who systematically classified plants based on their individual characteristics rather than their recommended use in therapeutics.
  13. 13. THEOPHRASTUS (371-287 BC) • A great Greek philosopher & natural scientist, called as “father of pharmacognosy” • He wrote 2 large books – enquire into the plants -- on the causes of plants • These books constituted the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity & the middle ages • Theophrastus classified medicinal plants on the basis of their medicinal characteristics.
  14. 14. GEBER IBN HAJAR (702-765 AD) • During 7th century, custodian of knowledge & developers of medicine thought were found in muslim culture. • An influential PERSIAN writer during this period was Geber-Ibn-Hajar who classified drugs & poisions of his time and recognized that the difference between a drug & poision was a matter of dosage • He has given statement that “Any drug can be toxic If given in large enough amounts”
  15. 15. MUHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI(865-925 AD) • Known as Rhazes, was a Persian physician & philosopher who made numerous advances in medicine through own observations & discoveries. • He was the 1st physician to distinguish smallpox & measles through his clinical characterization of the 2 diseases and also 1st physician who systematically used alcohol in his clinical practice. • Zakariya-al-Razi introduced the use of ‘mercurial ointments’ & his development of apparatus such as Mortars, flasks, spatulas, phials which were used in pharmacies until the recent times. • He recorded his own clinical experiences & observations in medical encyclopaedia comprising of 9 volumes called al-Hawi in Arabic(called The Large Comprehensive / Continens Liber in Europe )
  16. 16. PARACELSUS (1493 -1541 AD) • Regarded as the first systematic Botanist & is also credited for giving Zinc its name , calling it Zincum. • He pioneered the use of chemicals & minerals for treating diseases. • Paracelsus introduced mercury in the treatment of syphilis & distilled oils in medicine. • He was also responsible for the creation of laudanum, an opium tincture very common until 19th century. • He gave the great statement “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not poison. The right dose differentiates a poison & a remedy.”
  17. 17. VALERIUS CORDUS (1514 -1544 AD) • German physician & botanist who compiled 1st PHARMACOPOEIA & carefully described techniques to be employed in preparation of drugs. • He is also widely credited with having pioneered a method for synthesizing ETHER. • He identified & described several new plant species. • Cordus free thoughts & critical inquiry were in contrast to the secrecy prevailing prior to his time
  18. 18. 17TH & 18TH CENTURIES • An era of nationalism & flowering individual genius. • Drug trade flourished & medical experimentation began • Various drugs like cinchona, coffee, tea, cocoa, alkaloids were discovered. • Few of them are enlisted here
  19. 19. WILLIAM WITHERING (1741-1799 AD) • In 1785 Withering Published “ An account of the foxglove and some of its medical uses” . • His observation on the use of digitalis in the treatment of dropsy & ascites due to congestive heart failure • He also invented the botanical microscope
  20. 20. WITHERING`S
  21. 21. EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823) • Discovered & established the principle of prophylactic immunization against smallpox & was the first to describe Anaphylaxis. • Thus Jenner set the stage for later development of preventive medicine & immunological therapy
  22. 22. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657 AD) • Discovered the circulation of blood and indicated that drugs were distributed to various parts of the body by this means.
  23. 23. CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723 AD) • The great English architect made the 1st intravenous injection of drugs into a dog, but it was not until 1853 that the hypodermic needle & syringe were devised by alexander wood. • This was to have a major influence on later pharmacologic experimentation.
  24. 24. FRANCOIS MAGENDIE (1783 -1855 AD) • French physiologist-pharmacologist, who in association some of his pupils established the foundation for modern pharmacology. • He studied effects of ipecac, morphine, hydrocyanic acid, strychnine, I2, potassium, veratridine, quinine & published his work. • He is known for describing the foramen of magendie. • He is also notoriously known for the cruel side of his experiments & dissections on live animals, which provoked an antivivisection campaign.
  26. 26. CLAUDE BERNARD (1813 -1878 AD) • French physiologist & student of Magendie, considered as ‘father of Experimental Medicine’ for the use of scientific methods & experiments in medicine. • Bernard is mainly known for his discoveries concerning the role of pancreas in digestion, glycogenic function of liver, regulation of blood supply by vasomotor nerves. • He also identified the site of action of curare (arrow poison) & used curare, strychnine, carbon monoxide etc. in his studies. • Similar to F.Magendie, he subjected cruelty on animals in his experiments & practiced vivisection, which was opposed by his family & many scientists with campaign against the practice of vivisection.
  27. 27. FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADAM SERTURNER (1783 - 1841) • As a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn, he was the first to isolate morphine from opium. He called the isolated alkaloid "morphium" after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. • However, it only became widely used after 1815. In 1809, Sertürner opened his first own pharmacy in Einbeck • In 1822, he bought the main pharmacy in Hamelin (Rathaus Apotheke), where he worked until his death in 1841.
  28. 28. NOTE ON ISOLATION OF ACTIVE ALKALOIDS • Following Friedrich Serturner who isolated specific narcotic substance MORPHINE, there followed in rapid succession isolation of active alkaloids from variety of medicinal plants trough work of;  Joseph Caventou (1795-1877)  Pierre Pelletier (1788- 1842)  Philip Geiger (1785-1836) George Merck (1825-1873)  Albert Neimann (1840-1921)
  29. 29. PIERRE-JOSEPH PELLETIER (22 MARCH 1788 – 19 JULY 1842) • Pierre-Joseph Pelletier was a French chemist who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quinine and strychnine
  30. 30. GEORGE MERCK • George Merck (1867 as Georg Merck , † octomber 21, 1926 in New Jersey ) was a German-American entrepreneur and founder of Merck & Co. • George made a three-year apprenticeship as a merchant in a drug wholesaler in Frankfurt am Main. • He continued the training in France, England, the United States and Canada continued. In 1889 he was involved in the company E. Merck. • As one of the newly founded subsidiary in the United States sought a governor on the spot from the family, George Merck moved in 1891 with his wife Frederike, nee Schenk (1856- 1943), to New York, where he founded the trading company Merck & Co.
  31. 31. PHILIPP LORENZ GEIGER (1785–1836) • German chemist and pharmacist; Professor at the University of Heidelberg from 1824 until his death, credited with discovering Coniine, Atropine, Colchicine and other plant alkaloids
  32. 32. ALBERT NEIMANN (1840-1921) • Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann (May 20, 1834 – January 19, 1861) was a German chemist. • In 1859 - he isolated cocaine, and he published his finding in 1860. • He published his finding in 1860 in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves). This dissertation earned him his Ph.D. and was published in 1860 in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.
  33. 33. RUDOLF BUCHHEIM (1820-1879 AD) • German pharamacologist who established the 1st laboratory devoted exclusively to the study of pharmacology at the university of Dorpat in Estonia. • Buchheim is remembered for his pioneer work in experimental pharmacology & in turning pharmacology from an empirical study of medicine into an exact science. • He conducted extensive research in his laboratory to elucidate actions of drug with in body. • He introduced the bioassay to pharmacology & credited a methodology for determining the quantitative & medical aspects of chemical substances. • He edited a book Art der Wirkung eliminating obsolete & ineffectual medicines and practices.
  34. 34. OSWALD SCHMIEDEBERG (1838-1921 AD) • German pharmacologist who established pharmacology as an independent scientific discipline based upon experimental methodology. • He worked under R.Buchheim at Dorpat & in 1872 became professor of pharmacology in the university of Strasbourg, France (then germany) where he taught pharmacology for next 46 years & trained 150 pharmacologists. • His work primarily dealt with finding the correlation between the chemical structures of the substances & their effectiveness as narcotics. • He introduced the technique of perfusing isolated organs & studied the effect of drug on them. • He worked on drugs like Muscarine, Nicotine, Digitalis glycosides & various toxic heavy metals. • He published over 200 scientific books & articles and is often regarded as the ‘father of modern pharmacology’
  36. 36. CRAWFORD W LONG (1815 - 1878) • American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled diethyl ether as an anesthetic. • Introduced ether as a general anesthetic – 1842 • Long was honored in the "Famous American Series" of postage stamps in 1940.
  37. 37. JOHN NEWPORT LANGLEY (1852-1925) • British physiologist – pharmacologist, who determined in 1901 that adrenomedullary extracts clicited responses in different tissues which were similar to those induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation, also he advanced research in neurotransmitters and chemical receptors, working with extracts from adrenal glands. • In the wake of these findings, he proposed in 1905 that a receptive substances (receptors) was the site of action of chemical mediators liberated by nerve stimulation. • The genesis of the concept of chemical synaptic transmission has been attributed to Langley.
  38. 38. ALEXANDER WOOD (1817 - 1884) • A Scottish physician, invented the first true hypodermic syringe 1853. • His biographer and brother-in-law, Rev Thomas Brown (1811-1893), stated that Wood had taken the sting of the bee as his model. • Brown also noted that, 'At first this new hypodermic method was employed exclusively for the administration of morphia and preparations of opium, but it is important to note that, from the outset, Dr Wood pointed to a far wider application.
  39. 39. JOHN JACOB ABEL (1857-1938 AD) • American biochemist & pharmacologist known for isolation of epinephrine in 1898 and later of insulin in crystalline form. • He founded the ‘journal of biological chemistry’ in 1905 & ‘journal of pharmacology & experimental therapeutics’ in 1909 • He is regarded as ‘Father of American Pharmacology’.
  40. 40. HANS H MEYER (MARCH 17, 1853 – OCTOBER 6, 1939 ) • Hans Horst Meyer was a German pharmacologist • He studied medicine and did research in pharmacology. • The Meyer-Overton hypothesis on the mode of action on general anaesthetics is partially named after him. • He also discovered the importance of glucuronic acid as a reaction partner for drugs, and the mode of action of tetanus toxin on the body. • Hans Horst Meyer Medal awarded by the Vienna Academy of Sciences
  41. 41. HENRY DALE(1875-1968) • Identified the muscarinic & cholinergic actions of Ach.1914. • Awarded Nobel prize (jointly with Otto Loewi) in physiology/medicine in 1936 for discovery.
  42. 42. OTTO LOEWI (1873-1961) • Showed that Acetylcholine is a mediator of neuro-transmission.1921. • Awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine in 1936 jointly with Henry Dale.
  43. 43. ,
  44. 44. FREDERICK BANTING (1891-1941) & CHARLES BEST (1899-1978) • Canadian doctor Frederick Banting and American biomedical scientist Charles Best co-discovered insulin in 1921. • Frederick Banting, MD, and his then student assistant, Charles Best, MD, extract insulin from dog pancreases. • Banting and Best were working in laboratory space at the University of Toronto provided by Professor J.J.R. Macleod. They inject the insulin into dogs whose pancreases have been removed, and the animals’ bloodsugar levels go down. • James Collip purifies the extract so that it can be used in humans. Banting and Macleod were awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, though the contributions of all four men have been recognized as important in the discovery of insulin
  45. 45. ALEXANDER FLEMING (1928) • Discovered Pencillin & found its curative effect in various infectious diseases. • Awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine (lointly with Ernst B Chain, Howard W Florey) in 1945 for this discovery.
  46. 46. GERHALD DOMAGK (1932) • Introduced Prontosil as the first clinical anti-streptococcal agent • Awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine in 1939 for this discovery
  47. 47. PAUL H MULLER (1899 -1965) • Paul H. Müller synthesized dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and showed that it was an effective insecticide.1939. • He was the first person to win a Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology who was not a medical doctor, and one of the first whose work was primarily in a corporate, rather than an academic environment. • DDT, used to control mosquitoes spreading malaria, typhus, and other diseases, undoubtedly saved countless lives, but the compound was also used widely as an agricultural insecticide.
  48. 48. ALBERT SCHATZ, ELIZABETH BUGIE, SELMAN A WAKSMAN (1944) • Discovered streptomycin, the first effective antibiotic against Tuberculosis. • Seman A Waksman was awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine in 1952 for this discovery
  49. 49. DANIEL BOVET (1907-1992) Swiss born Italian pharmacologist In the early 1930’s Bovet and his coworkers conducted a series of experiments on Prontosil & they concluded that Prontosil derived its therapeutic powers due to the presence of sulphanilamide In 1937 Bovet and his research student Anne Marie Staub succeeded in synthesizing the first antihistaminic Thymoxidiethylamine. In 1947 he discovered gallamine when he was looking for a synthetic substitute for curare Isolated succinylcholine, a muscle relaxant now used in conjunction with anesthesia during certain surgical procedures. In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine for his discoveries.
  50. 50. RAYMOND P AHLQUIST (1914-1983) • An American pharmacist and pharmacologist. • He published seminal work in 1948 that divided adrenoceptors into α- and β- adrenoceptor subtypes. And showed that a single sympathetic mediator could produce both excitatory and inhibitory responses • This discovery explained the activity of several existing drugs and also laid the ground work for new drugs including the widely prescribed beta blockers.
  51. 51. EARL W SUTHERLAND (1962) • Demonstrated that adenosine 3`,5` - cyclic adenosine monophosphoric acid (cAMP) functions as secondary messenger in several hormonal actions. • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971 was awarded to Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones".
  52. 52. BERNARD KATZ, ULF V EULER, JULIUS AXELROD (1970) • Awarded nobel prize "For their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation",
  53. 53. J R VANE, J B SMITH, A L WILLS (1971) • Proposed separately that aspirin produces its action by inhibiting production of prostaglandins.
  54. 54. BENGT I SAMUELSSON, SUNE K BERGSTROM, JOHN R VANE. • Awarded Nobel prize in physiology/medicine for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins & related substances (1982)
  55. 55. SIR COL. RAM NATH CHOPRA (1882-1973 AD) • Pioneer in the field of experimental pharmacology of indigenous drugs of INDIA. • He enormously worked in the area of studies on Indigenous drugs covering their chemical composition, invitro & invivo tests for the active principles, biochemical & biophysical changes in mammalian organism; • Acclaimed as the “father of indian pharmacology”
  56. 56. L MEYER JONES (1913-2002 AD) • Regarded as ‘Father of Modern Veterinary Pharmacology’ • He authored the 1st edition of ‘veterinary pharmacology & therapeutics’ in 1954 and was instrumental in shifting emphasis in the veterinary curriculum from materia medica to the modern science of veterinary pharmacology.
  57. 57. SIR JAMES W. BLACK, GERTRUDE B. ELION, GEORGE H. HITCHINGS. (1988) • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988, "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
  58. 58. ALFRED G. GILMAN, MARTIN RODBELL (1994) • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994, "for their discovery of G- proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
  59. 59. ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO, FERID MURAD. (1998) • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998, "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
  60. 60. ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD, ERIC R. KANDEL. (2000) • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000, "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system“.
  61. 61. BARRY JAMES MARSHALL & J ROBIN WARREN, 2005. • Barry James Marshall, (born 30 September 1951) is an Australian physician, NOBEL PRIZE laureate inPhysiology or Medicine, and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. • John Robin Warren AC (born 11 June 1937 in Adelaide) is an Australian pathologist, Nobel Laureate and researcher who is credited with the 1979 re-discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, together with Barry Marshall • Marshall and Robin Warren showed that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cause of most peptic ulcers, reversing decades of medical doctrine holding that ulcers were caused by stress, spicy foods, and too much acid.
  62. 62. 20TH CENTURY  The science of pharmacology flourished in the medical & pharmacy schools, during 20th century, and the focus of leadership shifted from EUROPE to the USA. This was due in part to the occurrence of 2 world wars & the emergence of America as an industrial power. The ability of chemists in the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize new chemical substances removed our dependence on natural products as a source of drugs. All aspects of the science progressed rapidly during this century, with appreciable gains in effective treatment and control of diseases.
  63. 63. THE DEVELOPMENT OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY The development is the same as that for humans. Through much of medical history little distinction was made between human & animal medicine, and both profession share common roots. Early European schools of veterinary medicine were established in conjugation with schools of human medicine. Near the beginning of the 20th century the two professions & their schools separated & developed more / less independently. Since that time a cultural lag has existed between human & veterinary medicine due to differences in size and economic factors.
  64. 64. . The teaching of Materia Medica as a didactic course persisted in veterinary schools until 1950`s. little was known/taught about pharmacology of drugs in domesticated animals. As with most aspects of veterinary medicine, veterinary pharmacology has lagged behind its human counterpart by several years. Today, however, veterinary pharmacology is a vital part of veterinary medical education & research.
  65. 65. REFERENCES  H Richard Adams, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 8th edition.  Harpal Singh Sandhu, Essentials of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2nd edition.  Jim E Riviere & Mark G Papich, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 9th edition. "All Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine". Google images. Wikipedia.  Goodman and Gilman’s :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics : 12th edition
  66. 66. THANK-YOU