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  1. 1. Bone Fractures, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Repair
  2. 2. General Fracture Classification • Open or compound - bone protrudes out of skin • Closed or simple - bone does not break through skin • Complete - bone separates into two fragments • Incomplete - bone does not separate into two fragments • According to direction of fracture - linear, transverse, oblique
  3. 3. Specific Fracture Classification • Green-stick fracture - an incomplete fracture in which one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends; happens mainly in children
  4. 4. Specific Fracture Classification • Comminuted fracture - a fracture in which the bone breaks into more than two fragments; usually caused by severe forces
  5. 5. Specific Fracture Classification • Impacted fracture - one end of the fracture is forcefully driven into the interior of the other
  6. 6. Specific Fracture Classification • Stress fracture - fracture without being visibly broken; microscopic fissures in bone that forms without any evidence of injury to other tissues; caused by repeated strenuous activity (ex: running)
  7. 7. Specific Fracture Classification • Spiral fracture - fracture spirals down the bone; caused by a twisting force that creates an oblique fracture around and through the bone
  8. 8. X-rays and Pictures of Fractures
  9. 9. X-rays and Pictures of Fractures
  10. 10. Symptoms of Bone Fractures • Pain • Swelling • Loss of function to area • Deformity of a limb • Sometimes there is bruising from internal bleeding
  11. 11. Diagnosing Bone Fractures • X-rays of injured area • Some fractures are difficult to see in an x- ray, so a CT scan, MRI, or other bone scans are used
  12. 12. Treatment of Fractures • There are two main types of treatments:  External fixation - casts  Internal fixation - surgery  Wires - used on small fractures  Plates - hold two lengths of bone together with screws  Nails or rods - placed in centers of long bones and held in place with screws  Screws - most common method; used by self or with other items
  13. 13. Internal Fixation Examples
  14. 14. Internal Fixation Examples
  15. 15. Healing of Fractures • Healing time varies for each individual • Healing time also depends on:  Which bone was broken  Severity of the break  Age of individual  Bones take longer to heal the older that we get
  16. 16. Bone Repair When bone breaks, so do the blood vessels that supply the bone 1) a clot forms in the damaged area 2) blood vessels and cells invade the clot and produce a fibrous network and cartilage between broken bones (callus) 3) osteoblasts enter callus and begin forming cancellous bone 4) Cancellous bone is remodeled to form compact and cancellous bone; repair is complete