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747-8 | Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning - December 2010

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747-8

  1. 1. PRELIMINARY747-8Airplane Characteristics forAirport PlanningBoeing Commercial Airplanes D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 i
  2. 2. PRELIMINARY THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D6-58326-3ii SEPTEMBER 2008
  3. 3. PRELIMINARY 747-8 AIRPLANE CHARACTERISTICS LIST OF ACTIVE PAGES Page Date Page Date Page DateOriginal Preliminaryi to 112 September 2008 3-4 December 2010 7-8 June 2010 9-10 October 2010 11 May 2010 12 June 2010 15-19 June 2010 21-23 June 2010 30 December 2010 31-38 June 2010 40-56 December 2010 61 December 2010 63-78 December 2010 74-75 September 201079-120 June 2010 87 July 2010 89 July 201091-120 July 2010 D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 iii
  4. 4. PRELIMINARY TABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION TITLE PAGE 1.0 SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Scope 2 1.2 Introduction 3 1.3 A Brief Description of the 747-8 4 2.0 AIRPLANE DESCRIPTION 5 2.1 General Characteristics 6 2.2 General Dimensions 8 2.3 Ground Clearances 10 2.4 Interior Arrangements 12 2.5 Cabin Cross-Sections 15 2.6 Lower Cargo Compartments 19 2.7 Door Clearances 21 3.0 AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE 29 3.1 General Information 30 3.2 Payload/Range for 0.845 Mach Cruise 31 3.3 F.A.R. Takeoff Runway Length Requirements 32 3.4 F.A.R. Landing Runway Length Requirements 36 4.0 GROUND MANEUVERING 39 4.1 General Information 40 4.2 Turning Radii 42 4.3 Clearance Radii 44 4.4 Visibility from Cockpit in Static Position 46 4.5 Runway and Taxiway Turn Paths 47 4.6 Runway Holding Bay 56 5.0 TERMINAL SERVICING 57 5.1 Airplane Servicing Arrangement - Typical Turnaround 59 5.2 Terminal Operations - Turnaround Station 61 5.3 Terminal Operations - En Route Station 64 5.4 Ground Servicing Connections 66 5.5 Engine Start Pneumatic Requirements - Sea Level 70 5.6 Ground Pneumatic Power Requirements - Heating/Cooling 71 5.7 Conditioned Air Flow Requirements 72 5.8 Ground Towing Requirements 73 6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA 75 6.1 Jet Engine Exhaust Velocities and Temperatures 76 6.2 Airport and Community Noise 84 D6-58326-3iv SEPTEMBER 2008
  5. 5. PRELIMINARY TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)SECTION TITLE PAGE 7.0 PAVEMENT DATA 87 7.1 General Information 88 7.2 Landing Gear Footprint 92 7.3 Maximum Pavement Loads 93 7.4 Landing Gear Loading on Pavement 94 7.5 Flexible Pavement Requirements - U.S. Army Corps of 96 Engineers Method (S-77-1) and FAA Design Method 7.6 Flexible Pavement Requirements - LCN Method 98 7.7 Rigid Pavement Requirements - Portland Cement 100 Association Design Method 7.8 Rigid Pavement Requirements - LCN Conversion 102 7.9 Rigid Pavement Requirements - FAA Design Method 105 7.10 ACN/PCN Reporting System: Flexible and Rigid Pavements 107 8.0 FUTURE 747-8 DERIVATIVE AIRPLANES 111 9.0 SCALED DRAWINGS 113 9.1 Scaled Drawings - 747-8, 747-8F 115 D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBBER 2008 v
  6. 6. PRELIMINARY THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D6-58326-3vi SEPTEMBER 2008
  7. 7. PRELIMINARY1.0 SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION 1.1 Scope 1.2 Introduction 1.3 A Brief Description of the 747-8 D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 1
  8. 8. PRELIMINARY1.0 SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION1.1 ScopeThis document provides, in a standardized format, airplane characteristics data for generalairport planning. Since operational practices vary among airlines, specific data should becoordinated with the using airlines prior to facility design. Boeing Commercial Airplanesshould be contacted for any additional information required.Content of the document reflects the results of a coordinated effort by representativesfrom the following organizations:• Aerospace Industries Association• Airports Council International – North America• International Industry Working Group• International Air Transport AssociationThe airport planner may also want to consider the information presented in the"Commercial Aircraft Design Characteristics - Trends and Growth Projections," for longrange planning needs and can be accessed via the following web site:http://www.boeing.com/airportsThe document is updated periodically and represents the coordinated efforts of thefollowing organizations regarding future aircraft growth trends.• International Civil Aviation Organization• International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations• Airports Council International – North America and World Organizations• International Industry Working Group• International Air Transport Association D6-58326-32 SEPTEMBER 2008
  9. 9. PRELIMINARY1.2 IntroductionThis document conforms to NAS 3601. It provides characteristics of the Boeing Model747-8 Freighter airplane for airport planners and operators, airlines, architectural andengineering consultant organizations, and other interested industry agencies. Airplanechanges and available options may alter model characteristics. The data presented hereinwill be mainly the 747-8F at this time. As the data for the 747-8 Intercontinentalbecomes available for publication, it will be added. These data will reflect typicalairplanes in each model category. Data used is generic in scope and not customer-specific.For additional information contact: Boeing Commercial Airplanes P.O. Box 3707 Seattle, Washington 98124-2207 U.S.A. Attention: Manager, Airport Technology Mail Code 20-93 Email: AirportTechnology@boeing.com Fax: 425-237-2665 D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 3
  10. 10. PRELIMINARY1.3 A Brief Description of the 747-8The 747-8 is the latest derivative of the 747 family of airplanes and is being developed inboth Freighter and Passenger versions. The -8 is externally similar to the 747-400 with ahigher gross weight, longer fuselage and increased wingspan. The 747-8 Freighterretains the 747-400F nose cargo door, continuing the capability to easily load outsizedcargo. The 747-8 will use the new high bypass ratio engines which are the quiet,efficient GEnx engines being developed for the 787 aircraft. By combining changes inthe wing, adding the raked wingtips, and using the GEnx engines, the 747-8 will be thefastest flying aircraft at Mach 0.845 for the Freighter and Mach 0.855 for theIntercontinental. The 747-8F will enter into service in 2011.Other characteristics unique to the 747-8 compared to the 747-400 include: Next generation advanced alloys New wing design, including new airfoils and raked wingtips replacing the winglets 787 Next Gen engines, including light weight composite fan case and fan blades, modified to provide current 747 bleed requirements. Improved flight deck while preserving 747-400 operational commonality New interior architecture to enhance passenger experience Improved aerodynamic efficiency and reduced seat-mile cost (Passenger variant) and recuced ton-mile cost (Freighter variant) D6-58326-34 DECEMBER 2010
  11. 11. PRELIMINARY2.0 AIRPLANE DESCRIPTION 2.1 General Characteristics 2.2 General Dimensions 2.3 Ground Clearances 2.4 Interior Arrangements 2.5 Cabin Cross Sections 2.6 Lower Cargo Compartments 2.7 Door Clearances D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 5
  12. 12. PRELIMINARY2.0 AIRPLANE DESCRIPTION2.1 General CharacteristicsMaximum Design Taxi Weight (MTW). Maximum weight for ground maneuver as limited byaircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. (It includes weight of taxi and run-up fuel.)Maximum Design Takeoff Weight (MTOW). Maximum weight for takeoff as limited by aircraftstrength and airworthiness requirements. (This is the maximum weight at start of the takeoff run.)Maximum Design Landing Weight (MLW). Maximum weight for landing as limited by aircraftstrength and airworthiness requirements.Maximum Design Zero Fuel Weight (MZFW). Maximum weight allowed before usable fuel andother specified usable agents must be loaded in defined sections of the aircraft as limited by strengthand airworthiness requirements.Operating Empty Weight (OEW). Weight of structure, powerplant, furnishing systems, unusablefuel and other unusable propulsion agents, and other items of equipment that are considered anintegral part of a particular airplane configuration. Also included are certain standard items,personnel, equipment, and supplies necessary for full operations, excluding usable fuel and payload.Maximum Payload. Maximum design zero fuel weight minus operational empty weight.Maximum Seating Capacity. The maximum number of passengers specifically certificated oranticipated for certification.Maximum Cargo Volume. The maximum space available for cargo.Usable Fuel. Fuel available for aircraft propulsion. D6-58326-36 SEPTEMBER 2008
  13. 13. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERISTICS UNITS GEnx 2B67 ENGINES MAX DESIGN POUNDS 978,000 TAXI WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 443,614 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 975,000 TAKEOFF WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 442,253 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 757,000 LANDING WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 343,370 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 717,000 ZERO FUEL WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 325,226 SPEC OPERATING POUNDS TBD EMPTY WEIGHT KILOGRAMS TBD MAX STRUCTURAL POUNDS 295,200 PAYLOAD KILOGRAMS 133,901 TYPICAL CARGO – MAIN DECK CUBIC FEET 24,462 CONTAINERS CUBIC METERS 693 MAX CARGO - LOWER DECK CUBIC FEET 5,850 CONTAINERS (LD-1) CUBIC METERS 166 MAX CARGO - LOWER DECK CUBIC FEET 520 BULK CARGO CUBIC METERS 14.7 USABLE FUEL CAPACITY U.S. GALLONS 60,211 LITERS 229,980 POUNDS 407,045 KILOGRAMS 184,628 NOTES: 1. SPEC OPERATING EMPTY WEIGHT REFLECTS STANDARD ITEM ALLOWANCES. ACTUAL OEW WILL VARY WITH AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION. CONSULT USING AIRLINE FOR ACTUAL OEW.2.1.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 7
  14. 14. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERISTICS UNITS GEnx 2B67 ENGINES MAX DESIGN POUNDS 978,000 TAXI WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 443,614 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 975,000 TAKEOFF WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 442,253 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 682,000 LANDING WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 309,350 MAX DESIGN POUNDS 642,000 ZERO FUEL WEIGHT KILOGRAMS 291,206 SPEC OPERATING POUNDS TBD EMPTY WEIGHT KILOGRAMS TBD MAX STRUCTURAL POUNDS TBD PAYLOAD KILOGRAMS TBD TYPICAL SEATING CAPACITY UPPER DECK 48 BUSINESS CLASS (INCLUDES UPPER DECK) MAIN DECK 26 FIRST, 89 BUSINESS, 352 ECONOMY MAX CARGO - LOWER DECK CUBIC FEET 6,345 CONTAINERS (LD-1) CUBIC METERS 180 MAX CARGO - LOWER DECK CUBIC FEET 640 BULK CARGO CUBIC METERS 18 USABLE FUEL CAPACITY U.S. GALLONS 64,055 LITERS 242,475 POUNDS 429,159 KILOGRAMS 194,659 NOTES: 1. SPEC OPERATING EMPTY WEIGHT REFLECTS STANDARD ITEM ALLOWANCES. ACTUAL OEW WILL VARY WITH AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION. CONSULT USING AIRLINE FOR ACTUAL OEW.2.1.2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 8 JUNE 2010
  15. 15. PRELIMINARY2.2.1 GENERAL DIMENSIONS MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 OCTOBER 2010 9
  16. 16. PRELIMINARY2.2.2 GENERAL DIMENSIONS MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-310 OCTOBER 2010
  17. 17. PRELIMINARY MINIMUM MAXIMUM FT - IN M FT - IN M A 38 - 8 11.79 40 - 2 12.24 B 15 - 6 4.72 17 – 11 5.46 C 15 - 9 4.80 17 - 9 5.41 D 9-1 2.77 10 - 10 3.30 E 6-9 2.06 8-1 2.46 F 9-1 2.77 10 - 7 3.23 G 9-7 2.92 11 - 4 3.45 H 28 - 8 8.74 30 - 7 9.32 K 61 - 11 18.87 62 - 8 19.1 L 27 - 10 8.48 28 - 8 8.74 M 18 - 7 5.66 20 - 4 6.20 N 5-0 1.52 6-1 1.85 P 2-2 0.66 3-1 0.94 U 16 - 0 4.88 17 - 3 5.26 NOTES: VERTICAL CLEARANCES SHOWN OCCUR DURING MAXIMUM VARIATIONS OF AIRPLANE ATTITUDE. COMBINATIONS OF AIRPLANE LOADING/UNLOADING ACTIVITIES THAT PRODUCE THE GREATEST POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF ATTITUDE WERE USED TO ESTABLISH THE VARIATIONS SHOWN. DURING ROUTINE SERVICING, THE AIRPLANE REMAINS RELATIVELY STABLE; PITCH AND ELEVATION CHANGES OCCUR SLOWLY. AT MAJOR TERMINALS, A GSE TETHERING DEVICE MAY BE USED TO MAINTAIN STABILITY BETWEEN THE MAIN DECK DOOR SILL AND THE LOADING DOCK. CARGO BRIDGE ATTACHMENT FITTINGS LOCATED ON THE NOSE DOOR SILL AT THE FORWARD EDGE OF THE MAIN CARGO DOOR DECK MAY BE USED FOR NOSE DOOR SILL STABILIZATION.2.3.1 GROUND CLEARANCES MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 MAY 2010 11
  18. 18. PRELIMINARY MINIMUM MAXIMUM FT - IN M FT - IN M A 31 - 0 9.45 32 – 3 9.83 B 24 – 10 7.57 25 – 11 7.90 C 15 – 9 4.80 16 – 11 5.16 D 9–1 2.77 10 – 2 3.10 E 7–1 2.16 7 – 11 2.41 F 9–6 2.9 10 – 5 3.18 G 10 – 2 3.11 11 – 2 3.40 H 30 – 6 9.30 32 – 5 9.88 J 16 – 3 4.95 17 – 5 5.31 K 61 - 4 18.70 62 – 10 19.15 L 27 – 4 8.33 28 – 10 8.79 M 18 - 7 5.66 20 - 4 6.20 N 5–0 1.53 6–0 1.83 P 2-2 0.66 3–0 0.91 S 16 – 0 4.88 16 – 10 5.13 T 16 - 3 4.95 17 - 0 5.18 V 16 - 3 4.95 16 - 9 5.11 NOTES: VERTICAL CLEARANCES SHOWN OCCUR DURING MAXIMUM VARIATIONS OF AIRPLANE ATTITUDE. COMBINATIONS OF AIRPLANE LOADING/UNLOADING ACTIVITIES THAT PRODUCE THE GREATEST POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF ATTITUDE WERE USED TO ESTABLISH THE VARIATIONS SHOWN. DURING ROUTINE SERVICING, THE AIRPLANE REMAINS RELATIVELY STABLE; PITCH AND ELEVATION CHANGES OCCUR SLOWLY.2.3.2 GROUND CLEARANCES MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-312 JUNE 2010
  19. 19. PRELIMINARY2.4.1 TYPICAL INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS, TWO CLASS, 581 PASSENGERS MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 13
  20. 20. PRELIMINARY2.4.2 TYPICAL INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS, THREE CLASS, 467 PASSENGERS MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-314 SEPTEMBER 2008
  21. 21. PRELIMINARY Main deck 3 3 3 3 3 (2) 96-in x 125-in x 8-ft contoured pallets, 15.3 m + 17.2 m (540 + 607 ft ) = 32.5 m (1,147 ft ) 3 3 3 3 (5) 96-in x 125-in x 8-ft pallets, 17.4 m (613 ft ) = 86.8 m (3,065 ft ) 3 3 3 3 (27) 96-in x 125-in contoured pallets, 21.2 m (750 ft ) = 573.4 m (20,250 ft ) 3 3Total 692.7 m (24,462 ft ) Main deck (alternate) 3 3 3 3 3 (2) 88-in x 125-in x 8-ft contoured pallets, 14.0 m + 15.7 m (493 + 554 ft ) = 29.6 m (1,047 ft ) 3 3 3 3 (5) 88-in x 125-in x 8-ft pallets, 15.9 m (560 ft ) = 79.3 m (2,800 ft ) 3 3 3 3 (27) 88-in x 125-in contoured pallets, 19.3 m (680 ft ) = 519.9 m (18,360 ft ) 3 3Total 628.8 m (22,207 ft ) 692.7 m32.4.3 TYPICAL INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 15
  22. 22. PRELIMINARY FIRST CLASS SEATS (TYPICAL) FORWARD CABIN BUSINESS CLASS UPPER DECK - 4-ABREAST MAIN DECK FIRST CLASS - 6-ABREAST2.5.1 CABIN CROSS-SECTION MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-316 JUNE 2010
  23. 23. PRELIMINARY DOUBLE SEAT UPPER DECK - 4-ABREAST MAIN DECK - 8-ABREAST2.5.2 CABIN CROSS-SECTION MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 17
  24. 24. PRELIMINARY UPPER DECK - 6-ABREAST MAIN DECK - 10-ABREAST MAIN DECK - 9-ABREAST2.5.3 CABIN CROSS-SECTION MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-318 JUNE 2010
  25. 25. PRELIMINARY STORAGE TYPICAL TRIPLE SEAT STORAGE 3 1/2 - CART GALLEY MODULE GALLEY STAIRS (FORWARD OF STORAGE CABINET) STORAGE SECTION THROUGH STAIRS (VIEW LOOKING FORWARD)2.5.4 CABIN CROSS-SECTION MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 19
  26. 26. PRELIMINARY2.6 LOWER CARGO COMPARTMENTS - CONTAINERS AND BULK CARGO MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-320 SEPTEMBER 2008
  27. 27. PRELIMINARY2.7.1 DOOR CLEARANCES - MAIN ENTRY DOOR LOCATIONS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 21
  28. 28. PRELIMINARY PLAN VIEW SIDE VIEW VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.2 DOOR CLEARANCES - MAIN ENTRY DOORS 1-4 MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-322 JUNE 2010
  29. 29. PRELIMINARY PLAN VIEW VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.3 DOOR CLEARANCES - MAIN ENTRY DOOR 5 MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 23
  30. 30. PRELIMINARY RIGHT SIDE VIEW CONTAINER CARGO DOOR - VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.4 DOOR CLEARANCES – LOWER FORWARD CARGO COMPARTMENT MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 24 SEPTEMBER 2008
  31. 31. PRELIMINARY RIGHT SIDE VIEW CONTAINER CARGO DOOR - VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.5 DOOR CLEARANCES – LOWER AFT CARGO COMPARTMENT MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 25
  32. 32. PRELIMINARY RIGHT SIDE VIEW RIGHT SIDE VIEW VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.6 DOOR CLEARANCES - BULK CARGO COMPARTMENT MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-326 SEPTEMBER 2008
  33. 33. PRELIMINARY LEFT SIDE VIEW VIEW LOOKING FORWARD2.7.7 DOOR CLEARANCES – MAIN DECK CARGO DOOR MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 27
  34. 34. PRELIMINARY ELEVATION VIEW LOOKING AFT2.7.8 DOOR CLEARANCES - NOSE CARGO DOOR MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-328 SEPTEMBER 2008
  35. 35. PRELIMINARY3.0 AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE 3.1 General Information 3.2 Payload/Range for 0.845 Mach Cruise 3.3 F.A.R. Takeoff Runway Length Requirements 3.4 F.A.R. Landing Runway Length Requirements D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 29
  36. 36. PRELIMINARY3.0 AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE3.1 General InformationThe graphs in Section 3.2 provide information on operational empty weight (OEW) and payload, triprange, brake release gross weight, and fuel limits for the GEnx engine. To use these graphs, if thetrip range and zero fuel weight (OEW + payload) are know, the approximate brake release weightcan be found, limited by fuel quantity. Examples of loading conditions under certain OEWs areillustrated in each graph.The graphs in Section 3.3 provide information on F.A.R. takeoff runway length requirements withthe GEnx engines at different pressure altitudes. Maximum takeoff weights shown on the graphs arethe heaviest for the particular airplane models with the corresponding engines. Standard daytemperatures for pressure altitudes shown on the F.A.R. takeoff graphs are given below: PRESSURE ALTITUDE STANDARD DAY TEMP FEET METERS oF oC 0 0 59.0 15.00 2,000 610 51.9 11.04 4,000 1,219 44.7 7.06 6,000 1,829 37.6 3.11 8,000 2,438 30.5 -0.85 10,000 3,048 23.3 -4.81The graphs in Section 3.4 provide information on landing runway length requirements for differentairplane weights and airport altitudes. The maximum landing weights shown are the heaviest for theparticular airplane model. D6-58326-330 DECEMBER 2010
  37. 37. PRELIMINARY3.2.1 PAYLOAD/RANGE FOR 0.845 MACH CRUISE MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 31
  38. 38. PRELIMINARY3.2.2 PAYLOAD/RANGE FOR 0.845 MACH CRUISE MODEL 747-8I D6-58326-3 32 JUNE 2010
  39. 39. PRELIMINARY3.3.1 F.A.R. TAKEOFF RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS - STANDARD DAY MODEL 747-8F AND 747-8I D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 33
  40. 40. PRELIMINARY3.3.2 F.A.R. TAKEOFF RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS - STANDARD DAY + 27°F (STD + 15°C) MODEL 747-8F AND 747-8I D6-58326-3 34 JUNE 2010
  41. 41. PRELIMINARY3.3.3 F.A.R. TAKEOFF RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS - STANDARD DAY + 45°F (STD + 25°C) MODEL 747-8F AND 747-8I D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 35
  42. 42. PRELIMINARY3.3.4 F.A.R. TAKEOFF RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS – STANDARD DAY + 63°F (STD + 35°C) MODEL 747-8F AND 747-8I D6-58326-3 36 JUNE 2010
  43. 43. PRELIMINARY3.4.1 F.A.R. LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS - FLAPS 25 MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 37
  44. 44. PRELIMINARY3.4.2 F.A.R. LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH REQUIREMENTS - FLAPS 30 MODEL 747-8I D6-58326-3 38 JUNE 2010
  45. 45. PRELIMINARY4.0 GROUND MANEUVERING 4.1 General Information 4.2 Turning Radii 4.3 Clearance Radii 4.4 Visibility from Cockpit in Static Position 4.5 Runway and Taxiway Turn Paths 4.6 Runway Holding Bay D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 39
  46. 46. PRELIMINARY4.0 GROUND MANEUVERING 4.1 General Information 4.2 Turning Radii 4.3 Clearance Radii 4.4 Visibility from Cockpit in Static Position 4.5 Runway and Taxiway Turn Paths 4.6 Runway Holding Bay D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 39
  47. 47. PRELIMINARY4.0 GROUND MANEUVERING4.1 General InformationThe 747-8 main landing gear consists of four main struts, each strut with four wheels. Thisgeometric arrangement of the four main gears results in somewhat different ground maneuveringcharacteristics from those experienced with typical landing gear aircraft.Basic factors that influence the geometry of the turn include:1. Nose wheel steering angle2. Engine power settings3. Center of gravity location4. Airplane weight5. Pavement surface conditions6. Amount of differential braking7. Ground speed8. Main landing gear steeringThe steering system of the 747-8 incorporates steering of the main body landing gear in addition tothe nose gear steering. This body gear steering system is hydraulically actuated and is programmedelectrically to provide steering ratios proportionate to the nose gear steering angles. During takeoffand landing, the body gear steering system is centered, mechanically locked, and depressurized.Steering of the main body gear has the following advantages over ground maneuvering without thissteering feature; overall improved maneuverability, including improved nose gear tracking;elimination of the need for differential braking during ground turns, with subsequent reduced brakewear; reduced thrust requirements; lower main gear stress levels; and reduced tire scrubbing. Theturning radii shown in Section 4.2 are derived from a previous test involving a 747-200. The 747-8is expected to follow the same maneuvering characteristics. D6-58326-340 DECEMBER 2010
  48. 48. PRELIMINARY NOSE GEAR ANGLE (DEG) NOSE GEAR/BODY GEAR TURN RATIOS4.1.1 GENERAL INFORMATION – BODY GEAR STEERING SYSTEM MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 41
  49. 49. PRELIMINARY 45° 50° Nose Gear Axle 55° Projection Turn Center (Typical for Steering 60° Angles Shown) 65° 70° R1 R3 R2 R5 R6 R4 NOTES: DATA SHOWN FOR AIRPLANE WITH BODY GEAR STEERING ACTUAL OPERATING TURNING RADII MAY BE GREATER THAN SHOWN CONSULT WITH AIRLINE FOR SPECIFIC OPERATING PROCEDURE DIMENSIONS ROUNDED TO NEAREST FOOT AND 0.1 METERSTEERING R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 ANGLE INNER GEAR OUTER NOSE GEAR WING TIP NOSE TAIL GEAR (DEG) FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M 30 139 42.4 181 55.2 188 57.3 280 85.3 199 60.7 233 71.0 35 111 33.8 153 46.6 164 50.0 252 76.8 177 53.9 210 64.0 40 89 27.1 131 39.9 147 44.8 231 70.4 161 49.1 193 58.8 45 72 21.9 113 34.4 134 40.8 214 65.2 150 45.7 180 54.9 50 57 17.4 98 29.9 124 37.8 200 61.0 141 43.0 170 51.8 55 44 13.4 86 26.2 116 35.4 188 57.3 134 40.8 162 49.4 60 33 10.1 74 22.6 110 33.5 177 53.9 129 39.3 155 47.2 65 22 6.7 64 19.5 105 32.0 168 51.2 125 38.1 149 45.470 (MAX) 13 4.0 55 16.8 101 30.8 159 48.5 123 37.5 144 43.94.2.1 TURNING RADII – NO SLIP ANGLE – WITH BODY GEAR STEERING D6-58326-342 DECEMBER 2010
  50. 50. PRELIMINARY MODEL 747-8, 747-8F 45° 50° Nose Gear Axle 55° Projection Turn Center (Typical for Steering Angles Shown) 60° 65° 70° R1 R3 R2 R5 R6 R4 NOTES: DATA SHOWN FOR AIRPLANE WITH BODY GEAR STEERING INOPERATIVE ACTUAL OPERATING TURNING RADII MAY BE GREATER THAN SHOWN CONSULT WITH AIRLINE FOR SPECIFIC OPERATING PROCEDURE DIMENSIONS ROUNDED TO NEAREST FOOT AND 0.1 METERSTEERING R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 ANGLE INNER GEAR OUTER GEAR NOSE GEAR WING TIP NOSE TAIL (DEG) FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M 30 148 45.1 190 57.9 198 60.4 287 87.5 209 63.7 240 73.2 35 118 36.0 160 48.8 173 52.7 258 78.6 186 56.7 215 65.5 40 95 29.0 137 41.8 155 47.2 236 71.9 169 51.5 196 59.7 45 77 23.5 118 36.0 141 43.0 218 66.4 157 47.9 182 55.5 50 61 18.6 103 31.4 130 39.6 203 61.9 148 45.1 171 52.1 55 47 14.3 89 27.1 122 37.2 190 57.9 141 43.0 162 49.4 60 36 11.0 77 23.5 116 35.4 178 54.3 135 41.1 155 47.2 65 25 7.6 66 20.1 111 33.8 168 51.2 131 39.9 149 45.4 70 (MAX) 15 4.6 57 17.4 107 32.6 159 48.5 128 39.0 143 43.64.2.2 TURNING RADII – NO SLIP ANGLE –BODY GEAR STEERING INOPERATIVE MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 43
  51. 51. PRELIMINARY ail -T R6 Effective Steering Angle ingtip R4 - W ose ar -N R5 Ge e os -N R3 Theoretical Center of Turn for Minimum Turning Radius. Slow Continuous Turn. No Differential Thrust. No Differential Braking.Notes:  6° Tire Slip Angle – Approximate Only For 70° Maximum Turn Angle  Consult Airline For Actual Operating Data. EFFECTIVEAIRPLANE TURNING X Y A R3 R4 R5 R6 MODEL ANGLE (DEG) FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M 747-8F 64 92 28.0 45 13.7 172 52.4 106 32.3 170 51.8 126 38.4 150 45.7 NOTE: DIMENSIONS ARE ROUNDED TO THE NEAREST FOOT AND 0.1 METER. 4.3.1 CLEARANCE RADII – WITH BODY GEAR STEERING MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 44 DECEMBER 2010
  52. 52. PRELIMINARY il Ta - R6 Effective Steering Angle ingtip R4 - W se - No ar R5 Ge e os -N R3 Theoretical Center of Turn for Minimum Turning Radius. Slow Continuous Turn. No Differential Thrust. No Differential Braking.Notes:  Body Gear Steering Inoperative Rarely Occurs. Data Provided As Reference Only  9° Tire Slip Angle – Approximate Only For 60° Turn Angle (Optimum Max Steering Angle)  Consult Airline For Actual Operating Data. EFFECTIVEAIRPLANE TURNING X Y A R3 R4 R5 R6 MODEL ANGLE (DEG) FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M FT M 747-8F 51 98 29.9 79 24.1 228 69.5 129 39.3 200 61.0 146 44.5 169 51.5 NOTE: DIMENSIONS ARE ROUNDED TO THE NEAREST FOOT AND 0.1 METER. 4.3.2 CLEARANCE RADII –BODY GEAR STEERING INOPERATIVE MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 45
  53. 53. PRELIMINARY4.4 VISIBILITY FROM COCKPIT IN STATIC POSITION MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-346 DECEMBER 2010
  54. 54. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet Path of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires4.5.1 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS/FILLET TO GROUP V TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 47
  55. 55. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet Path of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires4.5.2 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS/FILLET TO GROUP VI TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-348 DECEMBER 2010
  56. 56. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet Cockpit Tracks Past Intersecting Taxiway Centerline(Red Line) Path of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires4.5.3 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, JUDGMENTAL OVERSTEER (FAA GROUP V RADIUS/FILLET TO GROUP V TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 49
  57. 57. PRELIMINARYPath of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet4.5.4 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, MORE THAN 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS TO GROUP V TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-350 DECEMBER 2010
  58. 58. PRELIMINARYPath of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet4.5.5 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, MORE THAN 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS TO GROUP VI TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 51
  59. 59. PRELIMINARY Cockpit Tracks Past Intersecting Taxiway Centerline (Red Line)Path of Outside Edge of Wing Gear Tires FAA Lead-in to Fillet4.5.6 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - RUNWAY-TO-TAXIWAY, MORE THAN 90 DEGREES, JUDGMENTAL OVERSTEER (FAA GROUP V RADIUS TO GROUP V TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-352 DECEMBER 2010
  60. 60. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet Outside Edge of Wing Gear Paths4.5.7 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - TAXIWAY -TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS TO GROUP V TAXIWAYS) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 53
  61. 61. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet FAA Lead-in to Fillet Outside Edge of Wing Gear Paths4.5.8 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - TAXIWAY -TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, COCKPIT OVER CENTERLINE (FAA GROUP VI RADIUS TO GROUP VI TAXIWAYS) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-354 DECEMBER 2010
  62. 62. PRELIMINARY FAA Lead-in to Fillet Cockpit Tracks Past Intersecting Taxiway Centerline (Red Line) FAA Lead-in to Fillet Outside Edge of Wing Gear Paths4.5.9 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TURNPATHS - TAXIWAY -TO-TAXIWAY, 90 DEGREES, JUDGMENTAL OVERSTEER (FAA GROUP V RADIUS TO GROUP V TAXIWAY) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 55
  63. 63. PRELIMINARY4.6 RUNWAY HOLDING BAY MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-356 DECEMBER 2010
  64. 64. PRELIMINARY5.0 TERMINAL SERVICING 5.1 Airplane Servicing Arrangement - Typical Turnaround 5.2 Terminal Operations - Turnaround Station 5.3 Terminal Operations - En Route Station 5.4 Ground Servicing Connections 5.5 Engine Starting Pneumatic Requirements 5.6 Ground Pneumatic Power Requirements 5.7 Conditioned Air Requirements 5.8 Ground Towing Requirements D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 57
  65. 65. PRELIMINARY5.0 TERMINAL SERVICINGDuring turnaround at the terminal, certain services must be performed on the aircraft, usually within a giventime, to meet flight schedules. This section shows service vehicle arrangements, schedules, locations of servicepoints, and typical service requirements. The data presented in this section reflect ideal conditions for a singleairplane. Service requirements may vary according to airplane condition and airline procedure.Section 5.1 shows typical arrangements of ground support equipment during turnaround. As noted, if theauxiliary power unit (APU) is used, the electrical, air start, and air-conditioning service vehicles would not berequired. Passenger loading bridges or portable passenger stairs could be used to load or unload passengers.Sections 5.2 and 5.3 show typical service times at the terminal. These charts give typical schedules forperforming service on the airplane within a given time. Service times could be rearranged to suit availability ofpersonnel, airplane configuration, and degree of service required.Section 5.4 shows the locations of ground service connections in graphic and in tabular forms. Typicalcapacities and service requirements are shown in the tables. Services with requirements that vary withconditions are described in subsequent sections.Section 5.5 shows typical sea level air pressure and flow requirements for starting different engines. The curvesare based on an engine start time of 90 seconds.Section 5.6 shows pneumatic requirements for heating and cooling (air conditioning) using high pressure air torun the air cycle machine. The curves show airflow requirements to heat or cool the airplane within a given timeand ambient conditions. Maximum allowable pressure and temperature for air cycle machine operation are 60 opsia and 450 F, respectively.Section 5.7 shows pneumatic requirements for heating and cooling the airplane, using low pressure conditionedair. This conditioned air is supplied through an 8-in ground air connection (GAC) directly to the passengercabin, bypassing the air cycle machines.Section 5.8 shows ground towing requirements for various ground surface conditions. D6-58326-358 SEPTEMBER 2008
  66. 66. PRELIMINARY5.1.1 AIRPLANE SERVICING ARRANGEMENT - TYPICAL TURNAROUND MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 SEPTEMBER 2008 59
  67. 67. PRELIMINARY5.1.2 AIRPLANE SERVICING ARRANGEMENT - TYPICAL TURNAROUND MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-360 SEPTEMBER 2008
  68. 68. PRELIMINARY5.2.1 TERMINAL OPERATIONS - TURNAROUND STATION – ALL PASSENGER MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 61
  69. 69. PRELIMINARY5.2.2 TERMINAL OPERATIONS - TURNAROUND STATION – PASSENGER MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-362 SEPTEMBER 2008
  70. 70. PRELIMINARY5.2.3 TERMINAL OPERATIONS - TURNAROUND STATION – ALL CARGO, NOSE DOOR LOADING MODEL 747-8F DECEMBER 2010 63
  71. 71. PRELIMINARY5.2.4 TERMINAL OPERATIONS – TURNAROUND STATION – ALL CARGO, SIDE DOOR LOADING MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-364 DECEMBER 2010
  72. 72. PRELIMINARY5.2.5 TERMINAL OPERATIONS – TURNAROUND STATION – ALL CARGO, NOSE AND SIDE DOOR LOADING MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 65
  73. 73. PRELIMINARY5.3.1 TERMINAL OPERATIONS - EN ROUTE STATION - ALL PASSENGER MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-366 DECEMBER 2010
  74. 74. PRELIMINARY5.4.1 GROUND SERVICE CONNECTIONS MODEL 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 67
  75. 75. PRELIMINARY5.4.2 GROUND SERVICE CONNECTIONS MODEL 747-8 D6-58326-368 DECEMBER 2010
  76. 76. PRELIMINARY DISTANCE AFT DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE OF CENTERLINE HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND SYSTEM NOSE LH SIDE RH SIDE MINIMUM MAXIMUM FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN MELECTRICAL TWO CO-LOCATED CONNECTORS - 90 26 - 9 8.15 - - 3-4 1.02 8-1 2.46 9-3 2.82 KVA , 200/115 V AC 400 HZ, 3-PHASE EA.FUEL OUTBOARD OVER- 118 - 9 35.94 47 – 8 14.53 47 – 8 14.53 15 – 4 4.67 16 – 0 4.88 WING PRESSURE CONNECTORS (2 ON EACH WING) INBOARD OVER WING 119 - 9 36.25 46 - 8 14.22 46 - 8 14.22 15 – 3 4.64 15 - 10 4.83 PRESSURE CONNECTORS (2 ON EACH WING) MAX FUELING RATE 500 US GPM (1890 LPM) PER NOZZLE OR 2000 US GPM (7570 LPM) TOTAL MAX FUEL PRESSURE 50 PSIG (3.52 KG/CM2) WING FUEL VENT 166 - 4 50.7 92 - 7 28.22 92 - 7 28.22 16 - 10 5.12 19 - 3 5.86 TAIL FUEL VENT TANK CAPACITIES:5.4.3 GROUND SERVICE CONNECTIONS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 69
  77. 77. PRELIMINARY DISTANCE AFT DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND OF CENTERLINE SYSTEM NOSE LH SIDE RH SIDE MINIMUM MAXIMUM FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN M FT-IN MLAVATORYONE SERVICE PANEL THREE SERVICE 178 - 4 54.36 0 0 0 0 8-8 2.64 9-8 2.95 CONNECTIONS DRAIN: ONE 4-IN (10.2 CM) FLUSH: TWO 1-IN (2.5 CM) FLUSH REQUIREMENTS FLOW: 10 GPM (38 LPM) PRESSURE: 30 PSIG (2.11 KG/CM2) TOTAL CAPACITY, 4 TANKS 300 US GAL (1140 L)PNEUMATIC TWO 3-IN(7.6CM) HIGH- 109 -10 33.48 2-0 0.61 - - 6-7 2.01 7-5 2.27 PRESSURE PORTS 109 -10 33.48 3-0 0.91 - - 6-7 2.01 7-5 2.27 TWO 8-IN (0.20 M) 102 - 4 31.19 - - 1 - 10 0.55 7-4 2.24 8-3 2.52 GROUND CONDITIONED 106 - 8 32.51 7 - 11 2.40 - - 7-0 2.13 7 - 11 2.40 AIR CONNECTIONSPOTABLE WATERONE SERVICECONNECTION 87 - 8 26.72 - - 1-4 0.5 7-4 2.24 8-1 2.46 CONNECTOR SIZE 3/4 IN (1.95 CM)TANK CAPACITY - 330 U.S GAL (1,250 L)FILL PRESSURE - 30 PSIG (2.11 KG/SQ CM)FILL RATE - 30 GPM (113.5 LPM)DRAIN SIZE 1 IN (2.54 CM) 145 - 6 44.35 2 - 10 0.87 - - 7-3 2.21 8-0 2.44SECOND CONNECTION (ON 747-400ER ONLY)HYDRAULICONE SERVICE PANEL4 RESERVOIRS 127 - 4 38.81 0 - 10 0.25 - - 7-0 2.13 7-0 2.13ENG 1 - 9.5 U.S. GAL (35.9 L)ENG 2 - 5,5 U.S. GAL (20.8 L)ENG 3 - 5.5 U.S. GAL (20.8 L)ENG 4 - 9.5 U.S. GAL (35.9 L)150 PSI (10.6 KG/CM2) MAXOXYGEN ONE SERVICE CONNECTION - 39 - 2 11.94 - - 8-4 2.54 13 - 7 4.14 14 - 8 4.47 SIZE 3/16 IN (0.48 CM) 1850 PSIG (130 KG/CM2) MAX5.4.4 GROUND SERVICING CONNECTIONS D6-58326-370 DECEMBER 2010
  78. 78. PRELIMINARY MODEL 747-8, 747-8F REQUIRED GROUND CART PRESSURE KG PER SQ. CM PSIA REQUIRED GROUND CART FLOW KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE DEGREES FAHRENHEIT DEGREES CELSIUS AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE5.5.1 ENGINE START PNEUMATIC REQUIREMENTS - SEA LEVEL MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 71
  79. 79. PRELIMINARY REQUIRED GROUND CART PRESSURE KG PER SQ. CM PSIA REQUIRED GROUND CART FLOW KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE DEGREES FAHRENHEIT DEGREES CELSIUS AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE5.5.2 ENGINE START PNEUMATIC REQUIREMENTS – 5,000 FT MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-372 DECEMBER 2010
  80. 80. PRELIMINARY REQUIRED GROUND CART PRESSURE KG PER SQ. CM PSIA REQUIRED GROUND CART FLOW KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE DEGREES FAHRENHEIT DEGREES CELSIUS AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE5.5.3 ENGINE START PNEUMATIC REQUIREMENTS – 10,000 FT MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 73
  81. 81. PRELIMINARY REQUIRED GROUND CART PRESSURE KG PER SQ. CM PSIA REQUIRED GROUND CART FLOW KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE DEGREES FAHRENHEIT DEGREES CELSIUS AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE5.5.4 ENGINE START PNEUMATIC REQUIREMENTS – 14,000 FT MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-374 DECEMBER 2010
  82. 82. PRELIMINARY KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE CABIN AIR FLOW TIME IN MINUTES FOR CABIN TO REACH 75°F (24°C) KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE POUNDS PER MINUTE CABIN AIR FLOW TIME IN MINUTES FOR CABIN TO REACH 80°F (26.7°C)5.6.1 GROUND PNEUMATIC POWER REQUIREMENTS - HEATING/COOLING MODEL 747-8, 747-8F (PRELIMINARY DATA AND WILL BE UPDATED AT A LATER DATE) D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 75
  83. 83. KILOGRAMS PER MINUTE AIRFLOW TO AIRPLANE PRELIMINARY POUNDS PER MINUTE DEGREES FAHRENHEIT DEGREES CELSIUS AIR TEMPERATURE AT GROUND CONNECTION5.7.1 CONDITIONED AIR FLOW REQUIREMENTS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F (PRELIMINARY DATA AND WILL BE UPDATED AT A LATER DATE) D6-58326-376 DECEMBER 2010
  84. 84. PRELIMINARY5.8.1 GROUND TOWING REQUIREMENTS - ENGLISH UNITS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 DECEMBER 2010 77
  85. 85. PRELIMINARY5.8.2 GROUND TOWING REQUIREMENTS - METRIC UNITS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-378 DECEMBER 2010
  86. 86. PRELIMINARY6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA 6.1 Jet Engine Exhaust Velocities and Temperatures 6.2 Airport and Community Noise D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 79
  87. 87. PRELIMINARY6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA6.1 Jet Engine Exhaust Velocities and TemperaturesThis section shows exhaust velocity and temperature contours aft of the 747-8 Intercontinental and747-8 Freighter airplanes due to the use of the same engine and same weight for both airplanes. Thecontours were calculated from a standard computer analysis using three-dimensional viscous flowequations with mixing of primary, fan, and free-stream flow. The presence of the ground plane isincluded in the calculations as well as engine tilt and toe-in. Mixing of flows from the engines isalso calculated. The analysis does not include thermal buoyancy effects which tend to elevate the jetwake above the ground plane. The buoyancy effects are considered to be small relative to theexhaust velocity and therefore are not included.The graphs show jet wake velocity and temperature contours for a representative engine. The resultsare valid for sea level, static, standard day conditions. The effect of wind on jet wakes was notincluded. There is evidence to show that a downwind or an upwind component does not simply addor subtract from the jet wake velocity, but rather carries the whole envelope in the direction of thewind. Crosswinds may carry the jet wake contour far to the side at large distances behind theairplane. D6-58326-380 JUNE 2010
  88. 88. 6.1.1 FEET METERS 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND GROUND PLANE ELEVATION FEET METERS DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE D6-58326-3 PRELIMINARY JET ENGINE EXHAUST VELOCITY CONTOURS – IDLE THRUST 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE CENTERLINE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE PLANJUNE 201081
  89. 89. 82 6.1.2JUNE 2010 PAVEMENT FEET METERS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND GROUND PLANE ELEVATION FEET METERS D6-58326-3 DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE PRELIMINARY 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) 35 MPH (56 KM/HR) 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) JET ENGINE EXHAUST VELOCITY CONTOURS – BREAKAWAY THRUST – LEVEL DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE CENTERLINE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE PLAN
  90. 90. PRELIMINARY AIRPLANE CENTERLINE GROUND PLANE DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE METERS FEET ELEVATION PLAN METERS METERS FEET FEET HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND AIRPLANE CENTERLINE DISTANCE FROM6.1.3 JET ENGINE EXHAUST VELOCITY CONTOURS – BREAKAWAY THRUST - 1% PAVEMENT UPSLOPE MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 JUNE 2010 83
  91. 91. 84 6.1.4 FEET METERSJUNE 2010 100 MPH (161 KM/HR) 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) 35 MPH TO ~535 FT (56 KM/HR TO ~163 M) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND GROUND PLANE ELEVATION 1.5% PAVEMENT UPSLOPE FEET METERS DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE D6-58326-3 100 MPH (161 KM/HR) 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) 50 MPH (80 KM/HR) PRELIMINARY 35 MPH TO ~535 FT (56 KM/HR TO ~163 M) JET ENGINE EXHAUST VELOCITY CONTOURS - BREAKAWAY THRUST - DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE CENTERLINE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE PLAN
  92. 92. 6.1.5 100 MPH TO ~505 FT FEET METERS (161 KM/HR TO ~154 M) 35 MPH TO ~2052 FT 50 MPH TO ~1426 FT (56 KM/HR TO ~625 M) 75 MPH TO ~840 FT (80 KM/HR TO ~435 M) (121 KM/HR TO ~256 M) MODEL 747-8, 747-8F 150 MPH (241 KM/HR) HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND GROUND PLANE ELEVATION FEET METERS DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE D6-58326-3 75 MPH TO ~840 FT (121 KM/HR TO ~256 M) 50 MPH TO ~1426 FT (80 KM/HR TO ~435 M) 35 MPH TO ~2052 FT PRELIMINARY (56 KM/HR TO ~625 M) JET ENGINE EXHAUST VELOCITY CONTOURS - TAKEOFF THRUST 150 MPH (241 KM/HR) 100 MPH TO ~505 FT (161 KM/HR TO ~154 M) DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE CENTERLINE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE PLANJUNE 201085
  93. 93. PRELIMINARY GROUND PLANE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE METERS FEET ELEVATION PLAN METERS METERS FEET FEET HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND AIRPLANE CENTERLINE DISTANCE FROM6.1.6 JET ENGINE EXHAUST TEMPERATURE CONTOURS – IDLE AND BREAKAWAY MODEL 747-8, 747-8F D6-58326-3 86 JUNE 2010
  94. 94. 6.1.7 FEET METERS MODEL 747-8, 747-8F 100° F (38° C) HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND GROUND PLANE ELEVATION FEET METERS D6-58326-3 DISTANCE FROM AFT END OF AIRPLANE PRELIMINARY 100° F (38° C) JET ENGINE EXHAUST TEMPERATURE CONTOURS - TAKEOFF THRUSTJULY 2010 DISTANCE FROM AIRPLANE CENTERLINE AIRPLANE CENTERLINE PLAN87
  95. 95. PRELIMINARY6.2 Airport and Community NoiseAirport noise is of major concern to the airport and community planner. The airport is a majorelement in the communitys transportation system and, as such, is vital to its growth. However, theairport must also be a good neighbor, and this can be accomplished only with proper planning. Sinceaircraft noise extends beyond the boundaries of the airport, it is vital to consider the impact onsurrounding communities. Many means have been devised to provide the planner with a tool toestimate the impact of airport operations. Too often they oversimplify noise to the point where theresults become erroneous. Noise is not a simple subject; therefore, there are no simple answers.The cumulative noise contour is an effective tool. However, care must be exercised to ensure thatthe contours, used correctly, estimate the noise resulting from aircraft operations conducted at anairport.The size and shape of the single-event contours, which are inputs into the cumulative noise contours,are dependent upon numerous factors. They include the following:1. Operational Factors (a) Aircraft Weight-Aircraft weight is dependent on distance to be traveled, en route winds, payload, and anticipated aircraft delay upon reaching the destination. (b) Engine Power Settings-The rates of ascent and descent and the noise levels emitted at the source are influenced by the power setting used. (c) Airport Altitude-Higher airport altitude will affect engine performance and thus can influence noise.2. Atmospheric Conditions-Sound Propagation (a) Wind-With stronger headwinds, the aircraft can take off and climb more rapidly relative to the ground. Also, winds can influence the distribution of noise in surrounding communities. (b) Temperature and Relative Humidity-The absorption of noise in the atmosphere along the transmission path between the aircraft and the ground observer varies with both temperature and relative humidity. D6-58326-388 JUNE 2010
  96. 96. PRELIMINARY3. Surface Condition-Shielding, Extra Ground Attenuation (EGA) (a) Terrain-If the ground slopes down after takeoff or up before landing, noise will be reduced since the aircraft will be at a higher altitude above ground. Additionally, hills, shrubs, trees, and large buildings can act as sound buffers.All these factors can alter the shape and size of the contours appreciable. To demonstrate the effectof some of these factors, estimated noise level contours for two different operating conditions areshown below. These contours reflect a given noise level upon a ground level plane at runwayelevation.Condition 1Landing Takeoff Maximum Structural Landing Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight Weight 10-knot Headwind Zero Wind 3o Approach 84 oF 84 oF Humidity 15% Humidity 15%Condition 2Landing: Takeoff: 85% of Maximum Structural 80% of Maximum Gross Takeoff Landing Weight Weight 10-knot Headwind 10-knot Headwind 3o Approach 59 oF 59 oF Humidity 70% Humidity 70% D6-58326-3 JULY 2010 89
  97. 97. PRELIMINARYAs indicated from these data, the contour size varies substantially with operating and atmosphericconditions. Most aircraft operations are, of course, conducted at less than maximum gross weightsbecause average flight distances are much shorter than maximum aircraft range capability andaverage load factors are less than 100%. Therefore, in developing cumulative contours for planningpurposes, it is recommended that the airlines serving a particular city be contacted to provideoperational information.In addition, there are no universally accepted methods for developing aircraft noise contours or forrelating the acceptability of specific zones to specific land uses. It is therefore expected that noisecontour data for particular aircraft and the impact assessment methodology will be changing. Toensure that the best currently available information of this type is used in any planning study, it isrecommended that it be obtained directly from the Office of Environmental Quality in the FederalAviation Administration in Washington, D.C.It should be noted that the contours shown herein are only for illustrating the impact of operating andatmospheric conditions and do not represent the single-event contour of the family of aircraftdescribed in this document. It is expected that the cumulative contours will be developed as requiredby planners using the data and methodology applicable to their specific study. D6-58326-390 JUNE 2010
  98. 98. PRELIMINARY7.0 PAVEMENT DATA 7.1 General Information 7.2 Landing Gear Footprint 7.3 Maximum Pavement Loads 7.4 Landing Gear Loading on Pavement 7.5 Flexible Pavement Requirements - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Method S-77-1 7.6 Flexible Pavement Requirements - LCN Conversion 7.7 Rigid Pavement Requirements - Portland Cement Association Design Method 7.8 Rigid Pavement Requirements - LCN Conversion 7.9 Rigid Pavement Requirements - FAA Design Method 7.10 ACN/PCN Reporting System - Flexible and Rigid Pavements D6-58326-3 JULY 2010 91

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