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Enterprise Architecture – Vision and Reality on the Same Page


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This presentation describes the underlying conceptual structure of enterprise architecture, and its relevance to enterprises across the whole spectrum

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Enterprise Architecture – Vision and Reality on the Same Page

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture – Vision and Reality on the Same Page Dr Simon Polovina LEAD Certified Enterprise Architecture eXpert TOGAF Foundation Certified SAP Certified Associate Enterprise Architect Conceptual Structures Research Group
  2. 2. Overview • History of EA • Why EA • What is EA • EAFs – Zachman, TOGAF, LEAD and others • Metamodels, Ontology and Semantics • Essential Tool as an Exemplar • Relevance to Your Organisation • Glimpse into the future • Summary, and References October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 2
  3. 3. Where did EA come from? • EA essentially began in 1987, with the publication of "A Framework for Information Systems Architecture," by J.A. Zachman (IBM Systems Journal), in which: – He stated that “The cost involved and the success of the business depending increasingly on its information systems require a disciplined approach to the management of those systems.” – Laid out both the challenge and the vision of enterprise architectures that continue to guide the field today – Gave a vision was that business value and agility could best be realised by a holistic approach to systems architecture that explicitly looked at every important issue from every important perspective – Was originally described as an information systems architectural framework, soon renamed as an enterprise architecture framework Zachman (1987), Sessions (2007) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 3
  4. 4. v1 October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 4 Sowa & Zachman (1992)
  5. 5. October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 5 AndToday…
  6. 6. TOGAF • In 1995, TOGAF 1.0 mainly based on TAFIM, developed since the late 1980s by the US DoD • Today, TOGAF 9.1 has a formal Content Metamodel, and many more examples and templates October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 6
  7. 7. Why do we need it? • Originally (reactive): – System complexity—Organisations were spending more and more money building IT systems; and – Poor business alignment—Organisations were finding it more and more difficult to keep those increasingly expensive IT systems aligned with business need – Even More Cost, Even Less Value (Sessions, 2007) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 7
  8. 8. Why do we need it? • Today (proactive, too): – Fragmented to Integrated—optimise across the enterprise the often fragmented legacy of processes (both manual and automated), into an integrated environment that is responsive to change and supportive of the delivery of the business strategy – IT and business success—effective management and exploitation of information through IT is a key factor to business success, and an indispensable means to achieving competitive advantage – Achieving the right balance between IT efficiency and business innovation (TOGAF, 2011) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 8
  9. 9. The scope of EA • Understanding the knows and don’t knows of the Enterprise that it needs to know to survive and to succeed: – “... there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know.” (United States Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, 2002) • Complex Problems; Simple Solutions – “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler than that” (attributed to Einstein) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 9
  10. 10. The Semiotic Ladder (Organisational Semiotics, after Stamper 1997) PHYSICAL WORLD signals, traces, physical dimensions, hardware, component density, speed, economics EMPIRICS patterns, variety, noise, entropy, channel capacity, redundancy, efficiency, codes, ... SYNTACTICS formal structure, language, logic, data, records, deduction, software, files, ... SEMANTICS meanings, propositions, validity, truth, signification, denotations, ... PRAGMATICS intentions, communication, conversations, negotiations, ... SOCIAL WORLD beliefs, expectations, commitments, contracts, law, culture, ... HumanInformationFunctions VALUEPRODUCING TheTechnologyPlatform COSTIMPOSING EnterpriseArchitecture TheComputerWorld The Real World? more like a semiotic snake to me  October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 10
  11. 11. What is EA? • Enterprise • Architecture • Models October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 11
  12. 12. Enterprise • “Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise. Its five-year mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before.” (Star Trek, quotes) • Origin: late Middle English: from Old French, 'something undertaken', feminine past participle (used as a noun) of entreprendre, based on Latin prendere, prehendere 'to take‘ (OED) • An undertaking, especially one of some scope, complication, and risk ( • A business organisation ( • You and me October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 12
  13. 13. Architecture • The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings (OED) • The complex or carefully designed structure of something (OED) • The conceptual structure and logical organization of a computer or computer-based system (OED) • Winchester Mystery House • “From the blank piece of paper to the last nail in the wall” October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 13
  14. 14. Models • Can’t touch an enterprise, but it’s very real • Only see through models • “All Models are Wrong, But Some are Useful” (Box, 1987) Sowa, 2002 October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 14
  15. 15. Enterprise Architecture Frameworks • The Two Representative Frameworks: – Of the many… – Zachman, TOGAF • What they offer – Artefact vs. Process – Reference Content – Metamodels – Ontology – Semantics • Tools October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 15
  16. 16. Artefact vs. Process • The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architectures – Originally self-described as a framework – But more accurately defined as a taxonomy – And now Enterprise Ontology – A declarative grid of objects and relationships, not process (directly) – You populate the grid with your EA • It’s thus artefact-driven October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 16
  17. 17. Artefact vs. Process • The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) – Also called a framework – Central to TOGAF is its Architecture Development Method (ADM) – It’s thus process-driven October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 17
  18. 18. October 2014 18
  19. 19. EA Vision & Reality 19
  20. 20. Some Others • The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) – Can be viewed as either a) an implemented enterprise architecture, or b) a proscriptive methodology for creating an EA – Was FEAF • Framework dropped accordingly… – Segments • EA in Organisational units • Technical, Business and Data architectures October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 20 Sessions (2007)
  21. 21. Some Others • Gartner – Can be best described as a enterprise architectural practice – proprietary, by the respected Gartner Group • LEAD – Layered Enterprise Architecture Development (now simply LEADing Practice) – again practice, but open source – with a developing ecosystem across industry and academic expertise October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 21
  22. 22. LEAD • Overview diagram • & more about (in notes) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 22
  23. 23. October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 23 LEAD’sStructuralWay
  24. 24. October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 24 LEAD’s Structural Way • As a detailed view
  25. 25. In all levels of detail… • One for LEADing Practice Framework Concepts, Enterprise Modelling & Enterprise Architecture Artifacts, Value Reference, Service Reference, Process Reference, Maturity Reference, Architecture and Modelling Skills Mapping October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 25
  26. 26. Metamodels • Meta = ‘about’ • White entities are “core” and not to be omitted • Red/Blue/Green entities are “extensions” and can be omitted • Entity renaming is possible • Modification and removal of entities is not recommended • It’s the base template for your EA October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 26
  27. 27. SAPEAF 27Infrastructure Consolidation Extension Governance Extension Process Modelling Extension Data Modelling Extension Business / IT Alignment Extension Core Content ARCHITECTURE VISION, CONTEXT AND ROADMAP BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE APPLICATION ARCHITECTUREDATA ARCHITECTURE Associated With All Objects Organisation Unit Goal Objective Measure Governance Extension (Business , Information System ) Service Services are Contained in Core , Business / IS split supports the Business / IT Alignment Extension Function Process Actor Role Control Process Extension Event Process Extension Product Process Extension Data Entity Logical Information Component Data Extension Location Infrastructure Consolidation Extension Physical Information Component Data Extension Logical Application Component Physical Application Component Infrastructure Consolidation Extension Logical Technology Component Infrastructure Consolidation Extension Physical Technology Component Principle Constraint Requirement Contract Governance Extension Gap Work Package Driver Platform Service Owns and governs Operates in Operates in Is Hosted in Is Hosted in Is Hosted inEncapsulates Encapsulates Resides within Supplies Is Supplied By Is Realised by Realises Operates on Is processed by Provides , consumes Is accessed and updated through Resides within Is implemented on Provides platform forImplements Is realised through Contains Contains Contains Contains Contains Contains Belongs to Consumes Participates in Interacts with , Performs Performs task in Generates , Resolves Produces Is Produced byIs owned by Owns Supports , Is performed by Accesses Can be accessed by Orchestrates , decomposes Supports , Is realised by Is bounded by Provides governed interface to access Produces Is Produced by Involves Participates in Involves Is Resolved by , Is Generated by Generates , Resolves Is Resolved by Is Resolved by , Is Generated by Resolves Supports , Is realised by Orchestrates, decomposes Ensures correct operation of Isguided by Governs , Measures Is governed and measured byIs Provided to Is owned and governed by Is tracked against Sets performance criteria for Sets performance criteria for Is tracked against Is motivated by Motivates Creates Addresses Is realised through Realises Service Quality Governance Extension Applies to Meets Applies to Meets Is Performed by Is Supplied or Consumed by Supplies or Consumes
  28. 28. BEEST October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 28 BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE APPLICATION ARCHITECTUREDATA ARCHITECTURE BEEST Production and Logistics Organization Unit Lower Working Capital / Facilitate Supplier Collaboration Improve Visibility of Leipzig Inventory to Suppliers during 2005 Receiving and Material Storage Costs KPI Source Supplier Products for Operations Supplier Collaboration and Operational Procurement Manage Warehouse and Storage Leipzig Production Manager MRP Controller Inventory falls below forecast production demand Inventory replenishment triggered BEEST 911 GT 3 Sports Car Stock Item Inventory Records Leipzig Assembly Factory Purchsoft Stock Master E-Procurement , Ordering and Payments BEEST Purchsoft Procurement Software Suite Purchsoft E - Procurement for Oracle 8i Version 3.1 Leoni -BEEST DriveTrain Supply Contract Global trend for customization and increased efficiency of production EDI /Bank Payments Engine Daily Replenishment, Daily response to replenish trigger
  29. 29. “Infinity”High-Tech October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 29 BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE APPLICATION ARCHITECTUREDATA ARCHITECTURE “Infinity” Manufacturing Unit Increase Revenue Improve Capacity Utilisation by 25% in 2007 Capacity Utilisation KPI Capacity load / Resource Capacity * 100 Repetitive Manufacturing Planning Business Service Make-to-Order Manufacturing Production Planning Head of Home Computer Product Manufacturing Production Planner Confirmed Sales Order Received and Product current and not <200 items Sales Order Arrives Infinity Personal Computer Model xxx Product Product Stock Records Infinity Chicago Production Centre SAP Product Master Data Supply Planning Enterprise Service SAP Query Supply Planning Area Enterprise Service Database Server HP Integrity Superdome (Productiion Instance - Npar 12) Manufacturing - Sales Contract Deliver Shareholder Value Transaction Processing Plan must be updated each hour on a 24 x7x 365 basis Outsourced Austin Data Centre
  30. 30. MappingTOGAFtoSAPEAF Preliminary Business Architecture Data Architecture Application Architecture Technology Architecture Architecture Vision Organisation Unit Function Business Service Location Actor Role Event Control Data Entity Architecture Building Block Process Strategy Goal Objective Measure User Interface Principle Scope Constraint Vision Stakeholder Map Deliverable Architecture Framework Cross-Aspect Requirement Gap Analysis Project Implementation Roadmap Contract Candidate Solutions Application Technology Component Platform Service Architecture Vision, Context and Roadmap Business Architecture Technology Architecture Application Architecture Data Architecture Principle Constraint Requirement Gap Work Package Organisation Unit Goal Objective Measure Function Process Actor Role Control Event Product Location Contract Driver Service Quality Business Service Data Entity Logical Information Component Physical Information Component Logical Application Component Physical Application Component Logical Technology Component Physical Technology Component Platform Service Information System Service Architecture Building Block Not within the scope of structured modelling Moved Phase. Goals and Objectives in the Vision phase would be collected in SAP EAF, but not formally modelled. Changed to a more generic name. Contract term in TOGAF equates to a terms of reference. SAP EAF extends concept to include service contracts Candidate solutions are shown as an architecture and don’t require metamodel entities An implementation roadmap is a view of work packages. User Interface is not considered to be architecturally significant for Enterprise Architecture and is not formally included in SAP EAF Changed to a more generic name. SAP EAF extends applications and technology to be both logical and physical SAP EAF adds an information component concept to allow segmentation and bounding of data SAP EAF allows independent views of services from a business and IS perspective SAP EAF extends service governance to allow service qualities and contracts to be applied to services SAP EAF adds the concept of a Driver that motivates business to achieve objectives Direct TOGAF– SAP EAF Mapping Indirect TOGAF– SAP EAF Mapping Not taken from TOGAF to SAP EAF SAP EAF extension to TOGAF TOGAF concept not relevant to structured modelling Assumption SAP EAF adds the concept of Assumptions EA Vision & Reality 30
  31. 31. Synonyms etc… October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 31
  32. 32. Ontology • In Philosophy: – A theory of being – “does truth exist?” or “does energy exist?” • In Computer Science – Gruber “In the context of knowledge sharing, I use the term ontology to mean a specification of a conceptualization. That is, an ontology is a description (like a formal specification of a program) of the concepts and relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents. This definition is consistent with the usage of ontology as set-of-concept-definitions, but more general. And it is certainly a different sense of the word than its use in philosophy.” (emphasis added).” (Malik, 2009) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 32
  33. 33. Context Semantics Rule of 3: October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 33 Object Object relation
  34. 34. Some triples... Laurier & Poels (2012) Value-Performance Meta Model, October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 34
  35. 35. Laurier & Poels (2012) Some contexts… October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 35
  36. 36. Lanir (2012) Also, Peirce's Triadic Objects Create Signs October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 36
  37. 37. Tools • From Visio to Essential Project – Capturing and structuring what’s in our heads, gut instinct, pen & paper, unstructured records… • Picking one – Visio, ARIS, Sparx, iGrafx, … • How well do they handle the semantics? – Rule of 3 • To what extent do they create signs from objects? – So you optimise the object not the sign • An illustration: Essential Project October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 37
  38. 38. Essential Essential Import Utility Essential Modeller in Protégé Essential Viewer Semantic Mapping How spreadsheet maps to EMM Knowledge Base Classes and Instances of EMM Views Dynamically rendered from knowledge base snapshot UpdateUpload Publish EMM = Essential Meta Model Render 38October 2014 EA Vision & Reality
  39. 39. Essential Architecture Manager (EAM) A means to capture, view and analyse an Enterprise Architecture using the Essential Meta-Model Domain experts and architects capture and publish enterprise architecture information Business and IT stakeholders view and analyse reports to support decision making 39October 2014 EA Vision & Reality
  40. 40. Making it/IT relevant to You • EA as a foundation for execution • “From Concept to the last network cable we fit” • What kind of business are we? • Aligning our Vision with our (IT) Reality • Moore’s Core-Context • Four Operating Models October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 40
  41. 41. Moore’score-context October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 41
  42. 42. The Four Operating ModelsWhereisyourorganisation? Coordinated,Diversified,ReplicatedorUnified? October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 42Ross et al. (2006)
  43. 43. Stakeholders • Power Grid • RACI • Pragmatics October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 43
  44. 44. The Baseline to Target Phases • ‘As-Is’ to ‘To-Be’ Phases i.e.: – Business Architecture – Information Systems Architecture – Technology Architecture • Populating the Architecture Definition Document (ADD) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 44
  45. 45. Measuring EA • Reducing Cost and Risk • Vs. Increasing Profit and Value • KPI & PPI – Key ‘vs’ Process Performance Indicators • “If it can’t be measured, it can’t be evaluated, if it can’t be evaluated it can’t be managed” • Measuring the objects not the signs • Useful Models October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 45
  46. 46. EA Maturity October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 46
  47. 47. ‘Other’ Management Aspects • Enterprise Architecture and… – Project Management – Change Management – Service Management – Governance • The Baseline to Target Loop – Solutions or Better Questions? October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 47
  48. 48. From Projects to Enterprise • Think BIG; start small • Capability, Segment and Strategic EA – The same vision and reality across the enterprise at different levels (Chapter 20 in TOGAF, 2011) • Enterprise-wide Governance – Across all the levels (projects) thus the enterprise as a whole – Thus governing the overall EA, not just the EAs that make it up October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 48
  49. 49. A possible future glimpse • Process Oriented Architecture (POA) – Given that BPM and SOA are not Application and Data as given in the ‘classic’ EAFs, but much in common? – e.g. Information Systems Architecture – Data/Application in TOGAF – LEAD’s integration of Enterprise Architecture with Enterprise Modelling and Enterprise Engineering – How would the TOGAF ADM and the Zachman grid look with POA? • Transaction Oriented Architecture – Transactions as a strategic-level concept as well as an operational concept (Polovina, 2013) October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 49
  50. 50. A Mindset and Toolset for EA October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 50
  51. 51. Summary • Overview • History of EA • Why EA • What is EA • EAFs – Zachman, TOGAF, LEAD and others • Metamodels, Ontology and Semantics • Essential Tool as an Exemplar • Relevance to your org incl. outline exercises • Glimpse into the future (POA, TOA) • Below: References October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 51
  52. 52. References • See the notes to this slide October 2014 EA Vision & Reality 52