Global south development Magazine (July 2012 )


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Global south development Magazine (July 2012 )

  1. 1. GLOBAL SOUTH#1 0, July 201 2, A development quarterly Development MagazineISSN: 1 799-0769, www.silcreation.orgWomen oftheRevolution In the Aftermath of the Arab Spring
  2. 2. Letter to the editorThe teamGlobal South Development Magazine is a quarterly magazine Less vulgar, more news how farmers in Argentina have changed from cattlepublished by Silver Lining Creation, Finland. The magazine covers a development keeping to soya farming andwide range of developmental issues primarily of the developingworld and is an initiative of freelance writers and development news! these are the kind of development stories that willactivists from different parts of the world. I had a concern on the Argentine story. I felt it was resonatepresume. in the globe, I elsewhereEditor-in-Chief not in good taste for a I also found some of theManoj Kr Bhusal development magazine. While almost nude pictures from we all welcome the growth of gay parade quite out of taste the movement in Argentina, I for the GSDM content. Please would have preferred to see shield us from such in theAssistant Editor from the story, how the future.Ioulia Fenton developments in the gender Howver, all in all, congrats issues have helped improve on your good work!Editorial Assistants governance and delivery of Irene N. MwangiCarolynn Look basic rights in Argentina.Dinesh Poudel I have heard on the BBC Nairobi, KenyaSuraj Chand Congo crisis,Regional EditorsLingson Adam (East Africa) greed and thenKhalid Hussain (South Asia)Noah Marwil (Latin America) war and peaceCatriona Knapman (The Middle East) It is most unfortunateSpecial Correspondents that Congo (DRC) hasMary Namusoke (Women’s issues in Africa)Roxanne Irani (Global environmental issues) to be assessed along theSandeep Srivastava (Climate change) lines of “War &Aliza Amlani (Global Health) Peace”.Deanna Morris (Livelihood & Global Economic Affairs) Can exploitation andAparna S Patankar (Global Education)Scott Ruddick (Development Aid & Conflict States) orchestrated rebellionsHriday Sarma (South-to-South Development Cooperation) not be exchanged forIrene Nyambura Mwangi (Development & Democracy in Africa) prudent businessDebora Di Dio (Food Soverignty and Rural Livelihoods) practice, good governance andCountry Correspondents peacefull developmentVictoria Lucy Peel Yates (Argentina) of the middle and lower Rwanda,Tithe Farhana (Bangladesh) social society in the DRC? Uganda,Zimbabwe and theDr. Lykke E. Andersen (Bolivia)Marita Haug (Brazil) Is our international greed DR Congo so big that weJames Belgrave (Burundi) for taking as much as cannot overcome andGareth Mace (Cambodia) possible as cheaply as manage Africa prudently?Meerim Shakirova (Central Asia) possible from places like A.J. MeintjesFady Salah (Egypt)Emily Cavan Lynch (DR Congo)Dr.P.V.Ravichandiran (India) More innovative see the problems, takeAlphonce Gari (Kenya) stories needed! photos of malnaurishedSamuel Adikpe (Nigeria)Ricardo Morel (Peru) kids and upload onMohamud Hassan (Somalia) I am a regular reader of facebook wantshare with andMoses C Masami (Tanzania)Kimbowa Richard (Uganda) your magazine and most friends. I my experience and share to go thereJasen Mphepo (Zimbabwe) of the issues presented and knowledge and are interesting. However, innovative ideas that IGuest contributors for this issue as a developmentSarah Ferst publication, it would be havethrough magazines and learned at university great if you could also like yours. Published By focus on positive Silver Lining Creation RY-Finland technological There is a lot of Email: negativity, criticisms and developments that can frustration going on in the help the developing world, so maybe its time ISSN 1799-0769 world. to spread some hope and Subscribe free to Global South Development Im thinking of Magazine at spending a few months in positivity stories. ideas and and innovative Africa as an intern and Paul when I go there, I dont Berlin, Germany want to go there just to
  3. 3. Contents Global South Development Magazine, Founded in 2010 July 201 2 ISSUE 1 0 WWW.SILCREATION.ORGWomen in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya played a prominent role in bringing down entrenched dictatorships, however, there arefears that previous gains made by women might be reversed due to rising social conservatism and religious fundamentalism inthe post-revolutionary scenario.
  4. 4. Global South In the FrameIn April 2012 UN High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres, announced the appointment ofAngelina Jolie as his Special Envoy. Ms Jolie has takenpart in more than 40 field visits for UNHCR during her ten years of time as a goodwill ambassador. Photo: UNHCR/ J.TannerRice Farmers at Work in Bhutan: Farmers thresh their rice harvest in a field near Punakha, Bhutan. Photo: UN Multimedia Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 4
  5. 5. News Analysis Global SouthSri Lanka - not enough action on impunity "there has been some progress in economic development and resettlement in the northern conflict zone, but many problems still exist"COLOMBO, July 2012 - Sri Lankan “subversive” activity; an independent advisory District, said Tamil people were exhausted byparliamentarians in favour of acting on the committee to examine the detention and arrest of conflict and would like to find normalcy ratherrecommendations in a report into the final stages persons in custody to address concerns about than more politics. “These political games haveof the country’s civil war by the Lessons Learnt indefinite detention without due process under an pushed the country through 30 years of conflict. Iand Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) are anti-terrorist law; and addressing grievances from hope this will not be repeated.”slowly gaining ground over those who are not, minority communities, including Muslims in the The executive director of the National Peacesays a presidential peace process adviser. north and Tamils. Council, Jehan Perera, told IRIN, “While the The government’s initial reaction to the LLRC Tasks government asserts that it is implementing therecommendations was positive, presidential Since then there has been some progress in recommendations, it has not been specific as toadviser and parliamentarian Rajiva Wijesinha told economic development and resettlement in the what it is implementing,” and progress has beenIRIN, but others saw the report, released just over northern conflict zone, but many problems still very limited so far.six months ago, as a call for regime change and exist, said Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu, executive The government does not seem keen onwere “highly critical”. director of the Centre for Policy Alternatives, a Sri implementing governance recommendations that “However I now think we have equilibrium Lankan think-tank. would interfere with the highly “personalized”again, and the more positive forces in government “Progress also made with the rehabilitation of powers of current leaders, he added.seem likely to go ahead [with implementing the LTTE [Liberation Tigers ofTamil Eelam, therecommendations],” Wijesinha said, noting that separatist movement] cadres, although there are “Resistance”many of the LLRC recommendations fell within reports that even after being released they arethe existing framework of the Ministry of Disaster being questioned and face issues with regard to re- resistance to implementing inclined to justify its The government is also the LLRCManagement and Human Rights. integration in the community,” said recommendations on the grounds that the “We have wasted far too much time in Saravanamuttu.defending ourselves against gratuitous attacks, Not enough has been done to reach a political international community Perera said. in Sri Lankas internal affairs,” is interferingwhen a simple general appreciation of the LLRC settlement between the sometimes antagonistic The ruling government has largely discreditedwould have taken us forward more quickly. But we ethnic groups ofTamils and Sinhalese, reports of human rights abuses from internationalhave to realize that other countries play games in demilitarizing the north, punishing impunity, and NGOs.terms of their own interests, and we have to be improving governance - such as putting in place The LLRC recommendations included asensible enough to ignore these and move forward legislation that ensures the right to information - mourning period prior to the country’sin the interests of pluralism and peace,” he said. and establishing independent commissions to independence day celebrations on 4 February toSri Lanka’s president Mahinda Rajapaksa formed investigate the conflict, Saravanamuttu noted. express solidarity and sympathy with conflictthe commission in May 2010 to investigate the The LLRC called for independentfinal period of a decades-long civil war between investigations into the UK’s Channel 4 television victims, but nothing took place, said Ruki Fernando of the Christian Alliance for Socialthe government and separatist rebels from the broadcasts in 2011 and 2012, which examined Action, a local NGO. Rather, pro-Sinhalese victoryTamil ethnic group. After an 18-month inquiry, the alleged war crimes, and also into civilian parades rolled out.commission submitted its findings to parliament massacres spanning a decade in the north’son 16 December 2011. Trincomalee District, including the 2006 murder of issues needing urgent attention,number of critical Fernando said there were a including the Human rights groups questioned the group’s 17 workers of the French NGO, Action Againstimpartiality and along with the UN Secretary- Hunger. Saravanamuttu said these investigations continued existence controllednumberLankan security zones” still of a large by Sri of “highGenerals Panel of Experts on Accountability should start immediately.called for an independent inquiry, which the Thavarajah Rasiah, 63, in Jaffna District in the military forces in the north, which prevent largegovernment rejected. northern Sri Lanka, told IRIN that residents in the numbers of people returning to their places of origin. Among dozens of recommendations, the LLRC former war zone have been promised much, but Other matters needing urgent attention werecalled for a special commissioner to investigate seen little. “Lot of talking and not much alleged attacks on the media, reports of religiousalleged disappearances and criminal proceedings; improvements”. of talking and not much harassment, issues of language discrimination, andan amendment to the Registration of Deaths Act, improvements”. . “Lot of talking and not much cases of abuse of personal freedoms, including thewhich allows a next of kin to apply for a death improvements”. abuse of civil liberties and human rights.(IRIN)certificate if a person is missing due to Selva Sivaguru, 43, in neighbouring Mannar Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 5
  6. 6. News Analysis Global SouthAid must work Worries over new Rise in seabetter for Egyptian policy on level cantAfghans in the medicinesnext decade be stopped, CAIRO, July 201 2 - A decision by the Egyptian Health Ministry to peg local medicine prices to international ones is causing concern. “This is a catastrophic decision,” Karima Al Hefnawy, a member of scientists say Rising sea levels cannot be stopped over the local NGO the Independent Right to Health next several hundred years, even if deep emissions Committee, told IRIN. “Egypt is a low-income cuts lower global average temperatures, but they country, which means that linking local can be slowed down, climate scientists said in a medicine prices with international ones will study on Sunday. cause suffering to the poor.” A lot of climate research shows that rising Only about 30 percent of Egyptians have greenhouse gas emissions are responsible for health insurance, according to a recent increasing global average surface temperatures by estimate by the NGO. Hitherto, medicine about 0.17 degrees Celsius a decade from 1980-July 2012, Development gains made in prices were set by the ministry, sometimes at 2010 and for a sea level rise of about 2.3mm a yearAfghanistan over the last decade are in danger of much lower prices than the manufacturing from 2005-2010 as ice caps and glaciers melt.being thrown away if levels of aid fall away in cost, leading some suppliers to go out of Rising sea levels threaten about a tenth of theconjunction with the withdrawal of international business. worlds population who live in low-lying areas andtroops in 2014, Oxfam warned. islands which are at risk of flooding, including the Ahead of a vital donor conference in Tokyo this Caribbean, Maldives and Asia-Pacific islandmonth, Oxfam is calling on governments groups.represented at the summit to maintain levels of aid More than 180 countries are negotiating a newto the country and ensure this aid reaches the global climate pact which will come into force byAfghan men, women and children who need it 2020 and force all nations to cut emissions to limitmost. warming to below 2 degrees Celsius this century The agency is warning that decisions about aid - a level scientists say is the minimum required tolevels and spending come at a critical time for avert catastrophic effects.Afghanistan, the country’s single biggest donor, But even if the most ambitious emissions cutsthe USA, having already dramatically cut are made, it might not be enough to stop sea levelsdevelopment aid by nearly half in 2011, from Another local NGO, The Medical$4.1bn to $2.5bn. Association, says of the US$1 0 billion spent rising due to the thermal expansion of sea water, The withdrawal of international combat forces on health last year, only about a third came said scientists at the United States National Centreby the end of 2014 is likely to hit the already weak from the government. The government has for Atmospheric Research, U.S. researchAfghan economy even harder with 97 percent of allocated $4 billion, or 4.8 percent of Egypt’s organisation Climate Central and Centre forthe country’s gross domestic product related to the total budget in fiscal year 201 2-201 3, to the Australian Weather and Climate Research ininternational community’s presence. The World health sector. This, experts say, means that Melbourne.Bank has estimated that aid to Afghanistan could individuals will continue to foot most of the "Even with aggressive mitigation measures thatdrop by as much as 90 per cent by 2025. health bill in the new fiscal year. limit global warming to less than 2 degrees above Oxfam has urged donors to follow the example Chairman of the Health Ministry’s pre-industrial values by 2100, and with decreasesof countries such as the UK, Germany and medicine sector Mohsen Abdelaleem rejected of global temperature in the 22nd and 23rdAustralia, who have pledged to maintain or even the concerns, saying the higher prices would centuries ... sea level continues to rise after 2100,"increase aid levels in the coming years - or see the allow more pharmaceutical companies to stay they said in the journal Nature Climate Change.gains that have been made undermined or even in business, making medicines more widely This is because as warmer temperaturesreversed. available.(IRIN) penetrate deep into the sea, the water warms and Almost $60 billion of aid has been given to expands as the heat mixes through different ocean regions.Afghanistan since 2001. Over that period lifeexpectancy in the country has risen dramatically UGANDA: New LGBTI Even if global average temperatures fall and the surface layer of the sea cools, heat would still befrom 47 to 62 years for men and 50 to 64 years forwomen, with basic health care now accessible in clinic faces fierce mixed down into the deeper layers of the ocean, causing continued rises in sea levels.more than 80 per cent of districts. There have alsobeen significant gains in education with more than government criticism If global average temperatures continue to rise, the melting of ice sheets and glaciers would only2.7 million girls enrolled in school compared to add to the problem.just a few thousand under the Taliban. However, July 201 2, Uganda, Gay rights activists have The scientists calculated that if the deepestAfghanistan remains one of the poorest countries opened Ugandas first clinic for lesbian, gay, emissions cuts were made and global temperaturesin the world. Far too much aid has been poorly bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) cooled to 0.83 degrees in 2100 - forecast based onspent and too often tied to military objectives or people in the capital, Kampala, where it will the 1986-2005 average - and 0.55 degrees by 2300,projects designed to win hearts and minds in the provide testing, counselling and treatment for the sea level rise due to thermal expansion wouldshort term, rather than supporting long-term HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. continue to increase - from 14.2cm in 2100 todevelopment goals. Despite the high level of HIV among MSM, 24.2cm in 2300. "Any significant cuts in support could have the government has not included the group in If the weakest emissions cuts were made,dire consequences on Afghan people and we its national strategy to fight HIV because temperatures could rise to 3.91 degrees Celsius incannot let this happen. While the past 11 years homosexual activity is illegal in Uganda. A bill 2100 and the sea level rise could increase tohave seen substantial progress, millions of before parliament seeks even more stringent 32.3cm, increasing to 139.4cm by 2300.Afghans still lack adequate healthcare, schools, punishments for people engaging in "Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for atjobs, or law and order. A good hard look at the homosexual acts and those perceived to be least the next several hundred years, withway aid is spent in Afghanistan is long overdue. "promoting" homosexuality. aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, andDonors need to work harder to address the needs The clinic was opened on 1 9 May 201 2 by this would buy time for adaptation measures to beof women and girls, involve local communities in Bishop Christopher Senyonjo - one of the adopted," the scientists added.development projects, increase anti-corruption countrys few religious leaders willing to The study is available atefforts, and ensure projects are designed to be speak for gay rights - and is managed by a (Reporting by Ninasmart, fair and sustainable," said Oxfam’s Louise local gay rights lobby group, Ice Breakers Chestney; Editing by Pravin Char)Hancock, head of policy and advocacy in Uganda (IBU).Afghanistan.(SourceOxfam) Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 6
  7. 7. Press Freedom Global South Burundi, a country praised in recent years for its free and dynamic press and active civil society, is witnessing a worrying deterioration in media freedom.The shrinking space forpress freedoms in BurundiJAMES BELGRAVEGSDM BurundiBurundi, a country praised in recent years for precedent given that no journalist in Burundiits free and dynamic press and active civil has ever been convicted for such a crime’, andsociety, is witnessing a worrying deterioration the outcome has caused concern for bothin media freedom. Reporters Without Borders’ national and international human rightsannual Press Freedom Index reveals a startling activists.trend in this country located in the heart of the Following the Gatumba bar attack in 18th "harassment and theAfrican Great Lakes region: between 2008 and September 2011, in which more than 372011 Burundi slipped 36 places from 94th to people were killed when gunmen burst into a arbitrary arrest of journalists130th (of 178) in the global rankings for press bar and shot indiscriminately at the crowd (see have been on the rise, andfreedom. In recent years, harassment and the article in GSDM N.7), the governmentarbitrary arrest of journalists have been on the imposed a month long news blackout analyses by various expertsrise, and analyses by various experts and preventing the media from publishing, and NGOs point to aNGOs point to a situation which is only set to commenting or analyzing information relating situation which is only set toworsen this year as the space for press to the attack. The ban was broadly compliedfreedom in the country continues to diminish. with by local media, but set a dangerous worsen this year as the 2010 saw the arrest of several journalists, precedent given the lack of clear and reliable space f or press f reedom inmost notably Jean-Claude Kavumbagu, who, information surrounding the Gatumba July, was arrested for publishing an article Being a journalist in Burundi is now a the country continues toin which he questioned the state’s ability to hazardous profession which entails significant diminish"respond to a potential terrorist attack by the risks. A recent Human Rights Watch reportSomali Islamist militia Al-Shabaab (the (which was itself banned in the country),Burundian military presence in Somalia makes points out that the Gatumba attack took placethe country a target). He was detained for ten in the context of a broader pattern ofmonths pending trial and released in May intimidation and harassment of independent2011 having been found guilty of ‘threatening Burundian journalists’ and states that the newsthe national economy’. According to Human blackout may have amounted to a violation ofRights Watch, this sentence is a ‘negative freedom of expression. Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 7
  8. 8. Press Freedom Global SouthOn the 28th of November 2011 a journalist prosecutor’s office in 2011 for questioningworking for Radio France International (RFI) regarding the radio’s programmes. "The f undamental issue isand Bujumbura-based Bonesha FM, Hassan The media, however, is very active in that the Government ofRuvakuki, was arrested on charges of ‘acts of calling for press freedoms and the release ofterrorism’. He had conducted an interview arrested journalists, and on the 18th of June Burundi is highly sensitive towith a member of a rebel group in this year six of the biggest independent radio criticism, and the currentneighbouring Tanzania. On the 21th of June stations organized a media synergy through2012, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. which they simultaneously broadcast the same media crackdown is takingReporters Without Borders described the trial editorial message, calling on the Government place against a backdrop ofas a ‘politically orchestrated travesty’. to cease their harassment and unwarranted Later that month, in response to the arrest of journalists and to uphold its a deteriorating political anddifficult situation faced by journalists, four of constitutional obligations, respect the law and security situation in whichthe major independent radio stations asked the ensure that freedom of expression is the Government accusespublic to sound their car horns for 15 seconds guaranteed in 12:20pm to protest against political violence The fundamental issue is that the journalists of siding with theand the muzzling of journalists. Having Government of Burundi is highly sensitive to opposition and/or rebelwitnessed this protest first hand, I can confirm criticism, and the current media crackdown isthat it was met with popular support and those taking place against a backdrop of a movements andfifteen seconds were some of the noisiest I deteriorating political and security situation in consequently treats them ashave experienced in more than 18 months in which the Government accuses journalists ofBujumbura. siding with the opposition and/or rebel enemies" Both Human Rights Watch and Reporters movements and consequently treats them asWithout Borders agree that the government is enemies.openly hostile to independent media and both The Government would do well tolocal and international experts assert that remember the key role that the open and freejournalists who report on human rights abuses press and civil society in Burundi played inand on the political situation have been peacebuilding efforts following the end of thetargeted with repeated summons and threats of war in 2008, and ensure that such advances inarrest. Yet another example is that of the chief basic human rights are not undone in aneditor of Radio Publique Africaine, a leading attempt to silence their political opponents.independent radio station based in Bujumbura, (Note: Photos used in the text were taken bywho was summoned eight times to the public the author.) Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 8
  9. 9. Natural Resources Latin America RICARDO MOREL GSDM Peru“Conga [mining project] will go ahead with or preferring water over gold during his campaign wonwithout social license” – announced Peru´s Prime a large number of supporters and raised hope forMinister in early June, after more than a year of change among rural communities. "Af ter 21 years of neo-liberalintense disputes between the national government At that point, the Regional President of governments, lef t-leaningand the regional government over the viability of Cajamarca, Gregorio Santos, who publiclythe US$4.8 billion mining project in Cajamarca, supported Humala’s campaign, had a flexible leader Ollanta Humala tooknorthern Peru. The case of Conga project continues position towards mining, acknowledging theto dominate the national headlines while remaining economic benefits it brought to the region. The of f ice in July 2011 amidstindefinitely suspended with no clear indication of Conga mining project’s viability faced no major huge popular support. Hishow this conflict will be resolved. problems, however, the idyll did not last long. A In the past two decades the Peruvian economy series of errors committed by the Executive and the message of pref erring waterhas experienced continued economic growth. This mining company transformed Santos into their main over gold during hishas been boosted by the rise of the mining industry, opponent, making Conga the first litmus test forwhich comprises more than half of the national Humala’s left leaning government. campaign won a largeGDP. Paradoxically, this achievement has beenfollowed by a considerable increase of social The political scenario number of supporters andconflicts, mainly related to extractive industries, Peruvian law dictates that a mining project with raised hope f or changewhich operate in territories that serve as a source of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)livelihood and cultural meaning for local approved by the Ministry of Energy and Mines is among rural communities."communities. This dynamic has gradually de- legally viable. However, the legality of an approvedlegitimized the political system, diluted confidence EIA is not enough to put forward a the central government, and created a Legitimacy needs to be upheld by all stakeholders,governance deficit. especially in a highly fragmented scenario where After 21 years of neo-liberal governments, left- the central government –which concentrates allleaning leader Ollanta Humala took office in July decision-making powers over mining policy– is2011 amidst huge popular support. His message of distanced from the local and regional governments,World Water Day Demonstration on Proposed Conga Gold Mine Site,Cajamarca Region, Peru © Diego Cupolo Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 9
  10. 10. Natural Resources Latin Americaas well as the civil society. This is particularly true Soon opposition supporters from all over thewhen mining activities occur in remote region began to mobilize. In the midst of intensecommunities where extractive industries tend to popular pressure, former Prime Minister and currentoperate. presidential spokesperson, Salomon Lerner, Regional and local governments lack capacity appeared in a press conference alongside "Conga, as a project, andand power to regulate activities that might raise Newmont’s Operations Vice-President to declare theconflict behaviours in their own territories. suspension of Conga’s activities. Having a high- Cajamarca, as a region,Consequently, all regional and local grievances ranking government official appear with a Newmontregarding mining operations travel directly to the could be a milestone incapital city of Lima. Even at the national level, it isExecutive on national television only served tothe Ministry of Energy and Mines –an institution increase distrust for the government. Peru’s history if the rightgenerally seen as biased towards the private sector– Opposition continued and, in response, the bridges are built"which has the final word when approving the government declared a state of emergency inviability of projects, without necessarily having to Cajamarca, mobilizing police forces and closelyconsult with other relevant Ministries regarding the watching opposition leaders. By the end of 2011,issues of environment or social development. the situation became unbearable. Prompting the "Mining companies need to resignation of Prime Minister, Lerner was replaced improve their strategy by by former Minister of Interior, Oscar Valdes.Brief chronology of the conflict: Succeeding Prime Minister Valdes called for an international prioritising theerrors technical assessment of Conga’s EIA viability. As Cajamarca, a traditional farming and the report was delivered in April 2011, President strengthening ofstockbreeding region, experienced the mining boom Humala introduced a series of new conditions to the relationships bef ore startingwhen Yanacocha –run mainly by US-based project, such as increasing labour and protectingNewmont Mining Corporation– started operations natural water sources. Yanacocha was not operations"over two decades ago. Newmont’s mining activities previously consulted on these changes, butin Yanacocha, the world’s second largest gold mine, eventually agreed to the new terms.have built up a negative reputation due to Still, since mid-June roadblocks have beenenvironmental disasters and a record of strong occurring in different parts of Cajamarca, generatingclashes with local communities. Despite this local shortage of food supply and other resources.(and even national) perception of the firm,Newmont decided to attach the Conga project to Lessons learnedYanacocha brand, thus transmitting Yanacocha’s Conga, as a project, and Cajamarca, as a region,stigmas to the yet-to-be-born Conga mine. could be a milestone in Peru’s history if the right In March 2011, Newmont announced in NewYork that not only Conga but also Quillish –another bridges are built. The Government could strengthenYanacocha-brand project suspended since 2004 due the decentralizationregional government in EIA participation to the process, giving moreto strong opposition– would start operations in processes, mining concessions, right to prior2016. This was later confirmed by PresidentHumala who, in October 2011, after returning from consultation, regional governments moregeneral, the idea is to get and wealth distribution. In involvedthe Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) by increasing their responsibilities and, thus,Conference in Hawaii, personally gave the green making them part of the national politicallight to the Conga project. The decision generated surprise among the local machinery. companies need to improve their strategy Miningpopulation, but particularly with Santos, who by prioritising the strengthening of relationshipstrusted his, friend-now-President, Humala and had before starting operations. Not only should thesenot been informed beforehand. Santos saw his efforts be focused on creating inroads with localpower undermined. As NGOs and defence fronts communities but also should concentrate onstarted mobilizing, Santos saw an opportunity togain political relevance by joining the assault. Later bringing local and regional governments, if dialogue NGOs, into the political fold. In essence, as well asthat month, the regional government of Cajamarca and transparency are not present across all fronts,turned radical by stating that the Newmont’s CEO history will repeat itself. Peru needs to addshould declare Conga unviable. legitimacy to legality and sustainability to viability. PHOTO CORNER Education in Tanzania massive Despite significant achievement through investment under the government’s Primary Education Development Plans (I&II) for over 8 years coupled with numerous interventions by NGOs both local and National, the state of education in some rural parts ofTanzania is still appalling. Learning outcomes not convincing and the learning-teaching environment is still far from being improved. Facing the situation like the pictured one at Mwamagembe Primary school in Kishapu district, Shinyanga region in Tanzania, one may wish to pause and ask a number of questions: what is wrong? Have, as a country and global community been able to identify let alone address the root cause of the education challenges? Even more importantly, how do we get out of such alarming learning environment hampering quality education for all? Pictured is Oxfam’s Education Programme Officer, Mary Soko who visited the school to monitor progress of the WASH facilities that Oxfam sponsored. Photo by Lingson Adam/ GSDM West Africa Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 0
  11. 11. Cover Story Women of the Revolution Women ofthe Revolution! In the Aftermath of the Arab Spring Women in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya played a prominent role in bringing down entrenched dictatorships, however, there are fears that previous gains made by women might be reversed due to rising social conservatism and religious fundamentalism in the post- revolutionary scenario. Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 11
  12. 12. Cover Story Women of the Revolution Photo: Gigi Ibrahim After 18 days of angry protests in front of Sanaa University, calling forCairos Tahrir Square, president Hosni Yemens President, Ali Abdullah Saleh, toMubarak resigned on February 11, ending step down. Karman became an30 years of autocratic rule. Hundreds of international face of peaceful revolutionthousands of people gathered and chanted and was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peaceslogans against the regime until it finally Prize.toppled. Obviously, anger, frustration and While Asmaa Mahfouz of Egypt anda deep rooted desire for change fueled the Tawakel Karman ofYemen were activelyrevolution, but many believe it was organizing protests and participating inAsmaa Mahfouzs YouTube video that did them directly, the Tunisian Lina Benthe magic and compelled people to turn Mhenni took a different approach.up to Tahrir Square and oppose Through a blog, Mhenni reported thedictatorship. protests throughout Tunisia, at times The 26 year old university student becoming the only source of information "The world hasnt forgottonmade a video and posted on YouTube to activists within Tunisia and also to the womens contribution in theannouncing her intention to go to the outside world. Arab Uprisings, but thesquare on 25 January, she challenged These three names mentioned here are danger is that they are beingEgyptians to take to the street, saying, If just representative examples of hundredsyou think yourself a man, come with me of thousands of women that made the forgotten in their own lands byon 25 January. Whoever says women Arab Uprising possible. Through satellite their own regimes"shouldn’t go to protests because they will television and on social networking sitesget beaten, let him have some honor and we saw how vigorously these womenmanhood and come with me on 25 organized themselves and bravelyJanuary. Whoever says it is not worth it challenged tyranny and dictatorship. Thebecause there will only be a handful of world hasnt certainly forgotten that. Butpeople, I want to tell him, You are the the danger is that due to a surprising risereason behind this, and you are a traitor, of conservatism and fundamentaljust like the president or any security cop religious ideologies after the revolutionswho beats us in the streets. in the region, women might be forgotten In Yemen, another woman, Tawakel and oppressed in their own lands, by theKarman, led the pro-democracy regimes that are built on the samecampaigns, camping out for months in womens sweat, blood and toil. Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 2
  13. 13. Cover Story Women of the Revolution Photo by Clinton VerleyTawakel Karman, 33, Yemen Photo: David Sasaki Mother of the Revolution Lina Ben Mhenni, 29, Tunisia Asmaa Mahfouz, 27, Egypt The Revolutionary Blogger Tawakel Karman became the the woman who organized Egyptsinternational public face of the 2011 historic demonstrations During the rule of former TunisianYemeni uprising that is part of the Asmaa Mahfouz is an Egyptian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, LinaArab Spring uprisings. She has been activist and one of the founders of Mhenni was one of the few bloggers tocalled by Yemenis the "Iron Woman" the April 6 Youth Movement. She has blog using her real name rather thanand "Mother of the Revolution. She been credited by journalist Mona adopting a pseudonym to protect heris a co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Eltahawy and others with helping to identity. Her blog, as well as herPeace Prize, becoming the first Facebook and Twitter accounts, were spark mass uprising through her censored under the Ben Ali regime.Yemeni, the first Arab woman, and video blog posted one week before Mhenni began posting photos and videothe second Muslim woman to win a the start of the 2011 Egyptian of protests of those injured throughoutNobel Prize and the youngest Nobel revolution where she said, Ifyou Tunisia. In an effort to make thePeace Laureate to date. think yourselfa man, come with me government responsible for its actions Karman is a Yemeni journalist, on 25 January. Whoever says women and to the people who were harmed inpolitician and senior member of the shouldn’t go to protests because they these uprisings, she visited localofAl-Islah political party, and human will get beaten, let him have some hospitals and took pictures of thoserights activist who heads the group honor and manhood and come with harmed by police."Women Journalists Without In January 2011, she covered theChains," which she co-founded in me on 25 January. Whoever says it is early weeks of the Tunisian Revolution2005. She gained prominence in her not worth it because there will only from Sidi Bouzid Governorate in thecountry after 2005 in her roles as a be a handf ofpeople, I want to tell ul interior of the country. Mhenni was the him, Y are the reason behind this, ou only blogger present in the interior citiesYemeni journalist and an advocate and you are a traitor, just like the of Kasserine and Regueb whenfor a mobile phone news service president or any security cop who government forces massacred anddenied a license in 2007, after which The video beats us in the streets. suppressed protesters in the region. Hershe led protests for press freedom. went viral and hundreds of thousands reports and posts provided uncensoredShe organized weekly protests after of people appeared on the 25 January information to other Tunisian activistsMay 2007 expanding the issues for protest.She is a prominent member of and the international media.reform. She redirected the Yemeni Egypts Coalition of the Youth of the Mhennis blog, A Tunisian Girlprotests to support the "Jasmine (, is Revolution and in 2011, she was one written in Arabic, English, andRevolution," as she calls the Arab of five recipients of the "Sakharov French.Mhenni has been awarded theSpring, after the Tunisian people Prize for Freedom ofThought" Deutsche Welle International Blogoverthrew the government of Zine El awarded for contributions to "historic Award and El Mundo’s InternationalAbidine Ben Ali in January 2011. changes in the Arab world." Journalism Prize. Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 3
  14. 14. Cover Story Women of the Revolution CATRIONA KNAPMAN GSDM Middle EastDespite women’s full and dynamic representatives out of 508, or 2% women.participation in the 2011 revolutions, their In global terms, Egypt has one of the "In Tunisia, ideas of equalityparticipation in the evolving democracies lowest percentages of women were already prevalent inin these countries has been marked with parliamentary representatives in the world, law and society, which hasdifficulties and complications. according to Inter-Parliamentary UnionEach country has demonstrated its own ( been ref lected in aunique approach to these issues, However The election of the first Constituent reasonable representativethey are linked by the common threat of Assembly also saw only 6 women chosen presentation of women.under-representation of women in public for the 100 member panel. This first Indeed quotas assured 50%life and political participation. Assembly was abandoned due to protest In Tunisia, ideas of equality were regarding its representation of not just inclusion of women onalready prevalent in law and society, which women, but of the full diversity of electoral lists and ultimatelyhas been reflected in a reasonable Egyptian society. The replacement 24% representation in therepresentative presentation of women. committee, elected in June 2012, includedIndeed quotas assured 50% inclusion of 7 women out of the 100 new members, Constituent Assembly,women on electoral lists and ultimately which was hardly much of an which translated into 58 out24% representation in the Constituent improvement. of 217 members, or 26.7%Assembly, which translated into 58 out of The Egypt’s streets, this issue is also217 members, or 26.7% women prevalent. Various stories tell the tale of women parliamentarians."parliamentarians. A woman is also deputy harassment and attacks on women inspeaker in this body. While the number do public life. The 2011 International "In Egypt, this under-not represent full equality, it is equitable to Women’s Day march was marked by representation has beenmost Western democracies in terms of harassment of women protestors. Imposedwomen’s political participation. Indeed, it virginity testing was recorded as taking on seen in both the streets andis a higher number of women MPs than in women protestors by human rights political bodies. Thethe UK, which has 22%. organisations. During protests in early June Parliament, elected in Tunisia has also not suffered the same 2012, women were reportedly beingproblems regarding safety and attacks of attacked in and near to Tahrir Square by November 2011, had awomen protesters as have been seen in large groups of men. Reports stated that mere 10 womenEgypt. Yet, there are fears of an Islamic the women were sexually assaulted by representatives out of 508,resurgence from some parties. They are mobs of men.concerned that the majority presence of the Egyptian women’s group, Nazra or 2% women. In globalIslamist party ‘Ennahda’ in the Institute for Feminist Studies claims that: terms, Egypt has of theConstitutent Assembly will mean the “(t)he attack on the women was calculated lowest percentages ofcreation of laws which impose the sharia at and organized so as to scare women awaythe expense of women’s freedoms. These from the public sphere, to punish women women parliamentaryfears are still to be confirmed. for their participation, and to keep them at representatives in the In Egypt, this under-representation has home to avoid the premeditated attacks world"been seen in both the streets and political against them.”bodies. The Parliament, elected in These attacks show that women’s placeNovember 2011, had a mere 10 women in public protests as well as public life is Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 4
  15. 15. Cover Story Women of the Revolutionbeing itself attacked and undermined. lobbying campaigns around ConstitutionalWhile the women organisations continue to and legal change. Women4Libya is "Yet women groups arefight, the continued dominance of the demanding that certain funds are ear- f ighting back. Many havemilitary in Egypt and the increasingly marked for women’s issues. Others have been organising training andtense and uncertain political situation is been involved in graffiti campaigns to support f or women politicalrendering women’s participation more and paint women’s faces onto the walls of themore complex. streets. In Egypt, one organisation, called activists and Parliamentary In Libya, women have also faced Harassmap is recording and mapping candidates"challenges as well as an unstable incidents and testimony of harassmentenvironment. Following the revolution, against women.rape committed against women by armed It seems that the struggle for women’s "In Egypt, one organisation,forces became a key issue. Stories emerged rights continues in post-revolution Middle called Harassmap isof honour killings being carried out by East. Prejudices from certain readings of recording and mappingfamilies against women who had been Islam appear to influence the attitudes andraped, demonstrating a strong patriarchy acceptation of women’s participation in incidents and testimony ofsystem. public and political life. The prevalence of harassment against women" While United Nations Security Council a strong patriarchal system also has itsmandate 1325, highlights the important effect in limiting the progress of women inrole women play in peacebuilding, only post-revolution North Africa. somewhat stuck. The stance ofone woman is a member of the National However, it can seem overly easy to women’s groups and movementsTransitional Council, Dr. Salwa Fawzi El- assume that the culprit of women’s remains defiant, yet answers must beDeghali. In terms of political exclusion in the Middle East originates untangled from a sticky web ofrepresentation, provision has been made to from women. In this sense it is worth social, political and religious politics.include a quota of at least 10% women in noting how other societies included and What is certain is that these newthe new Parliament, to be elected in July. excluded women, following revolutions. democracies offer a platform which Yet women groups are fighting back. As post-revolutionary new democracies ensures that this debate will continueMany have been organising training and in the Middle East and North Africa slowly to be discussed for a long time intosupport for women political activists and move forward, the question of women’s the future.Parliamentary candidates. There are also equality and participation remains Mohamed Bouazizi Tunisia in protest of social and political issues in the country. The publics anger and Mohamed Bouazizi was a Tunisian street vendor who set himself on fire on 17 violence intensified following Bouazizis December 2010, in protest of the death, leading then-President Zine El confiscation of his wares and the harassment Abidine Ben Ali to step down on 14 January and humiliation that he reported was inflicted 2011, after 23 years in power. on him by a municipal official and her aides. His act became a catalyst for the Tunisian The success of the Tunisian protests inspired Revolution and the wider Arab Spring, protests in several other Arab countries, plus inciting demonstrations and riots throughout several non-Arab countries. Source: Wikimedia Foundation Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 5
  16. 16. Cover Story Women of the Revolution TAWAKEL KARMAN Tawakel Karman is a Yemeni journalist, politician and senior member of the ofAl-Islah political party, and human rights activist who heads the group "Women Journalists Without Chains," which she co-founded in 2005.She has been called by Yemenis the "Iron Woman" and "Mother of the Revolution" and is also a co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. In this edition we present a few excerpts from her Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech where she talks about the success of the Arab uprisings and the future of freedom and democracy in the Arab world.The revolutions of the Arab Spring in Tunisia, free people of the world.Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria, and the All ideologies, beliefs, laws and charters "the Arab world is todaymovement towards revolutions in other Arab produced by the march of humanity through allcountries, such as Algeria, Morocco, Bahrain, stages of its development, as well as all divine witnessing the birth of aSudan and others, in terms of motivation, driving messages and religions, without exception, obligepower and objectives, did not take place on us to support oppressed people, be they groups or new world, which tyrantsisolated islands cut off from all the rapid and individuals. Supporting an oppressed person isastonishing changes which our world is not only required because of his need for support, and unjust rulers strive towitnessing. The Arab people have woken up just but also because injustice against one person is oppose. But in the end, thisto see how poor a share of freedom, democracy injustice against all mankind.and dignity they have. And they revolted. This What Martin Luther King called "the art of new world will inevitablyexperience is somewhat similar to the spring that living in harmony" is the most important art weswept through Eastern Europe after the downfall need to master today. In order to contribute to that emerge"of the Soviet Union. The birth of democracies in human art, the Arab states should makeEastern Europe has been difficult, and victory reconciliation with their own people an essentialemerged only after bitter struggle against the requirement. This is not merely an internalthen-existing systems. Similarly, the Arab world interest, but also an international one required for "The peace in which theyis today witnessing the birth of a new world, the whole human community. The dictator whowhich tyrants and unjust rulers strive to oppose. kills his own people does not only represent a lived is a f alse "peace ofBut in the end, this new world will inevitably case of violation of his people’s values and theiremerge. national security, but is also a case of violation of graves," the peace of The Arab people who are revolting in a human values, its conventions and itspeaceful and civilized manner have, for so many international commitments. Such a case submission to tyranny anddecades, been oppressed and suppressed by the represents a real threat to world peace.regimes of authoritarian tyrants who have Many nations, including the Arab peoples, corruption thatindulged themselves deeply in corruption and in have suffered, although they were not at war, but impoverishes people andlooting the wealth of their people. They have were not at peace either. The peace in which theygone too far in depriving their people of freedom lived is a false "peace of graves," the peace of kills their hope f or a betterand of the natural right to a dignified life. They submission to tyranny and corruption thathave gone too far in depriving them of the right to impoverishes people and kills their hope for a f uture"participate in the management of their personal better future. Today, all of the human communityaffairs and the affairs of their communities. These should stand up with our people in their peacefulregimes have totally disregarded the Arab people struggle for freedom, dignity and democracy, nowas a people with a legitimate human existence and that our people have decided to break out ofhave let poverty and unemployment flourish silence and strive to live and realize the meaningamong them in order to secure that the rulers, and of the immortal phrase of Caliph Umar ibn al-their family members after them, will have full Khattab: "Since when have you enslaved people,control over the people. Allow me to say that our when their mothers gave birth to them free?"oppressed people have revolted, declaring the When I heard the news that I had got theemergence of a new dawn in which the Nobel Peace Prize, I was in my tent in the Tahrirsovereignty of the people, and their invincible Square in Sana’a. I was one of millions ofwill, will prevail. The people have decided to revolutionary youth. There, we were not evenbreak free and walk in the footsteps of civilized able to secure our safety from the repression and Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 6
  17. 17. Cover Story Women of the Revolutionoppression of the regime ofAli Abdullah Saleh. edge of failure and collapse during the last 33At that moment, I contemplated the distinction years. "Millions of Yemeni womenbetween the meanings of peace celebrated by the Our peaceful and popular youth revolution isNobel Prize and the tragedy of the aggression not isolated or cut off from the revolutions of the and men, children, youngwaged by Ali Abdullah Saleh against the forces of Arab Spring. However, with all regret andpeaceful change. However, our joy of being on sadness, I should note that it did not get the and old, took to the streetsthe right side of history made it easier for us to international understanding, support or attentionbear the devastating irony. of the other revolutions in the region. This should in 18 provinces demanding Millions ofYemeni women and men, children, haunt the world’s conscience, because ityoung and old, took to the streets in 18 provinces challenges the very idea of fairness and justice. their right to f reedom,demanding their right to freedom, justice and I would like to emphasize that the Arab Springdignity, using nonviolent but effective means to revolutions have emerged with the purpose of justice and dignity, usingachieve their demands. We were able to meeting the needs of the people of the region for aefficiently and effectively maintain a peaceful state of citizenship and the rule of law. They have nonviolent but ef f ectiverevolution in spite of the fact that this great nation emerged as an expression of people’s means to achieve theirhas more than 70 million firearms of various dissatisfaction with the state of corruption,types. Here lies the philosophy of the revolution, nepotism and bribery. These revolutions were demands"which persuaded millions of people to leave their ignited by young men and women who areweapons at home and join the peaceful march yearning for freedom and dignity. They know thatagainst the state’s machine of murder and their revolutions pass through four stages whichviolence just with flowers and bare breasts, and can’t be bypassed: toppling the dictator and hisfilled with dreams, love and family, toppling his security "These revolutions werepeace. We were very happy and military services and hisbecause we realized, at that time, nepotism networks, ignited by young men andthat the Nobel Prize did not come establishing the institutions ofonly as a personal prize for the transitional state, and women who are yearningTawakkul Abdel-Salam Karman, moving towards constitutionalbut as a declaration and legitimacy and establishing the f or f reedom and dignity"recognition of the whole world modern civil and democraticfor the triumph of the peaceful state.revolution ofYemen and as an Thus, the revolutions of theappreciation of the sacrifices of Arab Spring will continue "the revolutions of the Arabits great, peaceful people. through the efforts of youth, And here I am now, standing who are ready and prepared to Spring will continue throughbefore you in this solemn launch each stage and to fullyinternational ceremony. Here I achieve its objectives. Today the ef f orts of youth, whoam, in this unique moment, one of the world should be ready andthe most important moments of prepared to support the young are ready and prepared tohuman history, coming from the Arab Spring in all stages of its launch each stage and toland of the Arab Orient, coming struggle for freedom andfrom the land ofYemen, the Yemen of wisdom dignity. The civilized world should, immediately f ully achieve its objectives.and ancient civilizations, the Yemen of more than after the outbreak of the revolutions, commence5,000 years of long history, the great Kingdom of the detention and freezing of the assets of the Today the world should beSheba, the Yemen of the two queens Bilqis and figures of this regime and its security and militaryArwa, the Yemen which is currently experiencing officials. In fact, this is not enough, since these ready and prepared tothe greatest and the most powerful and the largest people should be brought to justice before theeruption ofArab Spring revolution, the revolution International Criminal Court. There should be no support the young Arabof millions throughout the homeland, which is immunity for killers who rob the food of thestill raging and escalating today. people. Spring in all stages of its This revolution will soon complete its first The democratic world, which has told us a lotyear since the moment it was launched as a about the virtues of democracy and good struggle f or f reedom andpeaceful and popular revolution of the youth, with governance, should not be indifferent to what isone demand: peaceful change and the pursuit of happening in Yemen and Syria, and happened dignity"free and dignified life in a democratic and civil before in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, and happensstate governed by the rule of law. This state will in every Arab and non-Arab country aspiring forbe built on the ruins of the rule of a repressive, freedom. All of that is just hard labor during themilitarized, corrupt and backward family police birth of democracy, which requires support andrule, which has consistently brought Yemen to the assistance, not fear and caution. WOMEN’S RIGHTS women’s rights groups in the Arab world are fighting for rights set forth in the United governments to live up to their countries’ commitments under the treaty and withdraw AND THE ARAB Nations’ Convention on the Elimination of all reservations. Many governments in the SPRING All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the most region need to take further steps to align national laws with existing international comprehensive women’s rights treaty, and commitments under CEDAW. However,Successful uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt are using it to demand government action. while many area governments have yet toin 2010-2011 have sparked movements Written in 1979 and entered into force in live up to CEDAW’s principles, women’sagainst dictatorships across the Middle East, 1981, CEDAW has been ratified by 187 rights activists continue to leverageNorth Africa, and the Gulf region. These nation-states, including every Arab country governments’ desire to appear to be inmovements call for democratization, new except Somalia and Sudan. However, each compliance with CEDAW as a way toconstitutions that protect equality, free Arab state has ratified the treaty with advance their cause. (Source:Womensspeech and assembly, and fair elections. substantial reservations that undermine the Learning Partnership)Women have been an integral part of these treaty’s spirit.revolutions, organizing and marching CEDAW is a critical tool in the fight toalongside men. Now, as countries in the advance women’s rights in a democratizingregion are in the process of building new Arab world. Across the region, women havegovernments, women’s activists know they been using CEDAW to pressuremust fight to play a substantial role. governments to take meaningful steps to Today, just as before the Arab Spring, advance women’s rights, and to push new Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 7
  18. 18. Cover Story Women of the RevolutionSierra Leone: Are morewomen in parliament enough? Legislating Equality Ahead of Sierra Leone’s 2012 Elections A woman in the village of Njama in Kailahun District, Sierra Leone "Despite impressive abundance of agricultural IOULIA FENTON and natural mineral GSDM Assistant Editor resources, Sierra Leone has a deep aid dependencySierra Leone is a country marred by political and less than 5% were women (six in total with twosocial instability. It was not until 2002 that it saw additional female Cabinet Ministers and Deputy problem, relying on donorsan official end to its brutal 11-year civil war, in Ministers). Like many other African countries, f or most of its basic servicewhich tens of thousands were killed, hundreds of Sierra Leone is pushing for passage of the Thethousands were displaced and numerous youth Gender Equality Bill ahead of its November 2012 provision and governmentwere abducted as child soldiers. The struggle still election. It is a legislation currently awaiting acontinues as weak security, legal and political parliamentary vote to be passed into law that aims spending. This requires theinstitutions threaten stability in this fragile state to stipulate mandated quotas, reserving at leastthat ranked bottom of 177 in UNDP’s 2005 Human 30% of parliament and local council seats for country to meet donorDevelopment Index, a composite statistical women. This is proportion called for at the 1995analysis measuring quality of life and standard of UN Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women criteria, such as placingliving. Despite the impressive abundance of that put “gender mainstreaming” as a top donoragricultural and natural mineral resources, Sierra priority on the global development map. more f emales in the highestLeone has a deep aid dependency problem, relying More women in parliament is, in part, the righton donors for most of its basic service provision idea. But putting more pant suits on political seats echelons of the country’sand government spending. This requires the does not go far enough, according to Ms Khadijacountry to meet donor criteria, such as placing Bah, who has a long and distinguished career as a democratically elected andmore females in the highest echelons of the senior policy advisor and gender mainstreamingcountry’s democratically elected and specialist at the World Bank, United Nations, the decentralising certaindecentralising certain government operations, to New Partnership for Africas Development and thequalify for funding. like. For her, gains through higher representation government operations, to Sierra Leone has an estimated population of 6 in numbers are only superficial if they come aboutmillion, 51-53% of whom are women. Yet, as a result of quotas and other forms of legislated qualif y f or f unding."political representation at the turn of the century equality. She posits that the problem with quotaswas dreadfully low. Out of 124 parliamentarians, lies in the fact that the appointed women have little Global South Development Magazine July 201 2 1 8