Plants for Southern California HomesMWDMETROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA                    1
Acknowledgements          This class was developed forMetropolitan Water District of Southern California            by Wat...
Plants for Southern California Homes                           Descriptions and uses of plants in the seminarThis book inc...
This page was purposely left blank               4
Table of ContentsCalifornia Native Plants              .      .         .   .       .    .   .   .   6Benefits of using na...
California Native Plants                                                                                The NativeNative P...
Benefits of Using Native Plants                                                                                  The Nativ...
Plant Selection Tips                                                                                   PlantNow, that you’...
Planting Guidelines                                                                                Plant                  ...
Maintenance Recommendations                                                                                MaintenanceWate...
Shrubs                                Cistus speciesFremontodendron species                               Limonium perezii...
Cistus species                 Rockrose                Cistaceae family                 2 to 6 ft.                        ...
Eriogonum species                  Wi l d B u c k w h e a t                   Polygonaceae family                         ...
Eschscholzia californica            California Poppy                 Papaveraceae family                                  ...
Fremontodendron species                 Flannel Bush                 Sterculiaceae family                                 ...
Limonium perezii                                 Statice                 Plumbaginaceae family                            ...
Rhaphiolepis indica                India Hawthorn                         Rosaceae family                                 ...
Rhus integrifolia                Lemondade Berry                  Anacardiaceae family                                    ...
Salvia clevelandii                Cleveland Sage                       Lamiaceae family                                   ...
Groundcover                           Artemisia speciesCotoneaster dammeri                      20
Artemisia species                              Sagebrush                     Asteraceae family                            ...
Baccharis species                  Coyote Brush                       Asteraceae family                                   ...
Cotoneaster dammeri         Bearberry Cotoneaster                  Rosaceae family                                       F...
Lantana montevidensis                  Trailing Lanta na                   Verbenaceae family                             ...
TreesQuercus agrifoliaGeijera parviflora       25
Arbutus unedo                 Str awber ry Tre e                                Eriaceae family                           ...
Geijera parviflora             A u s t r a l i a n Wi l l o w                   Rutaceae family                   20 to 30...
Prunus ilicifolia lyonii                 Catalina Cherry                        Rosaceae family                  20 to 50 ...
Quercus agrifolia                 Coast Live Oak                            Fagaceae family                 20 to 60 ft.  ...
Washingtonia filifera          California Fan Palm                      Arecaceae family                                  ...
Multi-Category Plants                           Arctostaphylos speciesRhus ovata                           Melaleuca nesop...
Arctostaphylos species                    Manzanita                       Eriaceae family                 1 to 15 ft      ...
Bougainvillea species                 Bougainvillea                 Nyctaginaceae family                                  ...
Ceanothus species                               Wi l d L i l a c                           Rhamnaceae family              ...
Heteromeles arbutifolia       To y o n , C h r i s t m a s B e r r y                        Rosaceae family               ...
Lyonothamus floribundus            Catalina Ironwood                  Rosaceae family                     20 to 40 in     ...
Melaleuca nesophila                  Pink Melaleuca                       Myrtaceae family                                ...
Rhus ovata                      Sugar Bush                Anacardeaceae family                                       Flowe...
Ribes viburnifolium            Evergreen Currant                 Saxifragaceae family                                     ...
ResourcesThe list below is comprised of resources to help you learn more abouthow you can incorporate native and drought-t...
Additional Botanical ResourcesCal Florawww.calflora.org/Native Plants for a California Gardenwww.mynativeplants.com/Wildfl...
Tarweed Nursery & Landscape (Chatsworth)(818) 888-2318The Garden (Pomona)(909) 629-2062Tree of Life Nursery (San Juan Capi...
Orange CountyAnaheims Waterwise Garden2150 East Katella Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92806Phone: 714-765-4256Mesa Consolidated Wate...
Balboa Park1549 El Prade, San Diego, CA 92101Phone: 619-239-0512Famosa Slough Wetlands PreserveFamosa Boulevard at West Po...
ReferencesAdditional material was used from the following sources in the making of thishandbook:Growing NativeCopyright Lo...
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Xeriscape Plants for Southern California Homes

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Xeriscape Plants for Southern California Homes

  1. 1. Plants for Southern California HomesMWDMETROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 1
  2. 2. Acknowledgements This class was developed forMetropolitan Water District of Southern California by WaterWise Consulting 2
  3. 3. Plants for Southern California Homes Descriptions and uses of plants in the seminarThis book includes the 25 plants covered in the seminar. These are not necessarily the best plantsfor you, but all are good plants for Southern California climates. Most are dependable, adaptableand do not need very much water.Key to the plant sheetsArbutus unedo. The first name of each sheet is the scientific name (genus and species) and is usu-ally written in italics. When the name includes the genus and is followed by the word ‘species’, Aca-cia species for example; this means that several species in the genus are covered in the class.Strawberry Tree. The second name on each sheet is the common name for the plant. In somecases, common names can be ambiguous making it important to use the scientific name when order-ing plants.Each plant sheet includes one of the following symbols and indicates it’s growth habit. 10 to 15 ft.The average height and width is also given. 8 to 15 ftThis graphic shows which month the plant produces flowers and/or fruit. J F M A M J J A S O N D = Month Gray indicates months with no color J F M A M J J A S O N D Colored blocks (white and red) indicate month and color of flower or fruit. 3
  4. 4. This page was purposely left blank 4
  5. 5. Table of ContentsCalifornia Native Plants . . . . . . . . 6Benefits of using native plants . . . . . . . . 7Plant Selection Tips . . . . . . . . . . 8Planting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . 9Maintenance Recommendations . . . . . . . . 10Shrubs . . . . . . . . . . . 11Cistus species (Rockrose) . . . . . . . 12Eriogonum species (Wild Buckwheat) . .(Native). . . . 13Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy) . .(Native). . . . 14Fremontodendron species (Flannel Bush) . . .(Native). . . . 15Limonium perezii (Statice) . . . . . . . 16Rhaphiolepis indica (India Hawthorn) . . . . . . 17Rhus integrifolia (Lemonade Berry) . .(Native). . . . 18Salvia clevelandii (Cleveland Sage) . .(Native). . . . 19Groundcover . . . . . . . . . . 20Artemisia species (California Sage Brush) .(Native). . . . 21Baccharis species (Coyote Brush) . .(Native). . . . 22Cotoneaster dammeri (Bearberry Cotoneaster) . . . . . 23Lantana montevidensis (Trailing Lantana) . . . . . . 24Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Arbutus unedo (Strawberry Tree) . . . . . . 26Geijera parviflora (Australian Willow) . . . . . . 27Prunus ilicifolia lyonii (Catalina Cherry) . .(Native). . . . 28Quercus agrifolia (Coast Live Oak) . .(Native). . . . 29Washingtonia filifera (California Fan Palm) . .(Native) . . . 30Multi-Category Plants . . . . . . . . . 31Arctostaphylos species (Manzanita) . . .(Native). . . . 32Bougainvillea species (Bougainvillea) . . . . . . 33Ceanothus species (Wild Lilac) . . .(Native). . . . 34Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon) . . .(Native). . . . 35Lyonothamnus floribundus (Catalina Ironwood) . .(Native). . . . 36Melaleuca nesophila (Pink Melaleuca) . . . . . . 37Rhus ovata (Sugar Bush) . . .(Native). . . . 38Ribes viburnifolium (Evergreen Currant) . .(Native). . . . 39 5
  6. 6. California Native Plants The NativeNative Plants—The New Trend Plant HandbookThere is a new trend in Southern Californiagardening, and you can become part of it.Southern California offers the ideal climate andconditions for a vast array of plants. Let’s takeadvantage of the local climate and the wide Benefits ofselection of native plants as we plan and install Native Plantsour garden. Often we change the conditions inour garden to fit the plant material.Why attempt to establish a plant that is not naturally adapted to localconditions? Why not help the local ecosystem by selecting the rightplant material. More and more Californians are doing it, and we hope Plant Guidelinesthat soon you will too. It’s time to change our way of thinking. “It’s time for your garden to go native.” This Handbook Plant Selection This handbook will provide you with useful infor- mation on using Southern California native plants. You will find detailed information on spe- cific native trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, as well as general information on the planting and Maintenance maintenance of native plants. IdeasTopics in the handbook include: List of PlantsIntroduction – The benefits of using Southern California native plantsPlant Selection – Tips to help you select the right plantPlanting Guidelines – When and how to plant natives ResourceMaintenance Recommendations – Watering and maintenance InformationNative Plant Resources – Books, nurseries, gardens, and clubsList of Potential Plants – Native trees, shrubs, and groundcovers 6
  7. 7. Benefits of Using Native Plants The Native PlantFor thousands of years, native plants of California have adapted to the Benefitssame conditions in which other plants need significant watering, fertilizers,and constant care. Think of it this way, when we visit a different part of theworld where customs and local conditions are different, it takes work for usto adapt. Yet the locals don’t seem to have trouble adapting…they livethere. Our native plants are the same…they live here! Following aresome of the benefits native plants provide. Water SavingReduced Water UseNatives only need supplemental water to be- Reduction oncome established and need very little in the your Water Billsummer. Water use in your garden accountsfor more than half of your total water use athome. By using natives in your garden, alongwith proper watering techniques, you’ll be onyour way to a reduction in your water bill. Less Garden MaintenanceLess MaintenanceIf you choose the appropriate native plants to fit your landscape use,maintenance of your garden will be minimal. Make sure you choose theplant with the growth habit you need. For example, if you’re looking for a Less Use oflow-growing shrub, don’t install a plant that requires pruning to keep it low Chemicalsgrowing. Also, native plants don’t need fertilizer.Less Use of ChemicalsNative plants are less likely to develop disease or pest problems, hence A Reduction inless use of chemicals to combat those problems. Along with that, you will Green-Wastealso be reducing pollution, through a reduction of chemical use, and irriga-tion runoff, that eventually goes to the ocean.Less Green-WasteNative plants generally produce less green-waste compared to other gar- Healthierden plants. This helps by reducing the amount of pruning that needs to Ecologybe done. It also helps our landfills where it is estimated that 30% of spaceis green-waste produced by our landscapes. The use of native plants willalso improve and provide a healthier ecology. 7
  8. 8. Plant Selection Tips PlantNow, that you’re aware of the many benefits of native plants you’re proba- Selectionbly eager to start incorporating native specimens into your garden. Butbefore doing so, let’s go over some plant selection tips.Develop a list of possible plants before actually purchasing any plants.The list should be divided into categories of trees, shrubs, vines, and Observegroundcovers. Remember, as your list of candidate plants increases, so Plantsdoes your chance of finding them at your local nursery. In Natural HabitatGrouping Plants TogetherTo have a successful native garden, find out how plants should begrouped together. Grouping is easy. Simply observe native plants either Develop a listin their natural habitat, in botanical gardens, or other home gardens. of PlantsThen compare their natural habitat to the conditions you have at home.Each plant should be placed in the location that best resembles theirnatural habitat. This will be the community or group to which the plantbelongs. Group Plants Selecting Plant Groups according to Needs In creating a community or group of plants, consider spe- cific information such as sun ex- posure, adaptation to drought, Provide Plants growing season, growth rate, with Proper size, and visual character. Conditions Group plants with similar needs. For example, plants native to coastal regions may perform better in partial shade if located in a warm inland location. Plan in StagesPlan Ahead – Plan in StagesYour garden is a living and ever changing entity, and it will be changingthroughout the years. How is your garden going to look in five or ten ...and have funyears? When planning for your native garden, plan for the future and al-low for your garden to grow and mature. Know the growing habits of theplants in consideration. Because of their large size and visual character,trees, become important to the overall garden effect and conditions. Alarge shady tree provides a cool microclimate under its canopy, whichmay then ask for a particular type of undergrowth. 8
  9. 9. Planting Guidelines Plant GuidelinesMost California native plants may be planted all year in coastal areas andfrom spring to summer in hot climates. Some people have the most suc-cess with fall planting while others think spring is best. If planting byseed, try to replicate nature by sowing seeds when natives plants do. Fall PlantingThe Right Plant in the Right SpotAlthough you have created plant groups or communities, it becomes nec-essary to provide the plant with the best growing conditions. Find out ifthe plant prefers a dry and sunny area, sun with water, dry shade, or Well-drainedshade with water. Also consider the soil when selecting your plants. SoilMany soils have poor deep water drainage. Others are very shallow.Most native plants don’t need the soil to be amended, as it is easier forthese plants to tap into the native soil more quickly. Amendment, for themost part, should only be provided as a top dressing in the watering basinto reduce water lost to evaporation and provide a time released feeding. SoilRemember that adding compost may reduce the amount of fertilizer you Amendmentsneed to apply, for it too will provide nutrients.Planting TipsPlanting holes should be 2-3 times the diameter of the container, butequal in depth. The rootball may be set slightly higher than the surround- Slow releaseing soil level. A water basin may be formed with excess soil. To avoid Fertilizerdiseases, do not apply mulch immediately near the plant base.Plants must be watered immediately after installa-tion. A 3 - 4 inch layer of mulch material may coverthe surrounding soil, including leaf litter, chippedbranches, or rock. Avoid planting in hot summer Planting holetemperatures. 2—3 times wider Mulch on surrounding Soil 9
  10. 10. Maintenance Recommendations MaintenanceWatering Your Natives TipsPlants will benefit from irrigation from November through March for thefirst two years. Most native plants establish successfully within two years,and will need little supplemental watering after that. Once established,native plants may go through the entire summer with only two waterings.More frequent watering in the summer, as well as overhead irrigation,may lead to root rot and fungus problems. Watering NativesIf supplemental water is applied in excess, plants will grow faster and lar-ger and may need to be pruned more often. It will take some practice tolearn the right amount of water needed by a species planted in your gar-den. Fertilizer for Native Plants Plant Fertilizer may be applied at the time of planting only. Establishment Native plants will not benefit from fertilizer application after that. In fact, over-fertilizing encourages weeds and may lead to rapid growth from the native plants. Native plants are naturally adapted to soils of low fertil- ity. FertilizerPruning NativesPruning should be provided after a plant completes its flowering cycle andthe new foliage shoots are in the beginning stages of growth. Be sure toprune dead or broken branches, especially in fire hazard areas. Youngplants will benefit from pruning and shaping to develop a good form. Pruning NativesPests and DiseasesIf given the proper growing conditions, native plants will experience fewpest and disease problems. Proper growing conditions include proper ex-posure (amount of sunlight), appropriate watering, good drainage, andpruning to avoid overcrowding of plants. Native plants are not susceptible Pests andto pests and diseases, but many times we make them susceptible through Diseaseinadequate maintenance. Become acquainted with your plants and knowthe requirements of your garden. 10
  11. 11. Shrubs Cistus speciesFremontodendron species Limonium perezii 11
  12. 12. Cistus species Rockrose Cistaceae family 2 to 6 ft. Flowers & Fruit White or rose colored flowers, depending on species. 2 to 5 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Little or no water once established.LANDSCAPE USEPerennial flower beds, background shrubmasses, slopes.PROBLEMS?Basically pest free. Short lived plant. Willhave poor appearance toward the end of itslife span. Needs well drained soil.COMMENTSSeveral species available that vary in flowercolor and growth habit.C. purpureus – pink with 5 spots. Maybe the most reliable rockrose.C. hybridus – white, 3 to 5 feet.C. salviifolius – white, low and spreading. Use as a ground cover. 12
  13. 13. Eriogonum species Wi l d B u c k w h e a t Polygonaceae family Flowers & Fruit 1 to 8 ft. Most types bloom during the spring but dried flowers may linger into autumn months. 4 to 12 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Needs very little if any irrigation. Avoid over-head watering in the summer which may leadto disease.LANDSCAPE USEMost buckwheats have a rather ‘wild’ look to themthat makes them hard to fit into a manicured land-scape. Use in natural areas or mixed with othernatives.PROBLEMS?Very hardy and drought tolerant. Most typeslook good for 2 to 3 years and then becometoo leggy. Some types cannot tolerate claysoils.COMMENTSE. arborescens – 3-5 ft tall; 4-6 ft wide.E. fasciculatum – 2-3 ft tall; 2-3 ft wide.E. giganteum – 5-8 ft tall; 6-10 ft wide.E. grande rusbescens – 1 ft tall; 2 ft wide.E. ‘Shasta Sulfur’ – 1 ft tall; 2-3 ft wideE. parvifolium – 2 ft tall; 2 ft wide 13
  14. 14. Eschscholzia californica California Poppy Papaveraceae family Flowers & Fruit 12 to 18 in Blooms from spring to summer. Flowers vary from deep orange to more yellowish. 12 to 18 in. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Needs no irrigation once established.LANDSCAPE USEUse for outlying planters or perimeter andnatural areas. The dry flowers can make themlook dead when viewed up close.PROBLEMS?Since these plants will often self-seed, theycan spread and become a weed in planterswhere they are unwanted.COMMENTSPlant seeds in early fall. If there’s no rain-fall keep soil moist until seedlings emerge,no water afterward. 14
  15. 15. Fremontodendron species Flannel Bush Sterculiaceae family Flowers & Fruits 4 to 20 ft. All types produce large amounts of bright yellow flowers in the spring. 10 to 20 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.No irrigation once established.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, revegetation pro-jects, any planter where the goal is no irri-gation.PROBLEMS?May not perform very well in heavy, poorlydrained soils. Fast growing but only livesabout 10 years.COMMENTSAvoid any irrigation or fertilizer. If plantedtogether with plants that require water, soilmust be light and well drained.F. californicum – 10 to 20 ft tall and wide.‘California Glory’ – 15 to 20 ft tall and wide.‘San Gabriel’ – Deeply lobed leaves.‘Ken Taylor’ – 4 to 6 ft tall; 12 ft tall.‘Pacific Sunset’ – 12 to 15 ft tall and wide. 15
  16. 16. Limonium perezii Statice Plumbaginaceae family Flowers & Fruit 1 to 2 ft. Large deep blue to purple flower clusters on long stalks rising above foliage. 2 to 4 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSBest near the coast, may freeze in colder inlandvalleys.Full sun; part shade inland.Needs low amounts of water.LANDSCAPE USEDramatic border plant, gives good colorthrough summer. Large dramatic leaves pro-vide tropical look and foliage contrast.PROBLEMS?Not long lived. Needs good soil drainage.Older plants produce dead undergrowth.COMMENTSReproduces from seed near the coast.Good maintenance plan is to replace olderplants with new seedlings in early spring. 16
  17. 17. Rhaphiolepis indica India Hawthorn Rosaceae family Flowers & Fruit 2 to 5 ft. Good flower production in late winter and early spring. Spo- radic in late spring. White flower variety also available. 2 to 5 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun to part shade.Infrequent to regular watering, dependingon the location.LANDSCAPE USEGive good flower in winter when little elseblooms. Great low maintenance backgroundshrub.PROBLEMS?Pest and disease free. Very little pruning isnecessary except to control size.COMMENTSOne of the most dependable and usefulshrubs for Southern California. Several va-rieties available that grow to differentheights. White flower type (Clara) bloomsmore prolifically but for shorter time period. 17
  18. 18. Rhus integrifolia Lemondade Berry Anacardiaceae family Flowers & Fruit 5 to 12 ft. Small of clusters of flowers in the spring. Flat red ber- ries in the summer. 2 to 15 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones but may not flourish in hotclimates.Full sun.Little to no water once established.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, large slopes, revege-tation projects, background shrub.PROBLEMS?May get verticillium wilt, especially if thereis regular irrigation.COMMENTSNative to Southern California coastal sagescrub and chaparral habitats. Uprightbranches have a somewhat stiff growthhabit. Berries can be used to make a lem-onade-like beverage. If planted where thereare regular ocean breezes it tends to growlower and more prostrate. 18
  19. 19. Salvia clevelandii Cleveland Sage Lamiaceae family Flowers & Fruit Fragrant one inch long pale 3 to 5 ft. to deep purple flower whorls on long stems. 5 to 8 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Very little water once established.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, revegetation pro-jects, background shrub in low water useplanter bed.PROBLEMS?May not perform well in heavy clay soils.Do not use in planter beds mixed withplants that need regular water.COMMENTS‘Winnifred Gillman’ – 3 ft high and wide.‘Aromas’ – larger darker blue flowers.‘Allen Chickering’ – flowers abundantly.‘Pozo Blue’ – Tolerates cold (10 degrees). 19
  20. 20. Groundcover Artemisia speciesCotoneaster dammeri 20
  21. 21. Artemisia species Sagebrush Asteraceae family Flowers & Fruit 1 to 5 ft. Flowers are small and in- conspicuous. 2 to 6 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Little to no water on the coast, moreinland.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, foliage contrast,ground cover, revegetation projects, low wateruse flower beds.PROBLEMS?May not tolerate regular watering. Sometypes may lose their leaves in the summeror in freezing weather.COMMENTSNative California Sagebrush is not veryuseful in a landscape. Hybrids have nicerfoliage and keep their leaves all year.‘Canyon Grey’ – 1 ½ ft tall; up to 12 ftwide‘Powis Castle’ – 3 ft tall; 4 ft wide.‘Montara’ – 2 ft tall; 5 ft wideSeveral other sagebrush species may beavailable. 21
  22. 22. Baccharis species Coyote Brush Asteraceae family Flowers & Fruit 1 to 5 ft. Small and inconspicuous flowers. Female plants pro- duce many cottony seeds. 5 to 9 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Little to no irrigation.LANDSCAPE USEGround cover or base shrub. Good for poorsoils, erosion control and revegetation pro-jects.PROBLEMS?Cannot tolerate regular watering, especiallynear the coast. Cottony flowers can be un-sightly.COMMENTSB. pilularis – Most popular and dependable.Popular cultivars: ‘Centennial’ – 3 ft tall; 5 ft wide. ‘Twin Peaks’ - 2 ft tall; 6 ft wide. ‘Pigeon Point’ - 3 ft tall; 9 ft wide.B. sarathroides – Used mainly for revegeta-tion projects . Can spread readily by seedand become a problem in unwanted areas. 22
  23. 23. Cotoneaster dammeri Bearberry Cotoneaster Rosaceae family Flowers & Fruit 6 to 18 in. Small white flowers in the spring; bright red fruit in the fall and win- ter. To 10 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun to part shade.Little to moderate amounts of water.LANDSCAPE USELow growing ground cover, looks good insmall or large planter beds. Will drape overwalls or cascade down slopes.PROBLEMS?Dependable plant in coastal or inland ar-eas.COMMENTSVarieties:Coral Beauty: grows to 6 inches tall.Eichholz: grows to 10 – 12 inches tall; someleaves turn red-orange in the fall.Lowfast: to one foot tall.Skogsholmen: to 1 ½ feet tall. 23
  24. 24. Lantana montevidensis Trailing Lanta na Verbenaceae family Flowers & Fruit 1 to 3 ft. Blooms more in the spring and fall months; no winter bloom in colder climates. White variety also available. 3 to 6 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSCoastal, Inland Valley (will die back duringcolder winter periods).Full sun to part shade. Providing protectionin interior areas will reduce cold damage.Needs low to moderate amounts of water.LANDSCAPE USEColorful border ground cover. Hanging Baskets.Large slope plantings. Winter color in coastalareas.PROBLEMS?Very dependable in coastal areas. Needs tobe pruned severely at least once a year toreduce thatch buildup. Some people findodor of leaves objectionable.COMMENTS?One of the better and most colorful groundcovers for coastal areas. Some interior ar-eas may be too cold for this plant. Checkwith your local nursery. 24
  25. 25. TreesQuercus agrifoliaGeijera parviflora 25
  26. 26. Arbutus unedo Str awber ry Tre e Eriaceae family Flowers & Fruit 10 to 25 ft. White urn shaped flowers in small clusters hang from branch ends. Fruit is small, red and edible (if not flavor- 10 to 25 ft. less). J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Takes low amounts of water, but tolerateslawn watering also.LANDSCAPE USEGreat small patio tree. Fruit provides color in thewinter. With age, twisted trunk adds great inter-est and emphasis to the landscape.PROBLEMS?Pest free. Fruit may be a nuisance near pat-ios. Suckers need regular removal.COMMENTSGrows slowly so plant a large one if time is afactor. Can be easily trained into a multi-trunked tree or large shrub. Smaller true shrubvarieties are also available. 26
  27. 27. Geijera parviflora A u s t r a l i a n Wi l l o w Rutaceae family 20 to 30 ft. Flowers & Fruits Small, creamy white, non-showy flowers in clusters along branches. 15 to 25 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones. Full sun.Needs water when young to speed growth.In deep soils will go 2 to 3 weeks withoutwater in summer.LANDSCAPE USEBeautiful tropical looking tree. Will not growhuge making it very good for small yards andpatio areas. Weeping growth habit fits withtropical and Mediterranean styles.PROBLEMS?Basically trouble free. Sometimes looks alittle sparse when young. Better to buy lar-ger tree when possible. Take the time toprune to form when young.COMMENTSOne of the better small trees for SouthernCalifornia. Low maintenance once estab-lished. Very little pruning needed after firstfew years. 27
  28. 28. Prunus ilicifolia lyonii Catalina Cherry Rosaceae family 20 to 50 ft. Flowers & Fruit Long spikes of small white flowers. Red to black ber- ries follow in the summer. 20 to 30 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.No irrigation near the coast, periodic deepwaterings in hotter climates.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, large perimeterscreen, accent tree.PROBLEMS?Fruit drop may be a nuisance on pavement,patios and sidewalks.COMMENTSNative to Southern California channel is-lands. In nature it does not grow on dry ex-posed areas. When planted near the coast itmay not need any irrigation in deep soilswith some sun protection but plants in hot-ter areas with shallow rocky soils will needperiodic deep waterings, even near thecoast. 28
  29. 29. Quercus agrifolia Coast Live Oak Fagaceae family 20 to 60 ft. Flowers & Fruit Small creamy yellow clusters of flowers. Conical, 1 inch acorns. 30 to 70 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun to part shade.Do not water natural trees. Planted ones cantake regular irrigation or no water.LANDSCAPE USELarge tree for California native gardens, slopes,perimeter areas. Growth habit makes it look outof place in formal gardens.PROBLEMS?Oak moth larvae eat leaves. Aggressive rootsmake it hard to plant underneath. Messy inthe spring due to leaf drop.COMMENTSLive oak and sycamore are the two most ma-jestic native trees in Southern California.Very important not to irrigate natural trees,many have been killed after receiving sum-mer irrigation. Young trees need training toensure good mature form. They usually donot look very good until they reach a largersize. 29
  30. 30. Washingtonia filifera California Fan Palm Arecaceae family Flowers & Fruit To 60 ft. White flowers on up to 10 foot long spikes. Black berries that follow. 15 to 20 J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Needs occasional water in the summer.LANDSCAPE USEMediterranean landscapes and large verticalaccent.PROBLEMS?Eventually grows too tall for most smallersuburban landscapes.COMMENTSLooks similar to much more popular Mexi-can Fan Palm (W. robusta) but is more stoutin both the trunk and the foliage canopy. 30
  31. 31. Multi-Category Plants Arctostaphylos speciesRhus ovata Melaleuca nesophila 31
  32. 32. Arctostaphylos species Manzanita Eriaceae family 1 to 15 ft Flowers & Fruit Most manzanita species have pinkish-white flow- ers in the spring months. 5 to 15 ft J F M A MJ J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones, however some speciesperform best near the coast.Full sun near the coast, some afternoonprotection from the sun in hot areas.LANDSCAPE USEGround cover for prostrate types, back-ground and filler shrub for upright types.PROBLEMS?Needs to be planted in an area that re-ceives little to no summer water.COMMENTSA. densiflora ‘Howard McMinn’ 4-6 ft tall; 5-7 ft wide.A. edmundsii – Little Sur Manzanita 2-3 ft tall; 8-12 ft wideA. ‘Emerald Carpet’ 1 ft tall; 4-5 ft wideA. manzanita – Common Manzanita 6-15 ft tall; 5-10 ft wide 32
  33. 33. Bougainvillea species Bougainvillea Nyctaginaceae family Flowers & Fruit 5 to 20 ft. Prolific brilliant blooms in many different colors (depending on variety). Color from flower bracts (like Poinsettia). 5 to 20 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSBest near the coast. May be cold damaged in in-terior areas. Older plants have more cold toler-ance.Full sun to partial shade in hotter areas.Very little water once established. Excess waterlessens flower production.LANDSCAPE USELarge vine to cover wall or drape down fromroof. Ground cover for large areas (make sure toselect proper variety).PROBLEMS?Pest free. Take care not to disturb rootswhen planting from container.COMMENTSMake sure to select the correct variety to fityour landscape. Some grow vigorously andtend to climb any support. Others stay rela-tively small and shrub-like. 33
  34. 34. Ceanothus species Wi l d L i l a c Rhamnaceae family Flowers & Fruit 3 to 10 ft. Deep blue flowers resemble small lilacs. Blooms profusely in spring. White varieties are also available. 3 to 8 ft.Varies by type. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Little or no water on coast, more inland.LANDSCAPE USEGreat background shrub or ground cover.Gives rich green and blue colors.PROBLEMS?Short lived, only 5 to 10 years. Aphids orwhiteflies are sometimes a problem. Thebiggest cultural concern with Ceanothus isroot rot due to summer watering. Water in-frequently or not at all if possible. Choosevarieties that tolerate summer water inheavy soils or areas where water is neces-sary other plants.COMMENTSSeveral species and varieties are availableand changing often. Varieties vary in plantand leaf size, and flower color. Check withlocal nurseryman to determine best one foryour situation. 34
  35. 35. Heteromeles arbutifolia To y o n , C h r i s t m a s B e r r y Rosaceae family Flowers & Fruits 10 to 15 ft. Small white flowers in showy clusters . Clusters of brilliant red berries in winter. 8 to 15 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zonesFull sun (part shade in hot areas).Needs very little water once established.LANDSCAPE USEColorful large background shrub. Winter color.Good for large slope areas and native restora-tion. Tolerates poor and rocky soils.PROBLEMS?Relatively pest free. Aphids may become aproblem. Strong winds may cause branchbreakage.COMMENTSCan easily be trimmed into small multi-trunked tree. Fruit attracts birds in winter.A great plant for large areas and re-vegetation projects. Native to SouthernCalifornia coastal canyons and northslopes. 35
  36. 36. Lyonothamus floribundus Catalina Ironwood Rosaceae family 20 to 40 in Flowers & Fruit One inch wide flowers appear during spring and fall. Flowers are colorful but not prolific. 12 to 15 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zonesFull sun. . May need shade from the sun inhot climates.Needs occasional deep watering.LANDSCAPE USESmall tree or large background shrub.PROBLEMS?Does best in well drained soils. May showchlorosis (yellow new growth) in heavy wetsoils. Dry flower clusters linger for severalmonths and may be unsightly.COMMENTSSub-species L. f. asplenifolius has attractivefern-like foliage. 36
  37. 37. Melaleuca nesophila Pink Melaleuca Myrtaceae family Flowers & Fruit 10 to 15 ft. Pink bottle brush type flowers on branch termi- nals most of the year. Seed capsules persist for long time. 8 to 18 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Very little to no water once established.LANDSCAPE USESlope plantings, perimeter planters, accentlarge shrub or small tree. Good for areaswhere very little irrigation is the goal.PROBLEMS?No pest or disease problems. Tends tohave an erratic growth habit that makes itlook somewhat untidy if not selectivelypruned.COMMENTSGrows naturally as a tree, needs pruningto maintain shrub form. Does well in poorsoils and tolerates salt spray from theocean. With age, develops a picturesqueform as the large branches lay down. 37
  38. 38. Rhus ovata Sugar Bush Anacardeaceae family Flowers & Fruit 15 to 20 ft. Small white and light crim- son flower clusters followed by black berries. 15 to 20 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Full sun.Very little to no irrigation.LANDSCAPE USELarge shrub for California native gardens. Canbe pruned into a small tree that reveals attrac-tive bark.PROBLEMS?May not perform well in heavy soils in areasthat require irrigation.COMMENTSThis plant is native to Southern Californiachaparral and sage scrub habitats. Onceestablished it may need no irrigation. 38
  39. 39. Ribes viburnifolium Evergreen Currant Saxifragaceae family Flowers & Fruit 3 to 5 ft. Clusters of small flowers late winter to spring, red berries follow in spring to summer. 8 to 12 ft. J F M A M J J A S O N DHARDINESSHardy in all zones.Does best with partial shade on the coast,partial sun inland.Needs no additional water but toleratessome irrigation.LANDSCAPE USECalifornia native gardens, ground cover forlarge areas, under trees in hot climates orunder native trees in irrigation-free plant-ers.PROBLEMS?Very dependable.COMMENTSNative to canyons and partial shade areason Catalina Island. Growth habit and flow-ers are different than other currants. Avoidshearing to allow plant to develop longarching branches which give it distinctcharacter. 39
  40. 40. ResourcesThe list below is comprised of resources to help you learn more abouthow you can incorporate native and drought-tolerant plants into yourown garden.Botanic Gardens Displaying Native PlantsDescanso Gardens(818) 949-4200www.descanso.comFriends of the Regional Parks Gardenwww.nativeplants.org/Fullerton Arboretum(714) 278-3579www.arboretum.fullerton.eduRancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden(909) 625-8767www.rsabg.orgSanta Barbara Botanic Garden(805) 682-4726www.santabarbarabotanicgarden.org/UC Riverside Botanic Gardens(909) 787-4650www.gardens.ucr.eduNative Plant OrganizationsCalifornia Native Plant Societywww.cnps.orgCalifornia Oaks Foundationwww.californiaoaks.orgTheodore Payne Foundation(818) 768-1802www.theodorepayne.org 40
  41. 41. Additional Botanical ResourcesCal Florawww.calflora.org/Native Plants for a California Gardenwww.mynativeplants.com/Wildflower Hotline(March to May)(818) 768-3533Nurseries specializing in native and drought-tolerant plantsDeans Greens (Etiwanda)(909) 899-1820El Nativo Growers, Inc. (Azusa)(626) 969-8449www.elnativogrowers.comGarrison Foothill Nursery (Upland)(909) 949-9878Las Pilitas Nursery (Escondido)(760) 749-5992www.laspilitas.comMatilija Nursery (Moorpark)(805) 523-8604www.matilijanursery.comMockingbird Nursery (Riverside)(909) 780-4571Mt. Fuji Nursery (Upland)(909) 985-2219Native Sons (Arroyo Grande)(805) 481-5996//nativeson.comPerrsons Nursery (Pasadena)(626) 792-6073San Marcos Growers (Santa Barbara)(805) 683-1561www.smgrowers.comSuncrest Nurseries, Inc. (Watsonville)(831) 728-2595www.suncrestnurseries.com 41
  42. 42. Tarweed Nursery & Landscape (Chatsworth)(818) 888-2318The Garden (Pomona)(909) 629-2062Tree of Life Nursery (San Juan Capistrano)(949) 728-0685www.treeoflifenursery.comNative Plant and Water Conservation Demonstration GardensLos Angeles CountyHenry C. Soto Water Conservation Garden301 North Baldwin Avenue, Arcadia, CA 91007Phone: 626-821-3222Xeriscape Garden164 West Magnolia Boulevard, Burbank, CA 91503Phone: 818-238-3730Soka University Botanical Research Center and Nursery26800 W. Mulholland Highway, Calabasas, CA 91302Phone: (818) 878-3763Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711Phone: 909-625-8767Descanso Gardens1418 Descanso Drive, La Canada, CA 91011Phone: 818-952-4403Long Beach Water Department Xeriscape Garden1800 East Wardlow Road, Long Beach, CA 90807Phone: 562-570-2308El Alisal: Charles F. Lummis Home200 East Avenue 43, Los Angeles, CA 90031Phone: 213-222-0546South Coast Botanic Garden26300 Crenshaw Boulevard, Palos Verdes Peninsula, CA 90274Phone: 310-544-6815Santa Monica Civic AuditoriumPico Boulevard and Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90401Phone: 310-458-2227 42
  43. 43. Orange CountyAnaheims Waterwise Garden2150 East Katella Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92806Phone: 714-765-4256Mesa Consolidated Water District Water Wise Garden1965 Placentia Avenue, Costa Mesa, CA 92627Phone: 949-574-1031Fullerton Arboretum1900 Associated Road, Fullerton, CA 92831Phone: 714-278-3579Riverside CountyWestern Municipal Water Districts Landscapes Southern California Style450 Alessandro Boulevard, Riverside, CA 92508Phone: 909-789-5087www.wmwd.com/landscape.htmU.C. Riverside Botanic GardenAt the University of California Riverside, CA 92521Phone: 909-784-6962San Bernardino CountyE. Rowley Demonstration Garden4594 San Bernardino Street, Montclair, CA 91763Phone: 909-626-2711San Diego CountyChula Vista Nature Center1000 Gundpowder Point Drive, Chula Vista, CA 91910Phone: 619-409-5903Sweetwater Authority Demonstration Garden505 Garrett Avenue, Chula Vista, CA 91910Phone: 619-422-8395The Water Conservation Garden12122 Cuyamaca College Drive, El Cajon, CA 92109Phone: 619-660-1684Quail Botanical Gardens230 Quail Gardens Drive, Encinitas, CA 92024Phone: 760-436-3036Xeriscape Demonstration Garden1920 North Iris Lane, Escondido, CA 92026Phone: 760-745-5522 43
  44. 44. Balboa Park1549 El Prade, San Diego, CA 92101Phone: 619-239-0512Famosa Slough Wetlands PreserveFamosa Boulevard at West Point Loma Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92107Phone: 619-224-4591Point Loma Native Plant GardenMendocino and Green Street, San Diego, CA 92107Phone: 619-236-1462San Diego Native Plants Garden3250 Palm Avenue, San Diego, CA 92154Phone: 619-424-6473Ventura CountyOjai Community Demonstration GardenBehind City Hall, 401 South Ventura Street, Ojai, CA 93023Phone: (805) 646-5581City of Oxnard Water Division Demonstration Garden251 South Hayes Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93030Phone: (805) 385-8136 44
  45. 45. ReferencesAdditional material was used from the following sources in the making of thishandbook:Growing NativeCopyright Louise LaceyPO Box 489Berkeley, CA 94701510-232-9865ladylfab@growingnative.comhttp://www.growingnative.com/Landscape Plants for Western RegionsPerry, Robert C.Claremont, CA.Land Design Publishing 1992Sunset Western Garden BookMenlo Park, CA.Sunset Publishing Corporation 2001Master Gardener Sonoma CountyOriginally created by Milo Baker Chapter of California NativePlant Societyhttp://cesonoma.ucdavis.edu/Gardener/pdfmg26gardeningwithnativeplants.pdfCalifornia Native Plant SocietySan Diego ChapterPO Box 121390San Diego, CA 92112-1390619-685-7321info@cnpssd.orghttp://www.cnpssd.org/Tree of Life Nurseryhttp://www.treeoflife.comLas Pilitas Nurseryhttp://www.laspilitas.com 45

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