Narrative theories - 1


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Narrative theories - 1

  1. 1. Narrative Theories By Gursimran Deol
  2. 2. What is Narrative? • A narrative is a sequence of events that are put together and presented to an audience. The narrative can be told by a character in first person. The narrative is not an actual but it is about how the story has been put together. • It is important that the narrator communicates with the audience and it is important for the narrative. • Narrative is different form a story because the story is the plot of the film/book. However, the techniques and methods are used in the narrative.
  3. 3. Tzvetan Todorov • Tzvetan Todorov is a Bulgarian philosopher. Tzvetan Todorov was born in Bulgaria on 1st March 1939. He lived in France since 1963 and lives there with his wife and two kids. Tzvetan Todorov writes books and essays based literacy theory, thought history and culture theory. • Tzvetan Todorov is a visiting professor at some of the top universities including Yale, Harvard and Columbia. • Tzvetan Todorov is an award winning philosopher who has won several awards for his social services.
  4. 4. Tzvetan Todorov Theory • Tzvetan Todorov theory suggests that the narrative which is a book/film/play etc, contain five important stages in a particular order such as; • Equilibrium – When everything balanced so that the audience gets to know about the characters. This would happen if the start of the book/film/play starts off normal and nothing goes wrong throughout the book/film/play. • Disruption – When an event in the book/film/play causes a problem that creates a more tensed atmosphere.
  5. 5. Tzvetan Todorov Theory • Realisation - When a problem is sensed by a character in the book/film/play. • Reparation – When there is an attempt to solve the problem. • Restoration of Equilibrium – When the problem is solved and the ending is happy.
  6. 6. Roland Barthes • Roland Barthes was born in Cherbourg on 12th November 1915. Roland Barthes was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist and critic. His ideas have been explored a range of different fields. • Roland Barthes has influenced the development of many schools of theories, this includes semiotics, social theory, anthropology, post-structuralism and structuralism.
  7. 7. Roland Barthes Theory • Barthes’ categorised narrative codes into five ways: • Proairetic/action code – Implies to any action that takes place during the film. • Hermeneutic/enigma code – Links to any part of the story that is not explained or is left as a mystery to leave the audience to ponder in their thoughts. • Semantic code – An element that provides additional meaning, this can be done through connotations.
  8. 8. Roland Barthes Theory • Cultural code – Focuses on everybody’s knowledge on how the world works. • Symbolic code – shows tension and drama through symbolism.