When looking at the historic development of the payments business as a separate business line, it is mainly the government that lays the foundations via cash or government giro's. Deposit banks are involved since early 1900 and not doing a great job at innovation. Nevertheless, the current regulatory framework for supervising payment companies is effectively based on a variation of the supervision for deposit-banks. And payment service providers that wish to really make a difference have little choice but to become a bank in their own right. This presentation (in Dutch, see also the article at ESB: https://esb.nu/esb/20031597/betalingsverkeer-hoe-markt-en-regelgeving-elkaar-maken-en-breken) sketches the above historic development and ends with seven practical recommendations to improve the regulation of payment service providers. The most important one being to adapt the Settlement Finality Directive quickly, allowing PSPs direct membership in central bank settlement systems.