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CSI That Works_Food Security Report Final

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CSI That Works_Food Security Report Final

  1. 1. Prepared By: Silvester Hwenha, Tshikululu Social Investments THE SOUTH AFRICAN FOOD SECURITY PARADOX Lessons and opportunities for Corporate Social Investment
  2. 2. i Executive Summary The South African Food Security Paradox is the fourth research paper commissioned by FirstRand Limited as part of its communications campaign to document and share learnings under the theme: CSI that Works. The overall purpose of the campaign is to influence corporate social investment (CSI) in South Africa by encouraging knowledge sharing among corporates, civil society organisations, government and other social development actors. Research objectives The overall aim of this research is to highlight the lessons learnt from CSI-funded interventions designed to alleviate food insecurity in South Africa. The specific objectives of the research are to: assess the state of food (in)security in urban and rural areas and its implications on business, the economy and society; review government’s response and interventions to ensure food security in the country; evaluate current interventions in promoting agriculture, food security and livelihoods; and identify emerging opportunities for high impact CSI in eliminating food insecurity in the country. This research is based on the paradox that while South Africa produces adequate food to feed its population, periodic and chronic food insecurity and hunger at household level still persists for a significant proportion of the population. Highlighting this paradox is intended to influence stakeholders to devise food security programmes that will contribute to building a healthier society. Research methods The research relied primarily on secondary data and information gathered through an extensive desktop study, interviews with in-house professionals working on the WesBank Fund Food Security and Livelihoods Programme (FSALP), and in-depth interviews with project managers in selected organisations implementing food security programmes. The desktop study was conducted to provide the background and context of food security in South Africa. The research benefited from WesBank’s National Partners’ Workshop, which exposed the researcher to various organisations implementing food security programmes. Through the workshop four food security programmes were identified and profiled as case studies. The detailed research methodology is shown in Appendix 1. Research Findings South Africa produces enough food to feed its population and yet 54% of the population is at risk of hunger, experience hunger or is food insecure. Food insecurity is prevalent in rural areas (37%) and urban informal settlements (32%). Hunger is more prevalent among black Africans (30.3%) and the Coloured population (13.1%). Household vulnerability to food shortages affect children more severely than adults. About a third of children under the age of five are stunted as a result of malnutrition. The economic and social costs of malnutrition are very high. Malnutrition renders children susceptible to diseases and impaired cognitive development. As adults, these children grow up with less education and are likely to earn less and rely more on government grants as adults. Despite the high rate of urbanisation, subsistence agriculture remains a livelihood option for many rural residents, providing them with food and a chance to earn some income. Food gardens in both rural and urban areas are contributing significantly to household food security. Although mothers and grandmothers are predominantly involved in food production at micro-level there are still limited opportunities for women to receive formal training in farming. School feeding programmes are also giving many children from poor communities an opportunity to access food and simultaneously acquire an education. Addressing hunger and food insecurity requires a multi-sectoral approach in order to bring systemic change. The private sector is already supporting several programmes in food security although there
  3. 3. ii is still scope to do more. There are opportunities for donors to partner with small-scale farmers on the food supply chain and assist them with mechanisms to access retail markets. The government has also made enormous effort to enact various pieces of legislation to address food security, but challenges still remain. These include: inadequate safety nets; weak support networks and disaster management systems; inadequate and unstable household food production; lack of purchasing power; and poor nutritional status. However, there is consensus that addressing food insecurity requires the collaboration of all stakeholders; government, civil society and business. Government has in place structures and frameworks to roll-out national programmes but often the lack the capacity and skills to coordinate multi-sectoral programmes. Notably, the private sector has the necessary skills to assist government. Through public-private partnerships there are opportunities to pool resources and expertise, increase efficiency in implementing programmes aimed at alleviating food insecurity in the country. The following lessons have been learnt through the implementation of CSI interventions in agriculture and food security:  Shift funding from food relief programmes to training and skills development interventions  Promote initiatives that promote gender equity in agriculture and the food security sector  Support the design and implementation of educational programmes linked to community development  Support the use of technology in improving monitoring and evaluation of food security programmes  Engage in structured public-private partnerships to optimise impact  Support small-scale commercial farmers linked to the business supply chain
  4. 4. iii Table of Contents ExecutiveSummary.............................................................................................................................................................................................................i TableofContents.................................................................................................................................................................................................................iii Acronyms................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 1.1 Hunger in the midst of bounty .................................................................................................5 1.2 Research objectives................................................................................................................6 1.3 Scope of the research .............................................................................................................6 2. FoodSecurityPerspectives................................................................................................................................................................................6 2.1 Definition of food security........................................................................................................6 2.2 Global food security ................................................................................................................7 2.3 The state of food security in South Africa ...............................................................................7 2.3.1 Food prices and food security.........................................................................................9 2.3.2 Food security, malnutrition and health ............................................................................9 2.3.3 Rural agriculture............................................................................................................10 2.3.4 Food gardens ................................................................................................................11 2.3.4.1 Food gardens in urban areas ................................................................................12 2.3.4.2 Food gardens in rural communities.......................................................................13 2.3.5 Food security challenges in South Africa......................................................................13 2.3.6 Agricultural training and research .................................................................................13 3. NationalPolicyResponsestoFoodInsecurity........................................................................................................................................15 3.1 National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) .....................................................................16 3.2 The Integrated Nutrition Programme (INP) of 1995..............................................................16 3.3 The Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS) of 1996 ........................................................17 3.5 The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) of 2009 ...............................18 3.6 The New Growth Path (NGP) of 2010 ..................................................................................18 3.7 National Development Plan (NDP) Vision 2030 of 2012 ......................................................18 3.8 Food Security Policy of 2012 ................................................................................................18 4. PrivateSectorResponsestoFoodSecurity.............................................................................................................................................19 4.1 Corporate social investment in food security and agriculture ...............................................19 4.2 Case studies..........................................................................................................................20 4.2.1 Abalimi Bezekhaya – food gardens...............................................................................20 4.2.1.1 Background ...........................................................................................................20 4.2.1.2 Programme activities.............................................................................................20 4.2.1.3 Programme impact................................................................................................21 4.2.1.4 Lessons learnt .......................................................................................................23 4.2.2 In-School Breakfast Feeding Programme – The Tiger Brands Foundation..................24 4.2.2.1 Background ...........................................................................................................24 4.2.2.2 Programme activities.............................................................................................24 4.2.2.3 Programme impact................................................................................................25 4.2.2.4 Lessons learnt .......................................................................................................26 4.2.3 UNISA Programme in Household Food Security..........................................................27 4.2.3.1 Background ...........................................................................................................27 4.2.3.2 Programme delivery ..............................................................................................29 4.2.3.3 Programme impact................................................................................................29 4.2.3.4 Lessons learnt .......................................................................................................30 4.2.4 Integrated Food Security Programme - Mineworkers Development Agency................31 4.2.4.1 Background ...........................................................................................................31 4.2.4.2 Programme activities.............................................................................................31 4.2.4.3 Programme impact................................................................................................32 4.2.4.4 Lessons learnt .......................................................................................................33 5. DiscussionandRecommendations.............................................................................................................................................................34 5.1 Recommendations ................................................................................................................35 Appendix1:Researchapproachandmethodology.........................................................................................................................................37
  5. 5. 4 Acronyms AET Agricultural Education and Training CAES College of Agriculture and Environmental Science CASP Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme CBO Community Based Organisation CRDP Comprehensive Rural Development Programme CSA Community Supported Agriculture CSI Corporate Social Investment DAFF Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries DBE Department of Basic Education DFI Development Finance Institution of South Africa DoE Department of Education DoH Department of Health DSD Department of Social Development EDD Economic Development Department EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation FET Further Education and Training FSLP Food Security and Livelihoods Programme GDP Gross Domestic Product IFSS Integrated Food Security Strategy ILUD Integrated Land Use Design INP Integrated Nutrition Programme LRAD Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development Programme LSP Life Skills Programme MAFISA Micro Agricultural Finance Initiative of South Africa MDA Mineworkers Development Agency MDG Millennium Development Goal MOU Memorandum of Understanding NDA National Department of Agriculture NDP National Development Plan NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NGP New Growth Path NSNP National School Nutrition Programme PHC Primary Health Care PHFS Programme Household Food Security PSNP Primary School Nutrition Programme RDP Reconstruction and Development Programme SABETA South African Board of Education and Training in Agriculture SAIDE South African Institute for Distance Education SANHANES-1 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey SADC Southern African Development Community SCAGA Siyazama Community Allotment Garden Association SEED Schools Environmental Education and Development TBF Tiger Brands Foundation UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNISA University of South Africa VUFA Vukuzenzele Urban Farmers Association
  6. 6. 5 1. Introduction Africa is one of the most rapidly growing economic regions in the world today, with significant commercial successes being registered in the telecommunication, banking, retail and construction industries. 1 Real gross domestic product (GDP) across the continent has grown by an average of 5% per annum from 2000 to 2012. However, this economic growth has not translated into broad benefits for the millions of Africans who continue to be plagued by poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Although more than two-thirds of African citizens depend on agriculture for their incomes, the sector has not grown significantly during the same period despite its enormous potential “to drive inclusive economic growth, improve food security, and create opportunities for millions of Africans”. 2 Current research indicates that in sub-Saharan Africa, growth in agriculture is 11 times more effective in reducing poverty than other sectors. 3 Periodic droughts, crop failures and other disasters are the most cited causes of food insecurity in the region. While these are important factors in engendering vulnerability to food shortages across national boundaries, uneven access to food is a far deeper challenge. 4 Even when food is available in the market, households fail to access it due to low incomes and limited and unstable livelihood options. This demonstrates the complexity of food security and the need by national governments to craft integrated approaches spanning across various sectors in order to prevent famine, starvation and food insecurity in the region. 1.1 Hunger in the midst of bounty South Africa is deemed a food secure country, with the means to produce enough staple foods or capacity to import food should there be deficits. However, this is true only at national level when aggregate agricultural production is taken into account. At the household level, food insecurity is rife. Recent research results of the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) indicate that only 45.6% of the population is food secure, 28.3% are at risk of hunger and 26% experience hunger or are food insecure. The highest prevalence of food insecurity is among population groups resident in urban informal settlements (32.4%) and rural areas (37%) 5 . This food security paradox disproportionately affects previously disadvantaged communities, the majority of whom are resident in dry former homelands and dependent on subsistence farming. With a very narrow production base, these households also lack the cash to purchase food to feed their families. Household vulnerability to food shortages affect children more severely than adults. Approximately 1.5 million children under the age of six years are stunted due to chronic malnutrition, resulting in decreased physical activity, slow cognitive development and poor educational outcomes. 6 Overall, food insecurity impedes human potential for productivity thus affecting social and economic development of the country. 1 Leke, C., Lund, C., Roxburgh, C. & van Wamelen, A. 2010. What’s driving Africa’s growth 2 World Bank. 2013. “African Development Indicators” 3 Christiaensen, L., Demery, L & Kuhl, J. 2010. “The (evolving) role of agriculture in poverty reduction – an empirical perspective”. Journal of Development Economics. 4 Africa Human Development Report. 2012. Towards a food secure future. UNDP: New York 5 Shisana O., Labadarios D., Rehle T., Simbayi L., Zuma K., Dhansay A., Reddy P., Parker, W. Hoosain, E., Naidoo P, Hongoro C, Mchiza Z, Steyn NP, Dwane N, Makoae M, Maluleke T, Ramlagan, S., Zungu, N., Evans MG, Jacobs L, Faber M, & SANHANES-1 Team (2013) South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Cape Town: HSRC Press 6 De Klerk, M. et al., 2004. Food Security in South Africa: Key Policy Issues for the Medium Term. The Human Sciences Research Council.
  7. 7. 6 1.2 Research objectives The overall aim of this research is to explore the effectiveness of food security interventions, the lessons learnt and opportunities for ending hunger in the country. The specific objectives of the research are to:  assess the state of food (in)security in urban and rural areas and its implications on business, the economy and society;  review government’s response and interventions to ensure food security in the country;  evaluate current private interventions in promoting agriculture, food security and livelihoods; and  identify emerging opportunities for high impact CSI in eliminating food insecurity in the country. 1.3 Scope of the research Food security is a broad and complex subject. This research will focus specifically on subsistence agriculture in rural areas, school-based feeding programmes and food gardens, and urban agriculture. The research will also explore government programmes and policies implemented to promote food security. The role of the private sector in piloting innovative solutions to address the food security paradox will also be highlighted in order to draw lessons for sharing with wider audiences. 2. Food Security Perspectives 2.1 Definition of food security Food security is both a sustainable development and human rights issue with multiple dimensions. The most widely accepted definition of food security was coined at the World Food Summit of 1996 as follows: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. 7 ” This definition indicates that food security is predicated on the following four key pillars:  Food availability: The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality at all times.  Food access: Access by individuals to adequate resources for acquiring appropriate food for a nutritious diet. (Resources refer to income and other entitlements, including rights to access common resources in communities or those provided by the state such as welfare grants or food parcels.)  Utilisation: appropriate use of food based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation.  Stability: To be food secure, an individual, household or population must have access to adequate food at all times. This requires the ability to respond to and manage economic shocks and climatic crises or cyclic events such as seasonal food security. Food security is also defined at three strategic levels: national, community and household: 7 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1996. “Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action.” World Food Summit, 13–17 November, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.htm. Accessed 12 February 2014.
  8. 8. 7  National food security: this refers to the condition whereby the nation is able to manufacture, import, retain and sustain food needed to support its population with minimum per capita nutritional standards. 8  Community food security: this is defined as the condition whereby the residents in a community can obtain safe, culturally accepted, nutritionally adequate diets through a sustainable system that maximises community self-reliance and social justice. 9  Household food security: this refers to the availability of adequate food in one’s home and household members do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. 9 Research has shown that food security, poverty and unemployment are intricately linked in a vicious cycle. Chronic food insecurity increases household vulnerability, thus fuelling poverty. Loss (or lack) of income through unemployment contributes to further food insecurity and poverty. Poverty also creates challenges that may limit the ability of household members to seek employment, thus locking households in a poverty trap. 10 2.2 Global food security Global statistics for the period between 2011 and 2013 indicate that 12% of the world’s population suffered from chronic hunger. This is a significant decline from 19% in the period 1990-92. Of the 842 million people who are chronically hungry in the world today, 827 million are in developing countries. Africa continues to have the highest prevalence (25%) of people experiencing chronic hunger. Sub- Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of undernourishment (24.8%), although this has declined from 32.7% in the last two decades. Overall the proportion of undernourished people in developing countries has decreased from 24% in the period 1990-92 to 14% between 2011 and 2013. 11 Although many countries in Africa have made significant progress in reducing the number of food insecure people, most are unlikely to meet the millennium development goal (MDG) of halving the proportion of people who are undernourished by the year 2015. Asia and Latin America are remarkably close to meeting the MGD targets on hunger. Africa would require taking more urgent steps that deliver quick results to meet the targets. Such interventions include cash transfers and cash-and-voucher schemes to increase both consumption and investment in agricultural assets. However, in order to increase food security in the long term countries must invest in agriculture to stimulate food production, especially among smallholder farmers. 12 2.3 The state of food security in South Africa The discourse on food security in South Africa began to attract much attention after 1994 with the transition from apartheid to democratic rule. Poverty was rife among the majority of South Africans who had been excluded from participating in the mainstream economy and endured years of extreme social and economic deprivation. 13 Under the new South African constitution of 1996, every citizen has a right to sufficient food, water and social security. Food security was one of the immediate priorities set by the government in order to redress the inequalities created under apartheid. In 8 Anderson, S.A. 1990. Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult-to-sample populations, Journal of Nutrition, 120: 1559– 1600. 9 Radimer, K.L., Olson, C.M. & Campbell, C.C. 1990. Development of indicators to assess hunger, Journal of Nutrition, 120: 1544–1548. 10 The Human Development Report. 1996. United Nations Development Programme: New York. 11 FAO, IFAD & WFP. 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. Rome, FAO. 12 FAO, IFAD & WFP. 2012. The State of Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO. 13 Lund, F. 2008. Changing Social Policy – The Child Support Grant in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
  9. 9. 8 subsequent years, food security has remained a significant aspect in national policy driven by the MDGs on hunger, set to be achieved by 2015. South Africa is an upper-middle income country with adequate capacity to produce sufficient amounts of food to feed its population and ability to import food should there be deficits. 14 With the most productive agriculture in the continent, South Africa is the largest producer and exporter of maize and second largest producer of wheat. Maize output increased from 3.2 million tonnes in 1991/92 to a peak of 13.4 million tonnes in 2009/10. Current production levels have remained firmly around 10 million tonnes. The bulk of maize output is produced by about 8000 commercial maize growers in the country. Wheat production, although still sufficient to meet local demand, has declined in recent years. In 1991/92 wheat output of 2.5 million tonnes was produced on 974 000 hectares. In 2011/12 the output declined to 1.76 tonnes on 551 000 hectares. Sorghum and sunflowers are also being produced at significant levels, with potential for both domestic and export potential. 15 Over the last two decades, the country has met its domestic requirements for maize (100%), wheat (95%), livestock (96%) and dairy products (100%). Shortfalls have been filled by imports from SADC and EU countries. 16 Although South Africa has consistently produced an adequate supply of food at the national level, food security at community and household level has remained elusive. 14 Food security statistics in 2008 indicate that 48% of the population was food secure, up from 25% in 1999; 25% were at risk of hunger compared to 23% in 1999; and 25.9% were food insecure versus 52.3% in 1999. 17,18 Current statistics from the SANHANES indicate that 45.6% of the population is food secure; 28.3% is at risk of hunger; and 26% is experiencing hunger. Further analysis of these data indicates that food security status in the country has not improved, but has been maintained since 2008. 5 Rural and urban informal dwellers are the most likely among the population to experience hunger. Thirty seven percent of the rural population and 32.4% of the urban informal settlement population experience hunger. This is corroborated by the findings that 58% of households in urban informal settlements and 51% of households in rural areas indicated that they lacked adequate financial resources to purchase food and other basic requirements. Geographically, the Eastern Cape and Limpopo have hunger prevalence rates above 30% while Western Cape (16.4%) and Gauteng (19.2%) had the lowest hunger prevalence rates. 5 Further evidence indicates that the prevalence of hunger is highest among black Africans (30.3%) and the Coloured population (13.1%). A large proportion (28.5%) of the Indian and black African population (25.1%) are at risk of hunger. Black African (44%), Coloured (28%) and Indian (12%) households reported not having adequate money to buy food and other basic necessities. The majority (89.3%) of the white population was food secure and only 6% indicated that they did not have enough money to purchase food. 5 14 Human Sciences Research Council. 2004. Food Security in South Africa: Key Policy Issues for the Medium Term–Position Paper. Pretoria, Human Sciences Research Council. 15 Hannon, P. 2012. Country Profile: South Africa looks far and wide for long-term growth. African Agriculture Review. Nedbank Capital. 16 Department of Agriculture. 2002. The Integrated Food Security Strategy for South Africa. Pretoria 17 Labadarios, D., Swart, R,., Maunder, E.M.W., Kruger, H.S., Gericke, G.J., Kuzwayo, P.M.N., Ntsie, P.R., Steyn, N.P., Schloss, I., Dhansay, M.A., Jooste, P.L. & Dannhauser, A. 2008. Executive summary of the National Food Consumption Survey Fortification Baseline (NFCS-FB-I) South Africa, 2005. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21(3) (Suppl. 2): 247–300 18 Labadarios, D. et al. 2011. Food security in South Africa: A review of national surveys. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89: 891-899.
  10. 10. 9 The provision of social grants has been hailed as a significant intervention to militate against poverty. There is ample evidence to suggest that cash transfers through social grants have resulted in improvements in the quantity and quality of food consumption, which improves nutritional status and lowers documented levels of morbidity and stunting among children in vulnerable households. 19 Furthermore, by subsidising current consumption, social grants enable households to save and invest in health and education. In rural areas, social grants support investments in productive physical capital, such as improved housing and smallholder agriculture. 20 2.3.1 Food prices and food security Food is one of the most price sensitive and income-responsive commodities. Increases in the overall inflation rate and food inflation rate increase the vulnerability of both rural and urban consumers to food insecurity. In South Africa, high food inflation has been prevalent over the last decade. International commodity prices, depreciation in the Rand/USD Exchange rate and local increases in the cost of electricity have generally been responsible for the increases in year-on-year food price inflation. According to Statistics South Africa the current inflation rate is 5.8% and food inflation is 4.3%. 21 Prices of staple food commodities have increased over time. The cost of the basic food items, for example, bread, meat, milk, cheese, vegetables, sugar and cooking oil increased by 49% from R189.94 in 2008 to R283.90 in 2013. The table below shows the price increases for some of the basic food items. Table 1: Increases in basic food prices (2008 – 2013) Bread Milk (per litre) White Sugar (2.5kg) Cooking Oil (750ml) Jan 2008 R5.89 R8.46 R14.79 R12.70 Jan 2010 R7.83 R9.89 18.15 R12.81 April 2013 R10.11 R11.16 24.65 R17.02 Source: http://www.fin24.com/Debt/News/Food-prices-up-49-in-5-years-20130602 In the last year price inflation rates of 6% or more were experienced for the following products in the food basket: rice, white bread, cabbage, potatoes, tea, maize meal, margarine, instant coffee and milk. Urban and rural consumers also experienced price differences making them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity. 22 For example, rural consumers paid more for the same items as compared to urban consumers resulting in reduced affordability of important staple foods (rice, bread, and maize meal) and reduced dietary diversity of consumers. 23 2.3.2 Food security, malnutrition and health 19 Gertler, P.J. & Boyce, S. 2001. An experiment in incentive-based welfare: The impact of PROGRESA on health in Mexico. Unpublished Research Report. Berkley: University of California. 20 Martinez, S. 2005. Pensions, poverty and household investments in Bolivia. Draft typescript. Berkley: University of California, Department of Economics. 21 Food Prices - Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy. Accessed online: http://www.bfap.co.za/index.php/focus/consumer- and-retail-analysis/food-prices. Accessed on 23 March 2014. 22 Food Price Monitor. 2014. Issue 2014/ February. Markets and Economic Research Centre: National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC). 23 Food Price Monitor. 2014. Issue 2014/ February. Markets and Economic Research Centre: National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC).
  11. 11. 10 A key element of food security is access to food that is nutritious, which makes it possible for households to live active and productive lives. Access to adequate food alone is necessary but not sufficient to keep malnutrition at bay. The variation in the prevalence of malnutrition among different socio-economic groups in South Africa is a direct result of the poverty and inequality emanating from apartheid policies. As a direct result of malnutrition, 27% of children under the age of five are stunted (low height for age), 12% are underweight (low weight for age), and 5% are wasted (low weight for height). About 15% of the infants born to hungry mothers with poor nutrition have low birth weight. 24 Malnutrition increases the incidence of infant mortality, impairs physical and mental development, and ultimately inhibits school performance and attendance. Economic costs of malnutrition are associated with a population of children who grow up to be less productive as adults, earn less and have more health problems than their peers. Furthermore, with less education and limited employment opportunities, these adults are likely to become a liability to society through a greater reliance on state welfare programmes or through engaging in crime. 25,26,27 . Most poor people rely on their ability to perform manual labour to survive, and malnutrition limits their ability to engage in physical tasks. As a result malnutrition entrenches poverty, poor education and health outcomes in poor communities. It is expected that South Africa will lose up to a total of US$1.9 billion to chronic diseases as a result of malnutrition by 2015. 28 Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are other dimensions of malnutrition affecting previously disadvantaged communities disproportionately. Health statistics indicate that 19% of pregnant women and 17% of pre-school aged children are deficient in Vitamin A 29 ; and 24% of pre-school aged children and 22% of pregnant women are anaemic. 30 It is estimated that South Africa loses over US$1.1 billion in GDP to vitamin and mineral deficiencies per annum. 3,4 By contrast, it would cost US$55 million per annum to finance interventions to address micro-nutrients deficiencies. 31 Eliminating malnutrition requires a multi-sectoral approach( agriculture, education, transport, gender, the food industry, health and other sectors) to ensure that households have access to adequate amounts of diverse and nutritious diets. 2.3.3 Rural agriculture South Africa has a dual agricultural system comprising of a highly sophisticated commercial farming sector dominated by white farmers on one hand and a smallholder subsistence farming sector primarily consisting of black farmers on the other hand. 32 Land ownership is also skewed in favour of white commercial farmers, who own over 80% of the farming land in the country while smallholder farmers own around 15% of the farming land. The remainder is owned by various municipalities across the country. Current statistics indicate that government owns 14% of total land in the country 24 UNICEF. 2009. State of the World’s Children. New York: UNICEF. 25 Shaw, D.J. 2009. Global food and agricultural institutions. New York: Routledge. 26 FAO, 2006. The State of Food Security in the World. Rome: FAO. 27 UNICEF, 2005. State of the World’s Children: Childhood Under Threat. New York: UNICEF. 28 Abegunde D., et al. 2007. The Burden and Costs of Chronic Diseases in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. The Lancet 370: 1929–38. 29 WHO. 2009. Global Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Populations at Risk 1995-2005. WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency 30 WHO. 2008. Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. 31 UNICEF and the Micronutrient Initiative. 2004. Vitamin and mineral deficiency: a global progress report. 32 Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2008. South Africa Agriculture. (http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/South- Africa-AGRICULTURE.html
  12. 12. 11 while 79% of the land is privately owned and 7% of the land has not been accounted for. 33 Commercial agriculture has been well supported through infrastructure, marketing, financial resources and technology advancement to raise productivity on the farms. Since 1994 agricultural production on commercial farms has almost doubled. Although subsidies to commercial farmers have been significantly reduced since 1994, commercial farmers still have far better access to credit and other support services than smallholder farmers. Smallholder agriculture is diminishing as productivity declines due to insufficient financial support including lack of technical extension support services. Thus smallholder agriculture is highly vulnerable to seasonal variations and episodes of drought and floods. 32 In an effort to correct the inequalities in land ownership, the government enacted policies and instituted a land reform programme to transfer 33% or 24.6 million hectares of private or commercial agricultural land to previously disadvantaged smallholder farmers by 2014. The Land Reform Programme was established in 1994 with three main focus areas: Land Restitution, Land Redistribution and Land Tenure Reform 34 . However, the land reform programme has already missed the set targets. By 2011, only 6.2 million hectares of land (or about a quarter of the initial target) had been transferred through restitution claims and redistribution.35 Hunger and malnutrition in rural areas stem from insufficient, unstable food supplies at the household level. To assure household food security, food must be locally available, accessible and affordable. 36 However, most poor rural residents are net deficit food producers and rely on cash income to meet their food needs. 37 Sources of cash income in rural communities include wages, temporary employment, grants, and remittances from migrant workers. Reliance on agriculture is minimal as any seasonal variation can result in food shortages within the household. Besides, the rural poor are decreasingly engaging in agriculture due to poor access to agricultural land and inputs, including labour and biophysical factors such as soil fertility. 38 Food in rural households is usually insufficient at different times of the month or year depending on income source and seasonality of production. Most poor households who engage in food production do so primarily out of necessity as an additional livelihood strategy. Women are the primary food producers in rural areas, making up to 61% of all those involved in farming. These women often are mothers and grandmothers with poor education. 37 2.3.4 Food gardens Interventions to alleviate food insecurity often take the form of cash-transfers, food parcels, food stamps and food gardens. Of the various options, food gardens arguably offer the most cost effective and sustainable option in the long term. In South Africa the focus on migrant labour turned most rural communities into labour pools and destroyed the peasantry and household food production practices including gardening. However, the tendency towards growing one’s own food remains a significant part of the social and economic livelihoods of both rural and urban populations. Food gardens 33 Land Audit Report. 2013. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Rural Development and Land Reform. 34 Kirsten, J.F. and Van Zyl, J. 1999. Approaches and Progress with Land Reform in South Africa. Agrekon 38 35 Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) 36 Republic of South Africa, 2002. “The Integrated Food Security Strategy for South Africa”. Department of Agriculture: Pretoria 37 Ngqangweni, S.S., Kirsten, J.F. & Delgado, C.L. 2001. How efficient are African smallholders? A case study in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Agrekon 40(1):58-65. 38 Drimie, S., Germishuyse, T, Rademeyer, L. & Schwabe, C. 2009. Agricultural production in Greater Sekhukhune: the future for food security in a poverty node of South Africa. Agrekon, Vol 48, No. 3.
  13. 13. 12 promote household self-reliance and have enormous potential to increase the diversity of nutritious food produced and available to households. 39 Food gardens are often and inaccurately viewed as predominantly urban phenomena. Food gardens are both a rural and urban practice. This section highlights available evidence related to the contribution of food gardens to food security. 40 2.3.4.1 Food gardens in urban areas Urban migration is a global phenomenon, with half of the world’s population residing in urban areas. 41 In South Africa 61,7% of the population is in urban areas. 42 In South Africa urban migration has put a strain on housing, health and provision of energy, water and waste management services. These problems are more acute in urban informal settlements, where household food insecurity is also high. 43 Food insecurity in urban areas and elsewhere in the country has been exacerbated by the global economic recession, which has had a tremendous impact on basic food prices as well as fuel and energy (electricity). The urban population is more vulnerable to food price fluctuations because of its reliance on the market to purchase food. With high levels of unemployment, particularly in urban areas the notion of urban agriculture offers various advantages. In 1996 the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) stated these advantages as follows: “For the poorest of the poor, it provides good access to food. For the stable poor, it provides a source of income and good quality food at low cost. For middle-income families, it offers the possibility of savings and a return on their investment in urban property. For small and large entrepreneurs, it is a profitable business.” 44 Urban agriculture has potential to provide both supplementary food for household consumption and income which can be used to purchase other household commodities. However, despite the obvious benefits of urban agriculture in enhancing food security especially among the urban poor, its implementation is fraught with challenges. Institutional constraints include the lack of access to land with secure tenure; absence of clear and coherent policies to guide urban agriculture; and lack of co- operation between municipal departments, NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs) involved in urban agriculture. 45 Where land can be secured access to an adequate supply of water is another major challenge. Finally, the co-operative model often used in urban agriculture brings its own challenges such as lack of commitment, infighting and plundering of resources by participants. In some cases lack of skills of 39 de Klerk et al., 2004. Food Security in South Africa: Key Policy Issues for the Medium Term. Position Paper: Human Sciences Research Council. 40 Austin, A & Visser, A. 2002. Study Report: Urban Agriculture in South Africa. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Report no. BOU/1243, Pretoria. 41 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Urban Systems. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group. Millennium Ecosytem Assessment Series Volume 1. Washington D.C.: Island Press. (http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.296.aspx.pdf 42 The Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE). 2005. Land Reform in South Africa: A 21st century perspective, Research Report No 14 (Abridged version). (http://www.cde.org.za/article.php?a_id=36 43 Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). 2004. Food Security in South Africa: Key policy issues for the medium term. Position Paper. (http://www.hsrc.ac.za/research/outputDocuments/2394_DeKlerk_FoodSecurityinSA.pdf 44 Hampwaye, G., Nel, E. & Rogerson, C.M. 2007. Urban agriculture as local initiative in Lusaka, Zambia. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 25, pp 553–572. (http://www.envplan.com/epc/fulltext/c25/c7p.pdf 45 Hemson, D., Mike Meyer, M. & Maphunye, K. 2004. Rural Development: The Provision Of Basic Infrastructure Services. HSRC Position Paper.
  14. 14. 13 both participants and those managing these projects often affect the successful running of urban agriculture projects. 45 2.3.4.2 Food gardens in rural communities Historically, farmers in former homelands grew adequate food for their own consumption. Household food supply was generally adequate and secure. The shift to apartheid policies transformed communities into labour pools for the mining and large scale commercial farming sector. Agriculture in rural communities subsequently declined, rendering most households food insecure and reliant on cash in income to buy food. Although production of food crops has declined, households still grow and consume their own vegetables. Rural communities appear to benefit more from food gardens than urban communities with respect to the proportion of household income and the nutritional diversity. 46 In addition to food gardens, rural communities engage in domestic livestock production at a scale much larger than urban dwellers. Survey evidence also indicates that the challenges faced by urban households engaging in food gardens are less severe in rural areas. 40 However, major challenges encountered by rural households engaged in food gardens related to lack of extension support and erratic availability and access to water. 40 2.3.5 Food security challenges in South Africa In 2002 the Department of Agriculture published the integrated food security strategy for South Africa, which cited five key areas considered to be the key food security challenges in the country:  Inadequate Safety Nets: Poor households are characterised by few income-earners, and many dependants. Many households are often primarily dependent on migrant remittances and social security grants, making them vulnerable to food insecurity  Weak Support Networks and Disaster Management Systems: South Africa does not yet have a structured system of dealing with food security disasters, such as droughts or floods. These disasters, which occur at regular intervals, can substantially threaten the food security position of agriculture-based households.  Inadequate and Unstable Household Food Production: Hunger and malnutrition in South Africa stem from insufficient, unstable food supplies, at the household or intra-household level. The majority of producers in the former homelands are unable to feed their families from their narrow production base. Government assistance is often a major source of income for these households.  Lack of purchasing power: The majority of households in South Africa lack cash to purchase food. Underlying the lack of purchasing power is the limited scope of income opportunities, especially in the rural areas.  Poor Nutritional Status: Despite the declaration that every South African citizen has the right to safe and nutritious food at all times, nutrition remains a major challenge especially among children. 2.3.6 Agricultural training and research Agricultural Education and Training (AET) plays a significant role in rural development, food production and agricultural trade. Strong institutions, well-trained human resources and sound policies are also important elements. The current challenges in agriculture and rural development in South 46 Aliber, M. & Modiselle, S. 2002. Pilot study on Methods to monitor household-level food security. Report for the National Department of Agriculture: Pretoria.
  15. 15. 14 Africa relate to poor human resources, weak institutions and education curricula that is not responding to the new skills required in the economy. 47,48 The South African Board of Education and Training in Agriculture (SABETA) was established in 1994 in response to the need for the coordination of agricultural training. SABETA's objective is to coordinate all aspects of agricultural training in South Africa, to bring about maximum mobility among the various role-players and to identify relevant needs. Formal agricultural training is available at different levels (i.e. primary schools, secondary schools, colleges of agriculture, and universities). Certain secondary schools offer agriculture as a formal subject. There are also special agricultural high schools in the provinces where pupils are required to take one or more agricultural subjects. Colleges of agriculture offer three-year national diplomas in agriculture and related disciplines. Courses usually consist of two years formal training at the college followed by one year of structured experiential training at an approved employer. Prospective farmers, extension officers, animal health and engineering technicians are trained at the colleges of agriculture belonging to and being managed by the provincial and national departments of agriculture. Practical training takes up about half the student's time. The balance is devoted to lectures and demonstrations. Several universities in the country have faculties, departments or schools of agriculture, and offer four-year graduate courses. 49 Enrolment in AET institutions reflects that the majority of students are Black and a higher proportion of these are male. The proportion of White students is also significantly high, with very few enrolments by Coloured and Indian population groups. For example, in 2005, a total of 1739 students were enrolled in the Colleges of Agriculture. Fifty percent (50%) of these were Black, 43% were White, and less than 7% was made up by the other population groups. Male enrolments constituted 72% of total students enrolled, while female students made up only 28% of total students. White males were particularly dominant, making up 51% of total enrolment. Most of the Black students are enrolled in courses that focus on general Agriculture and Agriculture Management, while White students are more likely to enrol in areas such as Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Economics, Viticulture, and Veterinary Science in which there are scarce skills. 50 The current trends of education in South Africa affect the agriculture sector. Agriculture information is not integrated with other development programmes to address the challenges faced by small-scale and emerging farmers. Provision of agricultural training can significantly contribute towards promoting and capacitating small scale and emerging farmers. However, the challenge in achieving this potential is that there is poor and inconsistent quality control and poor quality of staff in most agriculture schools and Further Education and Training (FET) Colleges. In addition, the ineffective and non- responsive AET systems and poor access by emerging and new entrants into the agricultural sector makes it harder for people to get good agricultural training. Underlying these difficulties is the negative career image of agriculture in society. Research has shown that most youths perceive agriculture as an occupation for the poor and elderly and not as a profitable enterprise. This is further worsened by 47 African Development Forum, 1999. Theme 4 – Democratizing access to the Information Society. Economic Commission for Africa Accessed at http:// www.uneca.org /adf99/ democratising.htm 48 DoA, 2005. Address by Minister for Agriculture and Land Affairs, Ms Thoko Didiza, at AgriSA Congress on 12 October 2005 in Kimberley, South Africa. Available at: http://www.info.gov.za /speeches/2005/05101710451001.htm. 49 Agricultural Digest 2005/2006. Accessed at: http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/links/Digest8.htm 50 DoA, 2006. Keynote address delivered by Honourable Minister for Agriculture and Land Affairs Ms Lulu Xingwana at the launch of the College of Agriculture and environment Sciences on 30 August 2006 at the University of South Africa, Pretoria.
  16. 16. 15 the failure to secure employment by learners with diplomas and other qualifications in agriculture. 51 Women play a major role in food production, food access and food utilisation 52 . Statistics indicate that 60% to 80% of the smallholder farmers are women and yet very few of them have been trained in the agricultural sector. However, it is now recognised that stagnation in agriculture is in part a result of the gender insensitivity that results in excluding women in agricultural education, research and development programmes. 53 Much of the support in agriculture provided by development agencies and other stakeholders is focused directly on the agricultural sector, and the role of higher education has been diminished. There is a general lack of locally-based graduate programmes in agriculture and the number of scholarships to support such training has dwindled. Where graduate programmes in agriculture exist, the graduates are rarely exposed to smallholder farmers and most of the training is more theoretical with very little practical exposure. Many agricultural students come from urban areas, and the few from the rural areas are not interested in returning. 54 Investment in human capital development, in the form of professional, managerial and technical training, produced by investment in schools, FET and agricultural colleges, universities, and formal and informal farmer training would also be valuable in promoting the small-scale farming sector. 3. National Policy Responses to Food Insecurity Food security has been a priority policy objective since 1994, when South Africa became a democratic country. A framework of action to address food insecurity was developed and this fed into the broader Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) launched in 1994. Section 26 and 27 of the South African Constitution of 1996 also makes provisions for the rights to the physical well- being and health of all South Africans, including the right to sufficient food and water; and social security. 55 Following the drafting of the Agriculture White Paper in 1995, the South African government developed policies with strategic objectives to reduce or eliminate poverty, increase food security and reduce malnutrition in the country. Public spending was directed towards various social programmes, such as school feeding, child support grants, community public works programmes, provincial community food garden initiatives, and production loans schemes for smallholder farmers. However, two decades later, food insecurity remains a real challenge for the majority of the rural and informal urban population groups, thereby casting doubt on the effectiveness of government interventions. Indeed, there is little evidence that has been made available to suggest the extent to which strategic objectives on food security have been achieved. 56 51 Agricultural Education and Training Strategy. 2005. National Education and Training Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development in South Africa. Department of Agriculture: Pretoria. 52 Paroda, R.S. 2002. Engendering the Curricula of our Agricultural Universities. Engendering Undergraduate Agricultural Education: A Resources Guide. Proceedings No. 35: 3-5. 53 Swaminathan, M.S. 2000. Engendering the Agricultural Curriculum. In Rabindranathan, S. (Ed.). Engendering Undergraduate Agricultural Education: A Resource Guide. Proceedings No. 35: Pp6-7. 54 Nieuwoudt, S. 2012. Tertiary agricultural education crucial for food security. Accessed at: http://blogs.sun.ac.za/news/2012/11/13/tertiary-agricultural-education-crucial-for-food-security/. 55 Aliber, M. 2009. Exploring Statistics South Africa’s National Household Surveys as sources of information about household- level food security. Agrekon Vol. 48:4. 56 Mthembu, N., n.d. The government’s response to combating food insecurity: Are there opportunities for collaboration with civil society? AFRA. Accessed at: http://www.afra.co.za/default.asp?id=1169.
  17. 17. 16 Some of the central policies enacted by government in the last two decades to combat poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition are highlighted below. 3.1 National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) In 1994 the Primary School Nutrition Programme (PSNP) was launched as one of the Presidential lead projects under the RDP. The PSNP aimed to provide nutritious meals on all school days to learners who came from disadvantaged families experiencing acute food shortages. The PSNP was based on the realisation that without adequate food, the ability of learners to learn would be compromised with adverse implications on education outcomes. Thus the programme played a significant role in ensuring the right to both basic food and education for the most disadvantaged children. Until 2004, the PSNP was jointly managed at the national level by the Department of Health (DoH) and the Department of Education (DoE). From then on, government resolved to task the DoE with the full responsibility of managing both the nutritional and health aspects of the programme and the educational elements. In subsequent years, the programme was reviewed and it was recommended that it target all children from Grade R to secondary level in quintile 1, 2 and 3 schools. Selected special schools were also included in the programme. This expansion of the target group resulted in the transformation of the PSNP into the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in 2009. From its launch in 1994 to date, the school nutrition programme has been guided by the following objectives:  to contribute to enhanced learning capacity through school feeding programmes;  to promote and support food production and improve food security in school communities; and  to strengthen nutrition education in schools and communities The NSNP has enabled especially needy learners to attend school and enhance their learning capacity, as well as alleviate short-term hunger. The programme has also enabled schools in all provinces to integrate nutrition education into their curricula as part of the Life Skills Programme (LSP). Furthermore, the NSNP has facilitated food production through establishment of food gardens at schools and in the community. However, the implementation of the NSNP has met with a variety of challenges including the following:  service providers have delivered food supplies of poor quality to schools;  delays in payment of suppliers and food handlers;  insufficient and ineffective programme monitoring; and  non-compliance with reporting requirements by schools. 57 Despite the above challenges the NSNP remains relevant in providing children from poor households with an opportunity to attend school despite possible food insecurity at home. 3.2 The Integrated Nutrition Programme (INP) of 1995 The Integrated Nutrition Programme was one of the key strategic health programmes that contributed to a decrease in morbidity and mortality rates, as well as prevention and management of malnutrition. Established by the DoH in 1995, the overall vision of the programme is to improve the nutrition status 57 Public Service Commission, 2008. Report on the Evaluation of the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP). PSC: Pretoria
  18. 18. 17 of all South Africans. The INP aims to mainly help the people most at risk for malnutrition: children six years old and under, pregnant women, and lactating women. The main areas of focus of the INP are breastfeeding promotion, growth monitoring and promotion, food fortification, micronutrient supplementation, hospital-based management of severe malnutrition, nutrition rehabilitation in communities, and nutrition management during illness. The INP addresses these areas through nutritional education, nutrition counselling services, support for specific ailments, and indirect provision of healthcare services. 58 Since its establishment the INP has guided the implementation of primary health care (PHC), promoted household food security, food service management and the treatment of specific nutrition related diseases. 59 However, funding challenges still remain around addressing micro-nutrient deficiency in pregnant and lactating mothers as well as infants. 3.3 The Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS) of 1996 The IFSS was established in the aftermath of the world food and security summit in Rome in 1996. Along with 185 other countries, South Africa committed to halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015 in accordance with MDG 1. Following a series of policy debates a strategy framework was developed with clear roles and responsibilities for various stakeholders at national, provincial and local government level, as well as NGOs and CBOs to participate in programmes designed to end household food security in rural areas. The IFSS adopted the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s definition of food security as its vision, which is: “to attain universal physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food by all South African at all times to meet their dietary and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” The IFSS identifies five strategic objectives as follows:  increased household production and trading;  improved income generation and job creation opportunities;  improved nutrition and food safety;  increased safety nets and food emergency management systems; and  improved analysis and information system management. 60 Although developed within the Department of Agriculture, the IFSS is lauded for having taken a developmental approach rather than a narrow focus on agriculture to addressing food security. However, the programme has remained largely unsuccessful because of poor coordination resulting in ineffective implementation. At the core of this challenge is the failure to align and integrate policies and programmes across different sectors and ministries. 61 3.4 The Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme of 2005 The Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) was an initiative involving a range of government departments, which was targeted at those households that fail to access surplus food. The programme spent R22 million of the R30 million budgeted for the 2005-6 financial year on 273 projects with just over 17 000 beneficiaries receiving surplus food aid. CASP also focused on skills and knowledge transfer and financial and marketing advice with the aim to promote wealth through agriculture and improve national and household food security. 62 58 “Combating Malnutrition in South Africa". Input Paper for Health Roadmap. September 2008. Available from: http://www.dbsa.org/Research/Documents/South%20Africa%20Nutrition_%20input%20paper_roadmap.pdf. 59 Du Toit DC, et.al, 2011.Food Security. DAFF. 60 Republic of South Africa, 2009. The Integrated Food Security Strategy for South Africa. Department of Agriculture: Pretoria. 61 HSRC, 2013.Civil Society Organisations’ Participation in Food Security in South Africa. Funded by the NDA. Final Report. 62 Mthembu, N., n.d. The government’s response to combating food insecurity: Are there opportunities for collaboration with civil society? AFRA.Att: http://www.afra.co.za/default.asp?id=1169.
  19. 19. 18 As part of CASP, the Micro Agricultural Finance Initiative of South Africa (MAFISA) was launched in 2005 by the National Department of Agriculture and the Development Finance Institution of South Africa (DFI) and was operationalised the following year with a budget of R150 million and R200 million for 2005/6 to 2006/7, respectively, as a pilot in KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Limpopo. The aim of MAFISA was to provide credit to aspiring black farmers and the working poor, to improve livelihoods and reduced poverty through the creation of viable business ventures. 3.5 The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) of 2009 In 2009, government launched the CRDP through the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) as an effective poverty and food insecurity response by maximising the use and management of natural resources. The three pronged strategy of the CRDP is focussed on coordinated agrarian transformation, rural development and improved and integrated land reform. A central component of this strategy is job creation. 63 3.6 The New Growth Path (NGP) of 2010 The NGP introduced in 2010 by the national Economic Development Department (EDD) is a national development policy that aims at improving livelihoods and reducing inequalities through job creation. The policy articulates a vision of an integrated rural economy with land reform, job creation and rising agricultural production contributing to this vision. The NGP specifically outlines the potential of agriculture to generate 1 million jobs in agriculture through an effective land reform programme and growth of irrigated and land based agriculture. 3.7 National Development Plan (NDP) Vision 2030 of 2012 In its National Development Plan, government has committed to integrating the country’s rural areas into the national economy through successful land reform, infrastructure development, job creation and poverty alleviation. Key actions will be taken around reviewing land tenure with a view to increase tenure security for communal farmers, providing services to small and micro-farmers and increase investment in irrigation infrastructure. 3.8 Food Security Policy of 2012 In 2012, DAFF published a Food Security Policy. The stated goal of the policy is to improve South Africa’s adequacy and stability of access to safe and nutritious food at national and household level. The strategic objectives of the policy are to eradicate hunger and poverty; and to increase public investment in infrastructure, health, education, research and technology development and information systems development within the comprehensive rural development framework. 64 Food security is a multifaceted and multidimensional national issue which requires inter-sectoral co- ordination, integration and alignment with existing policies and programmes in health, education, and environmental protection. It also requires inclusion of public, private and civil society organisations’ interests. It is this level of complexity of food security that has posed the biggest challenges resulting in poor coordination and ineffective policy implementation. Policies designed to address food security have also failed to deliver optimum results due to varying levels of institutional capacity to implement food security initiatives across the provinces. Institutional capacity includes the ability to gather and analyse food security information, developing food security monitoring systems and disaster management. Therefore, enhancing coordination and building institutional capacity to manage food security initiatives are necessary interventions that can boost policy implantation. 63 Republic of South Africa, 2009. Department of Rural Development and Land Reform (DRDLR). 64 DAFF, 2012. Food Security Policy.
  20. 20. 19 4. Private Sector Responses to Food Security 4.1 Corporate social investment in food security and agriculture Private sector support to social and development programmes through CSI continues to grow from year to year. In 2013, total CSI spend amounted to R7.8 billion, a 13% increase (8% in inflation adjusted terms) from R6.9 billion in 2012. Education continues to receive by far the largest share, accounting for 43% of CSI spend. Social and community development was allocated 15% and health received 11%. Food security and agriculture received 6% (R468 million) of the total CSI spend in 2013. According to Trialogue, the larger portion of the allocation to food security and agriculture was channelled towards food relief and feeding schemes (35% or R163.8 million); 29% (R135.7 million) on subsistence farming; 18% (R84.2 million) on small-scale farming and commercial agriculture; 15% (R70.2 million) on infrastructure, facilities and equipment; and 2% (R9.4 million) on various donations. 65 Corporates are also entering into public-private partnerships in order to augment government efforts to address food insecurity in the country. These include the following:  In Limpopo, government signed a memorandum of understanding with Massmart to provide financial support for the Ezemvelo Direct Farm Programme through TechnoServe South Africa. Through this partnership, small farmers have access to financial support to access retail markets for their agricultural produce primarily through the Massmart stores for a period of three years.  In KwaZulu-Natal, the Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Rural Development partnered with FoodBank South Africa to alleviate food insecurity through the establishment of a food bank and creating jobs.  AgriGauteng, in partnership with the local municipality in Devon, provincial Department of Agriculture, the South African Police Service and the South African National Civic Organisation are supporting vegetable gardens and livestock projects. 65 Furthermore, corporate businesses whose supply chain includes farmers have also begun investing in building the capacity of these farmers to increase production of quality crops. Other corporates are supporting food gardens in both rural and urban communities, and school feeding programmes. 65 It is worth noting that corporates are currently offering very little support offered to agriculture and food security in comparison to other sectors. Furthermore, the level of involvement does not match the magnitude of food insecurity being faced in both rural and urban informal settlements in the country. Current evidence indicates that corporates are much more involved in welfare type initiatives providing food relief. While these programmes are important in alleviating short-term hunger during periods of food deficits they need to be complemented with more sustainable programmes that focus on broader nutrition and food security issues such as increasing household ability to access or produce own food. Sustainable food security programmes typically include skills training components in order to help beneficiaries to access relevant resources and support to produce their own food. However, where businesses have operations based in rural communities, there seems to be a shift towards economically improving rural communities and capacitating small-scale farmers to transition to viable and sustainable commercial farming enterprises. 65 65 Trialogue 2013
  21. 21. 20 4.2 Case studies Despite the lack of CSI involvement in food security and agriculture interventions, there are a number of high-impact, effective programmes being supported. In order to highlight this fact, four case studies have been profiled below. These case studies show lessons learnt from CSI funded interventions focused on household and community gardens, agricultural education and training and school feeding and nutrition programmes. 4.2.1 Abalimi Bezekhaya – food gardens 4.2.1.1 Background Abalimi Bezekhaya is a Non-Profit Organisation established in 1982. The organisation works to empower previously disadvantaged communities of the Cape Flats through urban agriculture and environmental programmes. Most of the residents constituting the target group for Abalimi are impoverished, with an estimated 40% of the local population being unemployed. The majority speak isiXhosa and are recent arrivals from the Eastern Cape – specifically the former apartheid homelands of Transkei and Ciskei. Abalimi provide support to individuals and community groups to develop their own organic vegetable gardens in order to supplement their diet, improve household food and nutritional security and provide sustainable additional income. The gardens range from small backyard home gardens to large community gardens. Other projects include street greening groups, an award winning community park, environmental education teacher projects at schools, and environmental street theatre events. Abalimi’s main goal is to alleviate poverty and create self-employment through provision of training and support in family micro-farming enterprise: growing vegetables and other food items in home gardens, community gardens and small farms. Through micro-farming Abalimi help improve sustainable food production and nature conservation. 4.2.1.2 Programme activities Abalimi runs an administrative office in Phillipi and works out of two non-profit Garden Centres in Khayelitsha and Nyanga. The majority of the core staff constitutes of mothers and grandmothers in the community who also form part of the target group for Abalimi projects.  Research, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation: Abalimi assist with the planning, implementing and support of community projects to enable the targeted individual farmers and community groups to replicate their success and transform their lives in their urban and rural environments. Abalimi also hosts and collaborate with researchers in order to document their experiences and share knowledge with various stakeholders. The results of this research are used to fine tune its own development practice, so that community projects are implemented in a manner that ensures sustainability.  Resources and Equipment Supply: In order to support individual gardeners, groups and organisations Abalimi provide low cost, subsidised gardening resources such as manure, seed, seedlings, tools and organic pest control remedies. These resources are supplied from two non-profit ‘People’s Garden Centres’ in Khayelitsha and Nyanga run by fieldworkers from these communities. Abalimi also supplies marketing and sales infrastructure and logistical support to micro-farmers via Harvest of Hope, the first short food chain Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme of its kind that services family micro-farmers directly in Southern Africa.  Training: Abalimi is also involved in the provision of various short training courses to community members. Trainees are required to pay for the training and receive a certificate
  22. 22. 21 after successful completion of each course. Bursaries are provided for trainees who cannot afford to pay for the training. The training approach is based on participatory methodologies that facilitate knowledge acquisition and skills transfer. The courses are also followed up with additional on-site training and support. The courses range from one to four-day courses. The following courses are currently on offer: o Organic vegetable gardening courses (these promote the deep trench system, a below- ground composting technique, enabling the soil to hold water and the gardener to plant crops immediately above). o Horticulture o Courses for caretakers o Integrated land use design workshops  Community Building: The social benefits of organic gardening and micro-farming among the poor are enhanced through various activities such as iLIMA (mutual help-work events which radiate goodwill out into the surrounding community); Horizontal (farmer to farmer) Learning events / Farmer Field Schools and Savings Mobilisation.  Partnerships and Networking: Abalimi, through its own partnerships and networks, assists community projects to connect to other opportunities and services which they may require. 4.2.1.3 Programme impact The demand for micro-farming support has grown tremendously since the inception of the programme in 1982. Currently Abalimi provides support for 3 500 home based garden projects and approximately 500 micro-farmers in 100 community-based garden projects per year. In total Abalimi supports 4 500 micro-farmers and their families, translating into approximately 22 500 (average five family members per farmer) direct and indirect beneficiaries per annum. Abalimi receives an average of 25 new applications from community groups for help with their micro- farming projects annually and trains between 300 - 1 000 people each year through the 4-day basic organic vegetable growing courses. It also estimated that the two People’s Garden Centres in Khayelitsha and Nyanga serve up to 11 000 micro-farmers annually, some of whom are not affiliated to Abalimi. Knowledge creation and sharing is important in sustainable models for development. Abalimi works in partnerships with researchers in order to document their practices creating a platform to evaluate various approaches through testing and refining strategies for working with farmers. Through the research and field testing Abalimi developed a step-by-step development continuum for community agriculture (Figure 1). The model shows distinct phases through which micro-farmers can progress from survival to subsistence to livelihood and finally to commercial phase. The model also shows that social impacts are highest in the lower levels and that fewer micro-framers progress to the commercial level. Based on this model Abalimi provides the appropriate training to farmers at each level to ensure that they maximise the benefits thereof.
  23. 23. 22 Figure 1: The Sustainable development continuum for organic micro-farming projects The Harvest of Hope Marketing Project: Abalimi established the Harvest of Hope marketing project in 2008 to provide an outlet for excess produce from micro-farmers. Through the project, farmers are contracted to grow seasonal organic vegetables at a guaranteed price. The vegetables are packed in boxes and sold to consumers who sign up and pay for weekly deliveries in advance. A full box includes 9-12 seasonal organic vegetables (picked, packed and delivered on the same day) sufficient to feed a medium family, and a small box for two people contains 6-7 seasonal vegetables. When it was launched in 2008, Harvest of Hope started with box orders of 80/week. The demand increased to 250 boxes per week by 2010. Currently the farmers are supplying over 500 boxes per week. Many of the existing consumers are parents who pick up their vegetables each week when they collect their children at various schools in the southern suburbs, but the project is now extending to businesses and institutions. The Harvest of Hope project model provides income security to micro-farmers and any profits that are generated are ploughed back to the development and support of the farmers via Abalimi, thus feeding the supply chain for ongoing growth. Most of the farmers are women but more and more men are getting involved as they see the opportunities for making a decent, dignified and sustainable living out of peri-urban farming. A key aspect of the Harvest of Hope project is that it encourages consumers to support a growing community of township micro-farmers. Abalimi has also been influential in the established of several farmer associations and programmes.  Manyanani Peace Park and Moya we Khaya: The project is based on a vision of a unique community and environmental centre and is conceived of as a pan-African intergenerational cultural community home, which gives everyone - women, elders, youth and men – a healthy and related place in the community and in nature.  Siyazama Community Allotment Garden Association (SCAGA) training farm, Khayelitsha is currently in its planning phase and is expected to be launched mid-late 2014 or early 2015. The programme brings together five community gardens spanning two hectares of land under power-lines with the aim of hosting young trainee farmers to create a
  24. 24. 23 new wave of younger Livelihood Level micro-farmers over 2-3 year periods. The programme is funded by Rotary Constantia & Rotary Foundation and the Avalon Foundation in the Netherlands.  Moya we Khaya Peace Gardens, Khayelitsha was established in 2013. It is a one hectare community garden established on land allocated by Cape Town’s City Parks. The aim of the project is to promote local household food security and job creation for the unemployed, with a focus on youth. Moya we Khaya is co-funded by Rotary Constantia, Rotary Foundation and the Avalon Foundation with assistance from the Department of Agriculture.  The Schools Environmental Education and Development (SEED) programme is now an independent agency working with school communities and teachers to infuse Environmental Education into all teaching practice at foundation phase, incorporating and developing the outdoor classroom as the main teaching resource.  Vukuzenzele Urban Farmers Association (VUFA): Launched in 2002, VUFA is the first woman-led organic urban micro-farming association among the unemployed and poor in South Africa. Abalimi has been intimately involved with its genesis and aims to assist VUFA to become a strong voice for micro-farmers among the unemployed and poor in Cape Town.  Farm & Garden National Trust was set up in 2008 to promote and support the Abalimi model and support micro-farming across the country. Abalimi, its projects and staff members have collectively received 26 local, national and international awards since 1991. The awards include the following:  3 Green Trust-WWF awards  2 Presidents Social Forestry awards  Woman of the Year award  Paul Harris Fellowship  Ashoka Fellowship  Khayelitsha Achiever Award for Community Development  Gold Impumelelo Sustainable Innovations Award  SAB Innovation Award  TOPOS mag-Barcelona  Eat-Out Zonnebloem - Earth award 2014. 4.2.1.4 Lessons learnt After many years of training and working with micro-farmers the following lessons have emerged:  Women (mothers and grandmothers) are typically responsible for food production and preparation in many communities and yet they have limited access to training in farming. Abalimi has shown that targeting women and providing them with training greatly improves household food security.  Organisations working with farmers ought to commit themselves to provide farmers with all the necessary support from project planning through resource mobilisation and implementation. This way projects can be established with a greater chance of being sustainable. Abalimi supports farmers to help them establish their gardens through provision of low-cost inputs and practical on-farm support. They further allow the micro-farmers to run their gardens at whatever level they best can from survivalist through subsistence to small scale commercial.
  25. 25. 24  Illiteracy can be overcome when communities work together, pool resources and share knowledge through community gardens. Working in groups allows for micro-farmers to learn from each other and still have the flexibility to establish their own individual gardens to further boost household food security. 4.2.2 In-School Breakfast Feeding Programme – The Tiger Brands Foundation 4.2.2.1 Background The Tiger Brands Foundation (TBF) launched the in-school breakfast feeding programme in July 2011 to provide a nutritious breakfast meal to poor and vulnerable learners in no-fee primary schools. The TBF in-school feeding programme is based on the belief that nutrition is the cornerstone for a healthy body and healthy mind and that nutrition programmes should be a fundamental component of the national education policy. The feeding programme was developed and implemented based on the observation that learners were coming to school hungry and only having a meal at lunch through the NSNP. The overall purpose of the programme is, therefore, to supplement the NSNP lunch programme being implemented by government. The TBF school feeding programme was piloted in six schools in Alexandra Township, where evidence from research indicated that 70% of households are moderately or severely food insecure. The TBF feeding programme is based on the following principles:  Encouraging ownership of the feeding programme by the school and surrounding communities;  Sharing experiences and knowledge to produce learning;  Acting as a donor and an enabler; and  Working in partnership with government to complement the nutrition provided by the existing NSNP. The TBF signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Department of Basic Education (DBE), DoH and each participating school. Partnering with government departments enables the TBF social programmes to be aligned with national education and health priorities. The TBF approach is focused on enabling collective responsibility of the feeding programme within the schools to enhance sustainability. The programme is currently operating on an annual budget of about R15 million, providing a nutritious breakfast to 42 000 learners in 60 schools across 6 provinces each day. 4.2.2.2 Programme activities  Food preparation: The programme provides breakfast porridge of Tiger oats every morning between 07h30 and 08h30. The breakfast is served before school begins in order not to interrupt teaching and learning at each school. The breakfast is prepared and served by Food Handlers who are employed from the surrounding community. The Food Handlers are trained on an on-going basis to improve their skills and knowledge of handling and preparing food, hygiene, and food storage as well as gas safety in the kitchen. The Food Handlers are paid a stipend by government as they are also responsible for preparing the NSNP lunch. The TBF also provides the Food Handlers with a top-up to the government stipend.  Kitchen facilities: The provision of food to learners is often hampered by the lack of adequate kitchen facilities from which to prepare food. Being no-fee schools, most of these schools do not have financial resources to finance construction of their own kitchen facilities. As a result, the TBF provides funding for establishing kitchens or refurbishing old kitchens in
  26. 26. 25 order to implement the feeding programme. The programme also provides the schools with cups, plates and spoons as well as cooking utensils. The need to fund kitchen facilities has had the negative effect of reducing the resources available for the purchase of the breakfast porridge. In order to alleviate this challenge, the TBF has and continues to partner with other service providers in order to reach even more learners in more schools.  Food procurement and delivery: The smooth implementation of the feeding programme depends heavily on the reliable and consistent delivery of the correct type of food product in appropriate quantities to ensure that schools have adequate stocks to provide breakfast to learners on each school day. The service providers also deliver cleaning materials for kitchen facilities and utensils to ensure that hygienic standards are maintained. TBF has invested in recruiting service providers that are competent and reliable in alignment with the enterprise development imperative for Foundation. Although the service providers are successfully meeting their contractual obligations, there are challenges in delivering food to remote rural and farm schools without proper road infrastructure. Service providers drive almost 11 000 km each month to deliver breakfast supplies to schools in the six provinces.  Monitoring & Evaluation: The TBF feeding programme is closely monitored on a daily basis in order to use real time and accurate data to address operational issues and make informed decisions. School principals are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the feeding programme functions efficiently and to ensure that learners are fed breakfast every school day of the year. In some schools, School Monitors who volunteer on the programme assist the school principals in monitoring the programme. In order to capture real time data each school has been provided with a cell phone pre-loaded with a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) application with questions on food delivery, preparation, hygiene, and state of the kitchen. The data is transferred to Provincial Coordinators who are then able to create a profile on each school in the programme, provide feedback or necessary support to staff project coordinators and school monitors, and generally be aware of possible risk factors that might hinder programme delivery on a daily basis. The cell phones also have a GPS and show the time and location from which each report is made. The TBF has extended the M&E activity to the NSNP lunch programme in 60 schools in order to collect and share data with government. This move is intended to assist government in data collection and effectively improving the monitoring of the NSNP lunch. 4.2.2.3 Programme impact Following its launch in July 2011, the programme was rolled out to 33 schools across four provinces providing breakfast meals for almost 30 000 children in less than a year. The programme has since grown to cover 60 schools across six provinces and feeding breakfast to almost 42 000 learners. The programme has developed from a pilot project into a fully-fledged within a space of almost two years. The programme impact is based on the evaluation of the pilot programme conducted in 2012. The evaluation of the pilot phase focused on assessing the impact the programme had on the nutritional status of the learners, school attendance and learner performance. The evaluation also assessed the impact on the school and other social benefits associated with the feeding programme. Finally, the pilot phase evaluation sought to identify challenges related to the feeding programme and
  27. 27. 26 recommend areas for improvement or lessons for the replication of the feeding programme to other areas.  Nutritional status of learners: The evaluation indicated significant improvements in the nutritional status of the learners across all schools for all categories of malnourishment (overweight, stunting, wasting). Prevalence of overweight among learners reduced from 28% to 20%; prevalence of stunting improved from 19% to 14%; and prevalence of wasting among learners improved from 5% to 3%. The overall perception is that learners have attained better health outcomes as a result of the feeding programme.  School attendance: Principals, educators and learners reported that breakfast at school was an incentive to attend school and to come on time. Overall absenteeism rates were low amongst both junior and senior learners, although not statistically significant. As a result the impact of the feeding programme on school attendance was inconclusive. However, there was a general perception among stakeholders that school feeding remained a critical aspect in school attendance.  School performance: The evaluation results indicated that the juniors (Grade R-3) across all primary schools marginally improved their term average. Grade R saw the biggest improvement across all schools while there was a slight decrease in school performance for senior learners (Grade 4-9) over 2011. Qualitative information gathered during the evaluation indicated that the attention span, concentration levels and participation of learners in class generally improved. It is expected that based on this initial findings, performance will increase substantially over time. The learners further benefited from the programme through increased knowledge of nutrition, and imparting new healthy eating habits and hygienic behaviors. Meal times have also become an occasion that learners look forward to. The schools have also benefited in various ways including through the mentorship and development of school principals; buy-in of educators and creation of a sense of community; food handlers gaining skills and knowledge in food preparation, hygiene and nutrition; and improved kitchen infrastructure. 4.2.2.4 Lessons learnt The TBF engages with government and other stakeholders and openly shares its model on school feeding in order to influence long term impact. The TBF is now in its second year of running the school feeding programme. The successes scored to date and challenges encountered during this period have resulted in important lessons being learnt. These lessons provide some indication as to what might be good practice in implementing feeding programmes in schools.  Sustainability should be embedded in the programme from the design phase The TBF feeding programme has learnt that food quality, meal times and service delivery must be consistent over time in order to be effective. The school leadership, school monitors food handlers and service providers must all work together in partnership and taking collective responsibility to ensure sustainability of the programme. A deliberate capacity building approach is necessary to ensure that all the stakeholders perform their roles optimally. However, in the long term, sustainability of the programme will also depend on the ability of the DBE to provide funding to schools for the procurement of food supplies and stipends for the food handlers. Through its partnership with the DBE the Foundation advocates for the capacity building of school principals to be able to fundraise for the school feeding programme.  Put in place an effective M&E system The TBF feeding programme quickly identified and responded to the need for accurate, consistent and real-time data to enable effective and efficient monitoring of various aspects of the programme. Monitoring is critical in ensuring that learners are provided with a nutritious
  28. 28. 27 meal every day of the school term throughout the year. The programme also observed the need to monitor the health status of the learners, school attendance and performance in order to effectively set the baseline for programme evaluation. Therefore, individual schools should collect data that can be consolidated every term to provide further learnings regarding school feeding.  School feeding programmes should respond to new and emerging needs Although the TBF feeding programme is running successfully providing breakfast porridge to learners, there has been a need to add new elements to the programme. For instance, it has been observed that older learners prefer more variety than the flagship oatmeal breakfast being provided. Provision of milk products was also suggested by stakeholders based on learner preferences and the nutritional value of milk. The TBF feeding programme is responding to emerging needs and working with stakeholders to ensure that the feeding programme remains relevant and effective. The introduction of holiday family food parcels is one such example.  Promote public-private partnerships to enhance programme effectiveness The TBF has been working closely with the DBE and the DoH. These partnerships have allowed for the efficient use of resources in responding to national education and health priorities. Further linkages on other aspects related to school feeding and nutrition are necessary in order to facilitate holistic school development. Through its partnership with the DBE the TBF programme is complementing the NSNP lunch. The TBF programme is further assisting the NSNP to collect accurate data in order to improve the performance of the programme.  Adapt the programme approach to accommodate children in various contexts Children who come to school late should still be afforded a meal under the programme. There are suggestions that most of the learners who come to school late are often some of the most vulnerable children with difficult circumstances at home. The TBF in collaboration with the schools have devise a new approach to accommodate these vulnerable learners. Furthermore, the TBF school feeding programme has observed significant differences in feeding learners in rural and urban contexts. Although the programme has intentions to provide breakfast to the most vulnerable children most of which are in remote rural areas, there is also evidence to suggest that learners in poor urban areas may be more vulnerable than those in some rural areas where households are food secure. 4.2.3 UNISA Programme in Household Food Security 4.2.3.1 Background The Programme Household Food Security (PHFS) is a University of South Africa (Unisa) accredited Short Learning Programme that was designed and developed by the College of Agriculture and Environmental Science (CAES), in collaboration with the South African Institute for Distance Education (Saide). The programme was initially funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation. The purpose of the PHFS is to equip individuals who wish to become household food security facilitators with the skills that they need to help empower their improved food security status, health and nutrition. The rationale for the development of the programme was based on:  The urgent need to improve food security and nutrition of poor rural and peri-urban households through appropriate skills development and education;  Achievement of national food security goals by training existing community development workers, home-based carers and other community workers, peer educators and volunteers working within those communities; and
  29. 29. 28  The acquired skills would add value to and create synergies with existing government, NGO and CBO interventions and initiatives within those communities and contribute to balancing the availability of relevant support services to all role players. The PHFS targets existing community development workers, home-based carers and volunteers in organisations that are working within the target communities. Targeting individuals already employed enables them to apply their new skills within the same communities upon completion of the programme. As they continue to work with identified vulnerable households they are more likely to facilitate the behavioural change and learning strategies required by these households to become more food-secure and address issues of malnutrition and hunger. Specifically, the students completing the programme are expected to be able to:  Link relevant food security issues, concepts, policies, strategies and programmes with a household focus for improving food sovereignty and food security.  Utilise a range of facilitation and participatory of skills, to identify and mobilise households for improved household food security.  Assess communities for vulnerability to food insecurity and planning of food and nutrition interventions.  Observe and analyse natural resource management systems with community members and make suggestions for appropriate interventions.  Come up with a variety of ways and means of optimising food production and the use of various relevant value-adding technologies and processes so as to encourage the development of ideas for purposes of income generation using surplus food and other available resources. Successful graduates can be referred to as Household Food Security Facilitators. The PHFS is a certificate course that consists of six modules (listed in the table below) providing a total of 72 academic credits over a period of six months. Training takes place in the communities in which the students reside. The programme integrates various aspects of nutrition, food and agriculture within a household food security context with a focus on sustainability. Module Title Purpose 1. Introduction to Food Security Concepts Develop an understanding of basic Food Security concepts with a household focus. 2. Participatory Extension for Household Food Security Use participatory facilitation to extend Household Food Security. 3. Sustainable Natural Resource Use Develop sustainable natural resource use interventions in a household food production context with community members. 4. Food Behaviour and Nutrition Facilitate the use of acceptable food and nutrition behaviour practices that lead to improved food and nutrition security. 5. Optimising Household Food Production Facilitating the implementation of a household food production system using micro-farming practices and optimising resource use. 6. Food Resource Management Facilitate the development of a household food resource plan for improved food and nutrition security.

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