www.simplyhealth.co.uk
Ageing Population
Managing the health and wellbeing of an increasingly
age diverse workforce to saf...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 2
Ageing Population
Ageing demographics and implications for excellence in
managing employee absenc...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 3
Ageing Population
While more people are living longer healthier lives never the less, as ageing
p...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 4
Ageing Population
Myths about older workers
Older workers can’t wait to retire
Increasingly peopl...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 5
Ageing Population
Performance problems which appear to be age related may in fact be due to
lack ...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 6
Ageing Population
Tips on managing absence
Employers need good data on absence to enable them to ...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 7
Ageing Population
Kinds of older workers
It is important to remember that older workers are not a...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 8
Ageing Population
Conclusions
Employers should not assume that managing health and wellbeing is o...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 9
Ageing Population
Simplyhealth view
This paper clearly highlights the place for older workers. Wi...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 10
Ageing Population
Dianah Worman OBE Chartered FCIPD is the Public Policy Adviser for
Diversity a...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 11
Ageing Population
The CIPD
The CIPD is the professional body for HR and people development with ...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 12
Ageing Population
Useful References
ADVISORY, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION SERVICE. (2011) Age a...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 13
Ageing Population
DEPARTMENT FOR WORK AND PENSIONS. Age Positive, and CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF
PER...
www.simplyhealth.co.uk 14
Ageing Population
London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and Department for Work...
Private health insurance Health cash plans Dental plans Self funded plans
1403121
Simplyhealth is a trading name of Simply...
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Ageing Population White Paper

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Managing the health and wellbeing of an increasingly age diverse workforce to safeguard future talent. A 21st Century business challenge

In this white paper Dianah Worman OBE, Public Policy Adviser for Diversity at the CIPD, looks at the key facts and figures surrounding the age diversity of the UK workforce and potential of older workers to fill any skills shortages.
Between 2002 and 2032 the number of people over fifty will almost double from 9 million to 17 million. In 2012 over fifties made up 29% of the working population compared to 25% in 2002.
The UK Commission for Employment and Skills projects that in the next ten years there will be 13.5 million job vacancies but only 7 million people leaving school. Businesses could look to older workers to fill these job vacancies and plug any skills shortages. Naturally there are assumptions and concerns that businesses have around older workers such as health and wellbeing, absence management, and capabilities. This paper addresses the myths and the facts, and examines the different types of older workers.

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Ageing Population White Paper

  1. 1. www.simplyhealth.co.uk Ageing Population Managing the health and wellbeing of an increasingly age diverse workforce to safeguard future talent. A 21st Century business challenge Introduction In this white paper Dianah Worman OBE, Public Policy Adviser for Diversity at the CIPD, looks at the key facts and figures surrounding the age diversity of the UK workforce and potential of older workers to fill any skills shortages. Between 2002 and 2032 the number of people over fifty will almost double from 9 million to 17 million. In 2012 over fifties made up 29% of the working population compared to 25% in 2002. The UK Commission for Employment and Skills projects that in the next ten years there will be 13.5 million job vacancies but only 7 million people leaving school. Businesses could look to older workers to fill these job vacancies and plug any skills shortages. Naturally there are assumptions and concerns that businesses have around older workers such as health and wellbeing, absence management, and capabilities. This paper addresses the myths and the facts, and examines the different types of older workers.
  2. 2. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 2 Ageing Population Ageing demographics and implications for excellence in managing employee absence and health issues In the UK and other highly developed economies, ageing population demographics are changing the characteristics of labour markets. These will increasingly bring into focus the importance of good practice in addressing workforce health and wellbeing. Organisations need to analyse the reasons for absence and look to become more creative and innovative in the design of employment policies and practices. This will aid in maintaining the skills base and levels of employee engagement needed to remain competitive and to sustain performance. Essential in attracting and keeping talent will be how organisations review their approach to: • Recruitment • Recognition and reward • Training and development • Retirement In CIPD research (CIPD 2009) employers testified difficulties in getting people with the right skills to fill job vacancies even during the recent recession with high levels of unemployment. As austerity reduces and economic growth improves unemployment will continue to decline and the war for talent will become tougher. Difficulty in finding people with the right skills will increase and employers will be forced to be more robust in retaining talent and protecting this resource in ways that reduce turnover and delivers high performance working. Against this background, growing mental health problems, stress related conditions and a worldwide obesity epidemic means more and more recognition is being given to the importance of wellbeing and health in creating productive workplaces. Employee health and wellbeing will increasingly be seen as something that is more than something that is nice to do and more as a common sense business savvy approach to contribute to good people performance. The good practice approach to managing absence is to be proactive and alert to causes of sickness and mental health problems to stem worsening situations by adopting early interventions and raising line manager awareness about doing this. Not for the primary purpose of rooting out malingering but to stimulate employee engagement, better personal health management and earlier return to work patterns all of which contribute to better outcomes for people as well as organisations.
  3. 3. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 3 Ageing Population While more people are living longer healthier lives never the less, as ageing progresses the chances of developing an ill health condition or a disability also increases especially if certain lifestyles are contributory factors. The increasing age diversity of the workforce will call for smarter and coherent strategies to protect the life span of corporate talent. How the population is ageing Figure 1 shows the broad age structure of the UK population between 2002 and 2032. The impact of population ageing builds over time, especially in the decade between 2022 and 2032. The total UK population is expected to increase from 59 million in 2002 to 72 million by 2032. Whereas the population under 50 years old increases by just over 10% (from 50 million to 55 million), the population aged 50 and over nearly doubles from 9 million to 17 million. How the age of the employed workforce is ageing The combined effect of changes in employment rates and population changes has seen an ageing of the employed workforce, as shown in Figure 2. In 2002, people aged over 50 accounted for slightly less than 25% of total employment, whereas they accounted for nearly 29% by 2012. In contrast, the share of employment accounted for by 15-24 year olds fell over the same period from 15% to 13%. Some key facts • We are running out of workers: current employer plans suggest that we will need to fill 13.5 million job vacancies in the next ten years, but only 7 million young people will leave school and college (UKCES 2010/GADa) • Older people are the main untapped source of labour: unlike migrants, they already live here, and their numbers are growing. By 2020, 36% of the working population will be over 50 (Government Actuary’s Department) • More and more people want to work longer if the conditions are right: surveys regularly show that older workers would work longer if they enjoy their work and could work more flexibly (McNair et al 2004) • Compulsory retirement is now illegal the removal of the default retirement age except in very special and justifiable circumstances • In the private sector 43% to 52% of employees are paying into a workplace pension scheme (CIPD winter 2013 Employee Outlook) • The proportion of older workers aged 55 and above planning to work beyond the state pension age is increasing all the time. In 2010 54% of employees expected to do this (CIPD 2010b). New CIPD research published in 2014 showed 38% of employees expect to retire between the ages of 66 and 70 2002 0 0 50,000 70,000 30,000 40,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 60,000 30,000 10,000 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 75+ 65-74 50-64 25-49 15-24 0-14 65+ 50-64 25-49 15-24 2002 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 0 30,000 20,000 10,000 2032 5+ 74 64 49 24 14 65+ 50-64 25-49 15-24 2002 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 Figure 1: Age structure of the UK population 2002-2032 Figure 1 sources: ONS 2012 Principal population projections and revised mid-year estimates for 2002 and 2007. Figure 2: Actual and illustrative projected age structure of UK employment 2002-2032 Figure 2 sources: CIPD calculations based on ONS 2012 Principal population projections and revised mid-year estimates for 2002 and 2007, employment rates for May-Jul 2002 and 2012 based on the Labour Force Survey and CIPD aasumptions for employment rates for 2017 onwards.
  4. 4. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 4 Ageing Population Myths about older workers Older workers can’t wait to retire Increasingly people over 50 will want to extend their working lives but this appetite will be based on the availability of phased or flexible retirement and flexible ways of working. Most employees retire at state pension age anyway Most people retire at a date which suits them and their employers. A benchmark is the state retirement age which is rising and being equalised for men and women. Older workers spend a lot of time on sick leave Older workers are not more likely to take time off through ill health but patterns of absence are different with more chance of those with health problems having longer periods of absence making it important to manage return to work support (Scottish Centre for Healthy Working Lives 2011). Managing disabled older workers takes a lot of management time Most disabilities require little, if any, additional management. Although 29% of workers in their fifties and 37% of those in their sixties have a disability which is certified under the Disability Discrimination Act (ONS 2011c), many of these go entirely unnoticed, and some are temporary. Of the remainder, most people can stay economically active with only minor adjustments to their working conditions. Once people have left for health reasons, they don’t want to return Three in ten economically inactive people in their fifties would like to return to work (ONS 2011c), but once out of work it is extremely difficult to return. Work performance declines with age Some physically demanding tasks can become more difficult with age, but changes in work practices, technology and health and safety mean that there are now relatively few jobs which cannot be done by an averagely healthy 60 year old. Mental abilities also change with age, but do not necessarily decline. In tests, older and younger workers achieve similar results, but may do so in different ways. While the ability to solve problems or think quickly can decline gradually throughout adulthood, the ability to learn from past experiences increases throughout life.
  5. 5. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 5 Ageing Population Performance problems which appear to be age related may in fact be due to lack of support from managers, unmet training needs and poor performance management. Work is bad for older people’s health Although some work damages the health and wellbeing of the worker, most work is good for people. Studies of older people show clearly that those who stay in work are healthier and often happier than those who retire early (Waddell and Burton 2006, Black 2008). Older workers find work more stressful For most people, stress levels go down after the mid-40s, and some of the indicators of stress, such as short-term absenteeism, decline as people age (HSE 2007). Some degree of stress is positive: the most satisfied older workers are those who say they experience ‘excessive stress’ more than once a month, but less than once a week (secondary analysis of data drawn from CIPD 2011d). For those who do have problems with stress, measures such as changing working hours, training and providing support can help them manage workplace pressure (CIPD 2010a). However, older workers are less likely than younger ones to be offered support from their employers in dealing with problems of work life balance (especially caring for elderly relatives). Changes in work hours or responsibility can help older workers reduce stress while remaining productive. Older workers have more accidents There is no evidence for this. Older workers are generally less likely than younger workers to have occupational accidents, but accidents involving older workers are more likely to involve more serious injuries, such as those leading to death, than those involving younger workers (Griffiths et al 2009).
  6. 6. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 6 Ageing Population Tips on managing absence Employers need good data on absence to enable them to identify patterns and trends of absence and respond appropriately. The most effective absence management interventions include: Short term absence • Return to work interviews • Trigger mechanisms to address high levels of absence • Use of disciplinary procedures for unacceptable and non health related absence • Restriction of sick pay • Training line managers to take primary responsibility for managing absence Long term absence • Occupational health involvement • Return to work interviews • Trigger mechanisms to review attendance • Rehabilitation programmes • Changes to working patterns or environment
  7. 7. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 7 Ageing Population Kinds of older workers It is important to remember that older workers are not a homogenous group. They are made up of unique individuals with diverse needs and preferences. Some ways of considering these differences are exampled below. Aspirers – some older people continue to seek new challenges, through promotion or changed roles, well into their 50s and beyond and are a major motivated source of skills and knowledge. Stayers – many older people are content in their work and keen to carry on working in the same role. Downsizers – some older people have an appetite to carry on working longer but on a reduced time basis. They are interested in flexible ways of working and flexible retirement. Some want to carry on working in a different and perhaps less challenging job, for example one with less responsibility. Such appetites offer opportunities to businesses to both retain skills and knowledge and provide development scope for other talent. At risk – some older workers have been in the same organisation for a long time, doing a job which they understand, in a context in which their skills and limitations are understood. To carry on working some have an appetite for refreshing their skill sets to make themselves more employable. Leavers – some older workers want to retire sooner, rather than later. Finding out why this is can give organisations important insights about any underlying management problems and how to resolve them. Debriefing is important to ensure that valuable older employees are retained before quitting.
  8. 8. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 8 Ageing Population Conclusions Employers should not assume that managing health and wellbeing is only for older employees. The requirements of employees of all ages need to be catered for to protect an organisation’s talent pipeline. Workforces are becoming even more age diverse as a result of ageing demographics and appetites to extend working life demand coherent responses for pressing business reasons especially to maintain productivity and competitiveness. The latest CIPD research related to managing an increasingly age diverse workforce published in March 2014, shows good news. Employers provisions for employee health and wellbeing are seemingly strong. • When it comes to provisions for health and wellbeing, nearly half of HR professionals (47%) point to good practices in managing sickness absence and 40% providing Occupational Health services. Nearly a third (30%) have Employee Assistance services and a similar number (29%) provide line manager training to enable them to be alert to the early warning signs of employee health issues. • With regards to specific initiatives that organisations employ to support the extension of working life, flexible working options (42%) and a flexible retirement policy (30%) are the most likely initiatives used. While many employers are in the vanguard, many need to catch up and address the issue of workforce ageing as a key business challenge by being holistic and strategic rather than reactive. Employers seeking to outperform competitors will need to catch up with leading edge competitors’ practices to attract and keep talent and be seen as a great place to work to safeguard their future talent interests.
  9. 9. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 9 Ageing Population Simplyhealth view This paper clearly highlights the place for older workers. With appropriate management, older workers have the ability for high performance, and can plug the resource gap. A one size fits all approach doesn’t work, and that remains true even under the bracket of ‘older workers’. The section on motivations of different kinds of older workers demonstrates this. As with many workplace issues, it’s interesting to observe the role of the line manager and just how important the right leadership is. This is a theme that comes through time and time again in our series of white papers. Looking at health and wellbeing more closely, it cannot be considered just for a certain group of people. That much is clear. So what are the implications for organisations? People are living longer with illness. And this will impact on the cost of healthcare provision. Health insurance providers will inevitably charge higher premiums for older workers – insurance is based on risk after all. The key is to plan for increased costs. There are a number of different options for you to consider: 1. Provide a flexible rewards package, with a fixed benefit pot where individuals can tailor the benefits to suit their lifestyle needs – appropriate for a diverse workforce 2. Non-traditional benefits like health cash plans have a place to tackle everyday healthcare needs – cost effective enough to offer to the whole workforce 3. Carefully tailor your private medical insurance packages to ensure that they deliver value for your business. Many larger businesses now choose a self funded plan that allows for cover to meet your exact requirements under a tax efficient wrapper that excludes the need to pay insurance premium tax, currently levied at 6% of premiums collected. Don’t be frightened of an ageing workforce instead think strategically, plan and be prepared. In turn you could be rewarded with a flexible, experienced workforce that can adapt with your business.
  10. 10. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 10 Ageing Population Dianah Worman OBE Chartered FCIPD is the Public Policy Adviser for Diversity at the CIPD Dianah has worked in the field of diversity and inclusion for many years. She is the Public Policy Adviser on diversity for the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development which is the leading professional body in the UK on people management and development. She directs the Institute’s diversity research programme and leads the development of good practice guidance on diversity to help employers make progress in this challenging and complex field. She also leads the Institute’s public policy work on diversity to help shape Government policy and legal provisions such as the Equality Act 2010. She has driven a range of research on diversity and inclusion issues including managing diversity and the business case, tackling discrimination on the basis of age and disability, issues related to equal pay, harassment and bullying, as well as race, work–life balance and employing people with criminal records. Recent work has focused on managing the challenges of an ageing workforce, the integration of talent management and diversity, practical guidance on gaining traction on progressing diversity and inclusion in business, and framing the future of work through flexible responses to employment practices. A frequent speaker at events she has addressed audiences in many European countries and has undertaken work for the Singapore Government on managing an ageing workforce. She was invited as a global thought leader on diversity and inclusion by the Society of Human Resource Management in the United States to take part in an initiative to inform the progress of diversity and inclusion in business. In addition she frequently sits on advisory boards related to the conduct of academic research. She was awarded an OBE for her services to diversity, in the Queen’s birthday honours list in 2006.
  11. 11. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 11 Ageing Population The CIPD The CIPD is the professional body for HR and people development with over 130,000 members internationally. Our purpose is to champion better work and working lives for the benefit of individuals, businesses, economies and society. Research plays a critical role in this, providing the content we need to drive practice, raise standards and influence policy on behalf of the profession we represent. CIPD is an independent not for profit organisation. About Simplyhealth Discover why 20,000 businesses choose us as their healthcare provider including major UK brands such as AstraZeneca, British Airways, John Lewis Partnership, Royal Mail, Tesco and Yorkshire Building Society. We cover almost four million people with healthcare cover, more than any other healthcare company. You can rely on our specialist knowledge because we only focus on healthcare. We partner with experts in the industry to keep your business informed on the latest HR and healthcare developments. The Institute of Customer Service recognises our customer service team as world class and we have achieved its ServiceMark accreditation. We adopt a genuine partnership approach to ensure your plan runs efficiently and smoothly and that’s why our clients stay with us for ten years on average. We provide private medical insurance, health cash plans, dental plans and self funded health plans. You can out more about our health plans at www.simplyhealth.co.uk/business
  12. 12. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 12 Ageing Population Useful References ADVISORY, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION SERVICE. (2011) Age and the workplace [online]. London: ACAS.Available at: http://www.acas.gov.uk/ CHttpHandler.ashx?id=588&p=0 [Accessed 12 January 2012]. BLACK, C. (2008) Working for a healthier tomorrow [online]. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/hwwb-working-for-a-healthier-tomorrow.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CARNEGIE UNITED KINGDOM TRUST. (1996) The third age: the continuing challenge. Dunfermline: Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2014) Managing an age- diverse workforce: employer and employee views. Survey report. London: CIPD. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2011a) Employee engagement [online]. Factsheet. London: CIPD. Available at: http:// www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/ employee-engagement.aspx [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2011b) Employee outlook: Focus on managing an ageing workforce [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/ binaries/Employee%20Outlook%20Focus%20on%20 age.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2011c) Employee outlook: Focus on pensions [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/ binaries/5445%20 Employee%20Outlook%20Focus%20pensions%20 (WEB).pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2011d) Employee outlook: spring 2011 [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/ Employee%20 Outlook%20Spring%202011.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2011e) Employee outlook: summer 2011 [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www,cuod,ci,yj/ binaries/5607%20 Employee%20Outlook%20summer%202011.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2010a) Employee outlook: Emerging from the downturn? [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www. cipd.co.uk/binaries/ Employee_Outlook_Winter_2010.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2010b) Employee outlook: Focus on the ageing workforce [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www. cipd.co.uk/ binaries/5306_Focus-on-ageing-workforce.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2010c) HR outlook: autumn 2010 [online]. Survey report. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/ bineries/5374520HR%20 Outlook%20Full%20WEB.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2009) The war on talent? Talent management under threat in uncertain times [online]. Hot topic. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www. cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/survey-reports/war-on-talent-talent-management-under- threat-uncertain-times.aspx [Accessed 12 January 2012]. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2005) Flexible working: impact and implementation: an employer survey. Survey report. London: CIPD. THE DATA SERVICE. http://www.thedataservice.org.uk/
  13. 13. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 13 Ageing Population DEPARTMENT FOR WORK AND PENSIONS. Age Positive, and CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2012) Performance and retirement practices – get it right! Guide. London: CIPD. Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006. (2006) SI 2006/1031. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/stat.htm [Accessed 12 January 2012]. FLYNN, M. and MCNAIR, S. (2011) Managing age: new edition 2011 [online]. Guide. London: CIPD. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/Managing%20 Age%20GUIDE.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. GOVERNMENT ACTUARY’S DEPARTMENT. (a) Demography data [online]. London: Government Actuary’s Department. Available at: http://www.gad. gov.uk/Demography%20Data/index.html [Accessed 12 January 2012]. GOVERNMENT ACTUARY’S DEPARTMENT. (b) Life tables [online]. London: Government Actuary’s Department. Available at: http://www.gad.gov.uk/ Demography%20Data/Life%20Tables/ index.html [Accessed 12 January 2012]. GRIFFITHS, A., KNIGHT, A. and NOR MOHD MAHUDIN, D. (2009) Ageing, work-related stress and health: reviewing the evidence [online]. London: Age Concern and Help the Aged and TAEN – The Age and Employment Network. Available at: http://www.taen. org.uk/uploads/ resources/24455_TAEN_Work_Related_ Stress_32pg.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE. (2007) Managing the causes of work-related stress: a step- by-step approach using the Management Standards [online]. 2nd ed. London: HSE Books. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/ pubns/priced/hsg218.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. ILC-UK. (2010) The golden economy: the consumer marketplace in an ageing society [online]. London: Age UK. Available at: http://www.ilcuk.org.uk/files/ pdf_pdf_155.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. LORETTO, W., VICKERSTAFF, S. and WHITE, P. (2005) Older workers and options for flexible work. Working paper series, No 31. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission. MacLEOD, A., WORMAN, D., WILTON, P., WOODMAN, P. and HUTCHINGS, P. (2010) Managing an ageing workforce: how employers are adapting to an older labour market [online]. London: Chartered Management Institute and Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www. cipd.co.uk/binaries/Managing_Ageing_Workforce.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. MCNAIR, S. (2010) A sense of a future: a study of training and work in later life [online]. Leicester: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education. Available at: http://shop.niace.org.uk/media/ catalog/ product/a/_/a_sense_of_a_future_full_report__final_2. pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. MCNAIR, S., FLYNN, M. and DUTTON, Y. (2007) Employer responses to an ageing workforce: a qualitative study [online]. Department for Work and Pensions, Research Report, No 455. Leeds: Corporate Document Services. Available at: http://research. dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/ rports2007-2008/rrep455.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. MCNAIR, S., FLYNN, M. and OWEN, L. (2004) Changing work in later life: a study of job transitions. Guildford: University of Surrey. Centre for Research into the Older Workforce. MEADOWS, P. (2004) Retirement ages in the UK: a review of the literature [online]. Employment Relations Research Series, No 18. London: Department of Trade and Industry. Available at: http:// www.bis.gov.uk/files/file11528.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. METCALF, H. and MEADOWS, P. (2010) Second survey of employers’ policies, practices and preferences relating to age, 2010 [online]. Employment Relations Research Series, No 110.
  14. 14. www.simplyhealth.co.uk 14 Ageing Population London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and Department for Work and Pensions. Available at: http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2009-2010/rrep682.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS. (2011a) 2010-based national population projections – principal projection and key variants.[online]. London: ONS. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ ons/dcp171778_235886.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. ‘Provisional estimates of long term international migration December 2010’. In: OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS. (2011b) Migration statistics quarterly report, August 2011 [online]. London: ONS. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/rereference-tables. html?edition=tcm%3A77-222711 [Accessed 12 January 2012]. OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS. (2011c) Quarterly Labour Force Survey, April–June 2011 [online]. London: ONS. Available at: http://www.esds.ac.uk/findingData/snDescription. asp?sn=6851 [Accessed 12 January 2012]. OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS. (2009) National population projections, 2008-based. Series PP2 No 27. London: ONS. PENNA and CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT. (2008) Gen up: how the four generations work [online]. London: Penna. Available at: http://www.penna.com/ research/Detail/Gen-Up-How-the-four-generations-work [Accessed 12 January 2012]. SCOTTISH CENTRE FOR HEALTHY WORKING LIVES. (2011) The key role of line managers [online]. Hamilton: Scottish Centre for Healthy Working Lives. Available at: http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/workplace-health-promotion/workpositive/ guidelinesforlinemanagers.aspx [Accessed 12 January 2012]; STEWART, E. and ROWLATT, A. (2011) Flexible working: working for families, working for business [online]. London: Department for Work and Pensions. Available at: http://www.dwp.gov. uk/docs/family-friendly-taskforce-report.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012]. UK COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT AND SKILLS. (2011) Working futures 2010–2020 [online]. London: UKCES. Available at: http://www.ukces.org. uk/publications/er41-working- futures-2010-2020 [Accessed 28 February 2012]. WADDELL, G. and BURTON, A. (2006) Is work good for your health and well-being? [online]. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/hwwb-is-work-good-for- you.pdf [Accessed 12 January 2012].
  15. 15. Private health insurance Health cash plans Dental plans Self funded plans 1403121 Simplyhealth is a trading name of Simplyhealth Access, which is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority. Simplyhealth Access is registered and incorporated in England and Wales, registered no. 183035. Registered office, Hambleden House, Waterloo Court, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 1LQ. Your calls may be recorded and monitored for training and quality assurance purposes.

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