134 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven
Door – A Measure to
Minimize Gas Emmission
from Coke Oven Doors
C.S.N. Sastry, C.P. Gupta and Rajeev Kumar
A B S T R A C T
The recent boom in world coke production suggests a multifold increase in greenhouse gas
emissions from coke oven doors worldwide. By the end of 2010, the world will have an annual
coking capacity of approximately 433 million tons, which corresponds to 167,700 tons of global
warming gas (CO2
equivalent) emission annually. This paper discusses the philosophy of
providing perfect gas sealing in coke oven doors and also discusses the satisfactory results obtained
at Bhilai Steel Plant of Steel Authority of India Limited and elsewhere.
Keywords: Coke Ovens, Environment, Coke Oven Doors, Gas Emissions, Sealing
Concerns on environmental issues are getting more and more serious worldwide. Regulations
for coking facilities have become more stringent than ever in every country. Non-recovery
coke oven batteries may be a choice for this issue, however, considering the huge investments
required to replace all existing batteries by non-recovery batteries, this choice may not be
feasible. Investigations on the sources of gas emissions from existing coke batteries have
not showed any promising results in meeting the regulations and the most difficult but
probable counter-measure is to eliminate gas emissions from around coke oven doors. It
seems gas emissions from coke oven doors are still a matter of headache. In this paper, the
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 135
sealing capabilities of coke oven doors and requirements for perfect gas emission prevention
and report on successful results obtained at Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) of Steel Authority of
India Limited (SAIL) and elsewhere have been discussed.
EMISSION FREE COKE OVENS
Coke Ovens (CO) Complex of BSP has been constantly striving to minimize the emissions
from coke oven doors of the coke batteries. The coke oven collective had earlier tried different
design of doors and different methods of door regulation to reduce gas emissions. During
the last 5 years, the gas leakage measured in PLD (Percentage Leaking Doors) has been
controlled below 10 per cent level with the use of asbestos ropes for sealing.
However, the continued efforts to reduce the door leakages below 5 per cent with this
technology seemed to be a herculean task. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of
India has fixed a norm of below 10 per cent PLD for a running old battery and maximum of
5 per cent PLD for a new battery.
In Battery No. 3 of BSP, all the doors have been replaced with air cooled self sealing
doors of improvised IKIO design supplied by M/S Simplex Castings Limited, Bhilai. With
this innovation the dream of achieving gas leakage of less than 1 per cent has been realized
and further efforts are being made to achieve totally emission free batteries.
This is a significant achievement, particularly, for a working battery. Following the above
success, with replacement of the present doors in the remaining batteries of BSP with new
Ikio Design Simplex Doors, the day of achieving emission free Coke Ovens is not far away,
thus contributing to the reduction of global warming.
Fig. 1 Battery No. 3 door emission – before and after installation of air cooled doors
136 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
Battery No. 3 of BSP (Start-up year- 1962, Rebuilt- 1990, Cold Repairs- 2007, Height 4.3
m., 65 Ovens of Russian Design) started the conversion of existing doors to “Air Cooled Self
Sealing Type Ikio-Simplex Doors” in the 1st
week of April, 2008 and finished worked in the 1st
week of August 2008. Fig. 1 shows the remarkable improvement in gas emission index (GEI)
of CPCB, India along with the progress of door replacements. Fig. 2 shows a current
photograph of BSP’s Battery No. 3 with practically negligible emission.
Fig. 2 BSP’s No. 3 Battery after door replacement
M/S. Simplex Castings Ltd., Bhilai entered into a Technical Collaboration in the year
1988 with M/S. Ikio Iron Works, Japan for making Emission Free Self Regulating Air
Coke Ovens is the area where maximum pollution is generated. Generally, Conventional
Type Coke Oven Doors are being used in Coke Oven Batteries, which are prone to heavy
leakage of hazardous gases, flames, heat and dust. Due to these reasons, Coke Ovens Complex
is considered as an unpreffered area to work, where workmen are exposed to pollution
resulting in low productivity. This is the main concern of all steel plants today.
Top managements of steel plants world over are concerned about pollution and working
conditions at Coke Oven Complexes and are continuously trying to improve the design of
Coke Oven Doors. M/S. Simplex Castings Ltd., Bhilai being a leading manufacturer of
Coke Oven Doors as per customer’s drawings and specifications, also realized the gravity
of this problem, studied the adverse impact in-depth in consultation with users, designers
and in-house studies. Various types of coke oven doors used world wide by different Coke
Oven Plants, posed the question of its suitability in design to meet the present environmental
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 137
norms, and after detailed study, M/S Simplex came up with “Emission Free Self Regulating
Air Cooled Coke Oven Doors” which here after are referred to simply as “Simplex Doors.”
ADVANTAGES OF EMISSION FREE SELF REGULATING AIR
COOLED COKE OVEN DOORS OF IKIO-SIMPLEX DESIGN
• Emission free
• Zero emission of fire between door frame and doors, PS and CS and leveler door
• Very less coke fall from Ovens
• Door regulation is very simple and doors are user friendly for doormen and door car
• Maintenance of the doors is very simple
• Self sealing and regulation by springs (spring steel)
• Diaphragm with Knife (stainless steel sheet and high tensile flat)
• Refractory material made of silica bricks having 40% alumina content
• Fibre packing made of ceramic fibre sheet, containing alumina, silica and zirconia,
which can withstand operating temperatures of the level of 1050 °C continuously
• The door does not rest on the oven sole; instead it is hung from the door frame
hanging bracket. Hence, the door is free for automatic regulation of the Diaphragm
Knife for self sealing by springs when the temperature rises to 1050°C
• Brick retainers are of cut back design. Provision of brick compartments of 5 to 6 Nos.
for easy circulation of hot air inside the chamber, so that while circulating, gas pressure
on Diaphragm Knife is less and coal tar deposits on sealing surface and door frame
sealing face is practically negligible
• It is recommended to incorporate the door along with the door frame to maintain
surface contact of knife with sealing surface of the frame.
• High output of coke oven gas
• Production of coke of high and uniform quality with optimum yield of by-products
• The environment remains pollution-free
Tata Steel at its Jamshedpur Works has replaced all its existing doors with Ikio-Simplex
Doors in the following batteries:
• Battery No. 7, start up 1989, height 4.5 m., OTFU, 54 ovens converted from original
coke oven doors to IKIO-SIMPLEX Doors in 1991;
• Battery No. 5 start up 1995, height 4.5 m., OTFU, 30 ovens;
• Battery No. 6, start up 1993, height 4.5m., OTFU, 60 ovens;
• Battery No. 8, start up 1998, height 4.5 m., OTFU, 70 ovens;
• Battery No. 9, start up 2000, height 4.5 m., OTFU, 70 ovens.
138 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
All its batteries have achieved the PLD within environmental norms.
Durgapur Steel Plant at its COB # 6 (height 4.45 m., OTFU, 39 ovens) has also converted
10 doors to the new Ikio-Simplex design.
Among the various international coke companies, at Lucchini-Piombino Coke Battery,
Ikio-Simplex Doors were installed during start up in June 2002 in the new battery, height 6.2
m., number of ovens 45; at SMS-Demag built Al-Nasar Coke Company, for producing Coke
& Chemicals at El-Tabbin, Helwan, Egypt, Ikio-Simplex Doors were installed in the 5.0m.
tall Battery No.3, start up in 1978, 65 ovens, BVR type, No. of doors replaced - 25 in 2007.
Recently, Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. ( RINL ), Vishakhapatnam, COB #4; ISP, SAIL,
Burnpur, COB # 10; Rourkela Steel Plant, SAIL, COB # 4; Bokaro Steel Plant, SAIL, COB #
1& 2; Jindal Stainless Steel, Jajpur, COB # 1, have all gone ahead for Ikio-Simplex doors
based on the recommendations of Mecon Limited and Centre for Engineering ( CET ), SAIL,
Ikio-Simplex doors are under operation in many advanced countries like Nippon Steel
Corporation ( NSC ), JFE ( Formerly NKK & Kawasaki Steel Corporations ), Arcelor Mittal,
Battery No. 1 & 2 at Aviles COB, Imasa, Spain, China Steel Corporation, Taiwan etc. and all
are working satisfactorily for more than a decade.
From the above evidences, sealing capability of Ikio-Simplex coke oven doors has been
clearly established. For monitoring of gas emissions, five (5) week rolling average of GEI is
to be used in order to observe the trend of gas emission behaviour. Every coke plant always
has to keep this rolling average below 10.
CONDITIONS FOR MAINTAINING GEI WITHIN NORMS
It is required to fulfill the following four conditions in order to keep GEI within a favourable
range. If any of these, is not satisfied, there will be no perfect results because these four
conditions are closely interlinked with each other.
The results obtained at BSP are the examples that fulfilled these four conditions, which
are shown below:
Condition 1 : Good Door
Condition 2 : Good Door Frame
Condition 3 : Good Cleaners
Condition 4 : Good Maintenance
Coke Oven Doors
Roughly speaking there are two types of coke oven door body. One is a box shaped body
represented by the Wolf type door and the other is a skeleton shaped air cooled door (ACD)
body that originated from a Japanese engineer K. Yamasaki in 1974, when the ACD was first
put into service. Later, this door became famous worldwide by the name of “IKIO DOOR”.
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 139
Yamasaki invented this door while working for Ikio Iron Works, Japan, as Manager of Door
Development and Manufacturing. His innovation was to separate door body and plug
mounted sealing unit thermally, by providing skeleton type door body, which does not
receive heat from the coking chamber directly. Table 1, shows the differences between Wolf
door and ACD. Complete separation of body and diaphragm functions for ACD is the main
reason for the above mentioned difference. In the design of ACD, in order to minimize
thermal and mechanical bending of the door body, air gap was provided between door body
and sealing unit and at the time, enough rigidity was given to door body to enable it to
maintain its straightness while coping with the counter force generated by plunger springs.
Table 1. Differences between Wolf Door and Air Cooled Door (ACD)
Type of Door Thermal Bending Sealing Unit (Diaphragm)
of Door Body
Wolf Large Attached to door body directly. Receives
influence of thermal bending of door directly.
Fitting ability to the deformed door jamb is poor.
Air Cooled Negligible or small Well isolated from door body thermally. Receives
Door (ACD) no influence of bending of door due to the very
small door body thermal bending.
Free from influence caused by difference of
thermal expansion between door body and
diaphragm. High adjustability against door
Thanks to this design, the relative position of door and door jamb is kept unchanged all
the way and the flexible sealing unit can always keep good contact with door jamb sealing
surface. Thus, the roles of door body and sealing unit are clearly separated in the ACD
design philosophy. Since the time “Ikio door” came into the world market, many doors with
skeleton bodies appeared, but those doors, which had no distinct design philosophy,
disappeared soon and only doors with rigid bodies and flexible diaphragms have survived.
Progress in ACD Design
The first ACD Ikio door soon became famous worldwide with its better sealing capability
compared to existing knock seal type doors because of its easy adjustment to fit knife edge
to the door jamb.
Many of the door manufacturers of the world have been supplying their products with
plungers and skeleton body since then. Some of those are supplying under the license of
Ikio Iron Works, Japan.
140 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
Kesao Yamasaki established his own company, Yamasaki Industries Co. Ltd. (YIC),
Japan in 1984 and added many improvements to ACD later. Table 2 given below, shows the
typical structural progress in ACD design.
Table 2. Typical Structural Progress in ACD Design
Generation Manufacturer Body Cross Diaphragm Sealing Unit Sealing Unit
Section Cross Section Bending Exchange or
Generation Ikio “U” shape Convex or Not available Full
1974 Corporation Flat Disassembling
Generation YIC after “H” shape Flat Provided Full
1991 1995 Disassembling
Generation YIC “H” Shape Flat Provided Cartridge
Major changes in ACD design are as follows:
1. Cross section of door body was changed from “U” shape to “H” shape, to improve
torsional rigidity by increasing section modulus.
2. Cross section of diaphragm was changed from convex to flat, because convex
diaphragm was not flexible enough, especially at door corners and as a result, fitting
capability of knife edge to door jamb was poor.
3. New function was added to the 2nd
generation design. This was to bend diaphragm
along its length to provide better fitting of knife-edge to door jamb, which generally
has considerable differential bowing on both sides of jamb frame.
It does not take much man-power to make bending adjustments. Therefore,
combination fixing of doors on ovens are not necessary.
4. The diaphragm should be replaced by a new one, after several years of service. In case
generation designs, disassembling of all sealing parts was necessary for
replacement. To reduce manpower for replacement work, 3rd
introduced cartridge type sealing unit. Disassembly became no longer necessary. Total
time required for cartridge replacement is not longer than 5 hours with two well-
trained workers. The door maintained complete sealing capability, entirely similar to
the new door, only by replacing the cartridge.
By adding the above mentioned improvements to older type ACD, 3rd
ACD has been accepted as the most reliable door in the market presently.
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 141
Comparison of 3rd
Generation ACD with Wolf Type Door
Major advantages of 3rd
generation ACD over Wolf type doors are as follows:
Thermal Bowing of Door Body
Temperature differences within a door body cause thermal bowing. Wolf type door shows
the difference as much as 120°C. On the other hand, the difference is as low as 40°C in case
generation ACD. Bowing of Wolf type door body is easily influenced by the change of
ambient temperature. Therefore, it is impossible to maintain good sealing always.
Fitting Ability to Deformed Door Jamb
Allowable door jamb bowing range for 3rd
generation ACD is 20 to 25 mm. in total. Although
this range varies due to the actual prevailing conditions, it is much larger than that of Wolf
Maximum Allowable Gas Pressure
When a battery operates with wet coal charge, the peak gas pressure at the bottom part of
diaphragm ranges from 150 to 300 millibar. Wolf type doors may require a lot of manpower
to cope with this peak pressure in order to maintain operation without gas emissions.
Blue Sky door keeps good sealing performance even when the gas peak pressure rises up
to 2000 mm WC. This peak is generally observed when a battery operates under coal moisture
TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF EMISSION FREE COKE OVENS
Coke Oven Battery No.1 at Sakaide Works of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Japan
(Start-up: Nov.1969, Height: 6 m, Otto Design, 100 Ovens) started the replacement of its
existing doors with the most advanced Air Cooled Doors (ACD) named “Blue-Sky” in April
1999 and completed the work in May 2000. Fig. 3 shows a remarkable improvement in gas
emission index (GEI) along with progress in door replacement.
Like Sakaide Works, Nippon Steel’s Oita Works also replaced their original coke oven
doors with Blue Sky Doors for all its batteries (Battery Nos.1 and 2, Start-up: 1972, Height:
5.925 m, NSC Type, 156 Ovens; Battery Nos. 3 and 4, Start-up: 1976, Height: 6.092 m, NSC
Type, 164 ovens) and have achieved similar results. From these evidences, excellent sealing
capability of Blue Sky Door has been clearly proven with respect to operation of “emission
free coke ovens”. At Sakaide Works, following the success experienced at Battery No. 1,
recently Battery Nos. 2 and 3 ( Battery No.2, Start-up:1971, Height: 6.9 m, Carl Still Design,
100 Ovens; Battery No. 3, Start-up: 1973, Height: 6.9 m Carl Still Design, 123 ovens) also had
their earlier doors replaced with Blue Sky Doors.
142 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
Fig. 3 Mitsubishi Sakaide No.1 Battery after doors replacement
Bowing of Door Jamb
It is obvious that when the bowing of door jamb exceeds a certain allowable limit, we are
not able to prevent gas emission, even if we use doors with good sealing ability. However,
there has hardly been any technical paper, which elaborately discusses about the relationship
between gas emission and door jamb bowing. Discussions about gas emissions in the past,
pointed out only sealing capability of the door itself as a subject. Fig. 3 shows an example
of a door jamb bowing measured at an existing battery in operation. There is an obvious
difference in bowing between right and left frame of a door jamb. This difference is not
strange for most of the existing batteries in operation. At Sakaide’s Battery No.1, we made
bowing measurements for some number of door jambs selected by random sampling, prior
to door replacement. The results showed that, bowing of all tested jambs was within an
acceptable range. Then the new jambs were manufactured to replace existing old door jambs
with the design similar to the original Battery No. 1 doors, which were replaced by Blue Sky
Doors, without providing specially designed door jambs at all.
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 143
Prior to replacement of doors of Battery Nos. 2 and 3 at Sakaide Works, we measured
bowing of all door jambs in all the three batteries, because we found jamb bowing at Battery
Nos. 2 and 3 as worse compared to that at Battery No.1. Fig. 4 shows the measurement
results. The “d” in Fig. 4 corresponds to the maximum bowing showed in Fig. 5. Fig. 5
shows that more than 70% of total jambs have bowing beyond the limit that Blue Sky Doors
can accept. We have not clearly understood the exact reason why there is such an exaggerated
difference in door jamb bowing between Battery No.1 and Battery Nos. 2 and 3. The only
plausible reason at the moment seems to be the difference in battery designs of Otto and
Replacement of Door Jamb
In order to achieve an emission free environment, we provided special shaped door jambs,
for which the bowing is shown in Fig. 4. The back of these jambs had proper contours by
which jambs could make good contact with the deformed brickwork face, behind the jambs.
The jambs with contoured back sat on the deformed brickwork correctly.
Cases where this consideration is paid for jamb replacement.
Once door jamb replacement is executed under above mentioned consideration, gas
emission due to door jamb distortion would not happen for many veary because brickwork
distortion does not progress rapidly.
Fig. 4 Door jamb bowing Fig. 5 Door jamb bowing at Sakaide Nos. 2 and 3 Batteries
144 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
If the new jambs had been manufactured as per the original design, then the result of
jamb setting on deformed brickwork would have varied geometrically from one to another.
In other words, the new jamb would not give sealing face parallel to knife edge plane. As a
result, inspite of jamb replacement, perfect gas emission free environment would not be
realized. It seems to us, there are few cases where this consideration is taken into account for
Once door jamb replacement is executed under the above mentioned consideration, gas
emissions due to door jamb distortion would not happen for many years because brickwork
distortion does not progress rapidly.
Good cleaning of door and door jamb is a must for emission free battery operation. The
type of cleaners should be discussed in combination with the type of doors.
Generally speaking, there are two types of door cleaners. One is the mechanical type and the
other is the high-pressure water jet type. The majority of cleaners are of mechanical type
with wire brush or scraper for cleaner head. This type of door cleaners, inspite of many
modifications, has some weak points. Firstly, it cannot remove deposits on the knife-edge
tip and secondly, it imparts considerable strong force on the door diaphragm and in order
to counter the force imparted by cleaner heads, we lose flexibility of the diaphragm, which is
most crucial for sealing function.
High pressure water jet cleaner is friendlier towards the flexible diaphragm used for
ACD type doors because this cleaner does not make direct mechanical contact with the
diaphragm. Some coke plants say that, they do not like this type of cleaner because a part of
the cleaning water falls down onto the battery platform and creates secondary environmental
problems. However, when water pressure higher than 500 to 600 bars is applied, then the
required quantity of cleaning water is too small to make any impact while falling down onto
the battery platform. Excess water evaporates quickly before it reaches the battery platform.
Advantage of high pressure water jet cleaner over mechanical cleaner is that, the former
can clean not only the diaphragm but also knife-edge tip without damaging them. The latter
cannot deal with knife-edge tip with such a delicate contact. High pressure water jet cleaner
is most favourable for ACD type doors.
Door Jamb Cleaner
Only mechanical cleaners have been put into service worldwide. It is the shortcoming
common to these cleaners that they damage the jamb sealing surface while their cleaner
heads are working.
Knife-edge sealing face of Yamasaki’s ACD - Blue Sky Doors is machined by specially
designed high precision planer to ensure that it provides perfect contact with the door jamb
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 145
sealing face. If the door jamb sealing face is not in good condition, complete gas sealing
cannot be expected. Already, Yamasaki is in a position to supply high pressure water jet type
Cleaner for Jamb Inside Surface
Some times, we see carbonaceous deposits on the lower part of jamb inside surface. When
this deposit grows up, door may not go to the right position because door plug is blocked
by the deposit. Deposit removal work today, relies only on manual operation. Although this
issue is not related directly to gas emission, we must not leave the matter as it is, when we
think about a pollution free working environment.
The diaphragm life of Blue Sky Doors has exceeded 7 years at Nippon Steel Corporation’s
Oita Works. Periodical off-line maintenance for each door is recommended. Main items of
this maintenance are change of worn plunger springs, careful visual check-up of the projection
piece of leveler door protector and manual removal of carbon deposit residuals on the door
diaphragm with the help of high pressure water jet. Stationary cleaning facilities for carbon
deposit residuals removal play a very important role for maintaining an emission free
environment for long. If one tries to stop gas emissions, leaving the carbon deposits as it is,
by tightening plunger screw beyond a limit to increase pressing force onto the knife-edge,
there will be permanent deformation of the diaphragm and/or knife edge. Once this occurs,
the cartridge will have to be replaced by a new one.
When water jet nozzle tips get worn out and increase their hole diameter, the water pressure
may decrease leading to a fall in the cleaning efficiency. Nozzle tips have to be kept in good
condition at every moment.
Movement of nozzle head should always be appropriately adjusted so as to cover all
areas of the diaphragm and knife-edge. Condition of wire brush or scraper of mechanical
cleaner is crucial. Conditions of the equipment have to be maintained at their best in order
to perform to their full potential. Adhesion of tar to wire brushes will cause loss of cleaning
effect within a short period. Deformation of scraper will damage the diaphragm extensively
and cause gas emission.
146 Coking Coals and Coke Making: Challenges and Opportunities
Door Jamb Cleaner
When carbonaceous deposits left on the sealing face of door jamb grows up and forms hard
scab, the knife-edge cannot have direct contact with the jamb sealing face in this area. The
knife-edge and diaphragm of this area will start distorting gradually and finally cause gas
emission. The only way to avoid this undesirable situation is to always maintain the door
jamb cleaner in good condition.
M/S. Simplex Castings Ltd., Bhilai has entered into a technical collaboration with M/S.
Yamasaki Industries Co. Ltd., Japan in the year 2007, for manufacturing Blue Sky Doors.
• Results obtained at Coke Ovens Complex of Bhilai Steel Plant (SAIL) has proved that
complete prevention of gas emission from around the coke oven door area is possible
with the use of ACD doors made of Ikio-Simplex design.
• Results obtained at Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation’s Sakaide Works and Nippon
Steel Corporation’s Oita Works has proved that complete prevention of gas emission
from around coke oven door area is possible with the use of Blue Sky Doors.
• By replacing damaged door jambs and applying high sealing performance ACDs,
even a battery older than 18 years can be revived for perfect gas tightness.
• To fulfill the four required conditions, such as good door, good door jamb, good
cleaner and good maintenance, one has to have correct knowledge and understanding
about coke oven doors because this the right path to long lasting emission free
environment surrounding the coke oven door area.
The authors would like to express their special thanks to all senior executives of the Coke
Ovens & Coal Chemicals Department of Bhilai Steel Plant (SAIL) who directly or indirectly
contributed to the successful implementation of ACD doors of Ikio-Simplex design for an
emission free environment.
1. Eisenhut, W. and Hein, M., “Coke Oven Emission Standards in US: A discussion of the
Impact, Significance and Achievability“, Proceedings of the 53rd
March 20-23, 1994 Chicago, pp. 131-135.
Eco–Friendly Coke Oven Door – A Measure to Minimize Gas Emmission from Coke Oven Doors 147
2. Aloe, A. and Ailer, D. “The Impact of the US Clean Air Act: Seven Years after Enhancement”,
Proceedings of the 4th
European Coke and Ironmaking Congress, June 19-21, 2000, Paris,
3. Eisenhut, W. Friedrich, F. and Reinke, M., “Coking Plant Environment in West Germany”,
Coke Making International, Vol.2 (1) 101, 1990, pp.74-77.
4. Hein, M., Friedrich, F. and Eisenhut, W., “Policyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the
Environment of Coke Oven Plants”, Coke Making International, Vol.6, 1994, pp.40-43.
5. Fisher, R. and Hein, M. “Environmental Control of European Coking Plants at the beginning
of the 21st
century“, Proceedings of the 4th
European Coke and Ironmaking Congress, June
19-21, 2000, Paris, pp.542-546.
6. Friedrich, F. and Hinz, D., “Emission Measurement on Coke Oven Doors with Various
Sealing Systems”, Proceedings of the 2nd
International Cokemaking Congress, 1999, London,
7. Hein, M., Huhn, F. and Sippel, M. “Influence of Coke Plant Emissions on Ambient Air
Quality against the Background of New Legal Regulations in the European Union“,
Proceedings of the 3rd
International Conference on Science and Technology of Ironmaking,
June 16-20, 2003, Duesseldorf, pp. 582-587.
8. Ikio, T., “Concept on Thermal Distortion of Coke Oven Door and Door Jam“, 38th
Ironmaking Conference”, Detroit, MI 1979.
9. Jones, D.T. and Ikio, T. “Air-Cooled Doors Effectively Control Coke Oven Emission”, 33rd
Metal Producing Conference, September 1990, pp. 41-43.
10. Pettrey, J.O. and Greens, D.E. “Coke Oven Doors: Historical Methods of Emission Control
and Evaluation of Current Designs”, Proceedings of the 52nd
Ironmaking Conference, 1993,
11. Gierz, H.J., Huhn, H., Rossa, F. and Strunk, J. “New Coke Oven Door Sealing System with
Pressure Equalization”, Proceedings of the 3rd
International Conference on Science and
Technology of Ironmaking, June 16-20, 2003, Duesseldorf, pp. 111-115.
12. Yamasaki, Kesao and Okuda, Kosuke, Brochures of Yamasaki Industries Co. Ltd., 2-17,
MAKIYAMA KAIGAN, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu-City, Fukukoka 804 – 077, JAPAN.
13. Patent Pending.