The most important battles in which austria hungary was involved and the most important weapons used by austria hungary
Siir Tecirlioglu 11A 3 October 2010 The Most Important Battles in which Austria Hungary was Involved and the Most Important Weapons Used By Austria Hungary Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy, was one of the first nations to enter the First World War in 1914. Thesecret Serbian organization, Black Hand, killed the Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914.Therefore, Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia who did not accept the terms of the ultimatum. As a result, Austria-Hungary, who had German support, declared war on Serbia. There have been many wars between Austria-Hungaryand Russia, Serbia, and Italy. I think, the two most important battles, in which Austria-Hungary was involved, are theBattles of Isonzo, a series of 12 battles, and the Battle of the Piave River. The reason of these two battles being veryinteresting is their structure, their relations to geography, their relations to each other and their outcomes in means ofimpacting the Austria-Hungarian prospects in the war. These battles, of course, involved great use of weapons—mostof them were invented during the war. In my opinion, the two most interesting weapons are Steyr M1912 and SteyrMannlicher M1895, because they were widely used in Austria-Hungary in all fronts during World War I. The Battles of Isonzo (June 1915—November 1917) was a series of 12 battles fought along the 60-mile longriver, called the Isonzo river, and in between the high mountains which created notable geographical difficulties toboth the Italians and the Austrians.1 It is a matter of debate how many battles there were. This is because somehistorians named the battles differently—such as the 12th battle which is also called the Battle of Caporetto. In myopinion, there were 12 battles (not 10 or 11 as some historians think) because all of them were fought in the samearea and anyone that knows a bit about the battles can say that the 12th battle put an end to it. The 10th or the 11thbattles couldn’t conclude the series because their results were not decisive victories to either one of the sides. Out ofall the 12 battles, I think, the two most significant battles were the 6th Battle of Isonzo (1916) and the 12th Battle ofIsonzo (1917). The alternative name for the 6th Battle of Isonzo is the Battle of Gorizia because this is the only battlein the whole series where Italy succeeded to capture the city of Gorizia, which had been their main aim throughoutthe war. How Italy gained this land all of sudden is very ironic. The two nations were fighting at the Trentino1 I think, most of the failures and the casualties were results of the geographical difficulties. The fight between Austria-Hungaryand Italy had to happen at that point because it was the only passage from Northern Italy to Central Europe. There was a fewkilometers long widening in the north of the town of Gorizia which opened a narrow corridor.
Offensive (Battle of Asiago) which meant that most of their soldier were there. Therefore, the Isonzo front wasweak. The Italian commander took this advantage and got his men to the Isonzo front in few hours with the use ofthe railway. Unfortunately, Austria-Hungary didn’t have such an advantage (i.e. railway), so the Austrian defensewas weak. I wouldn’t see this Italian victory of capturing Gorizia as a real fight and success because their power wasnot equalivant to Austria-Hungary’s power—22 divisons vs 9 divisions. There is another irony in this victorybecause Italians declared war on Germany . Germany would be marking the end of the Isonzo Battles with a greatvictory over Italy in the 12th Battle. In the 12th Battle of Isonzo (alternatively called the Caporetto Battle), theAustrian army finally got the German support. The battle took place in 1917, which is when Russia quit the war. Thismeant that Austria-Hungary could turn its attention to Italy. The tactics and weaponry used in this battle were mostlyGerman ideas. So, I think this is more of a German victory than an Austria-Hungarian victory. The Central Powerssucceeded to push back the Italians 25 kilometers starting from the first day of the battle, and at the end of the battle,they had advanced about 100 kilometers. kilometers starting from the first day of the battle, and at the end of thebattle, they had advanced about 100 kilometers. The most significant result of the Isonzo Battles for Austria-Hungary was where Italy was pushed back to, because this location is where another important battle took place. Iwouldn’t count the result as an end to the conflict but rather as a climax in the Battles of the Isonzo and the Battle ofthe Piave River. At this point, both Italy and Austria-Hugngary are very weak because of domestic issues, limitedresources, weapons and men. Therefore,the two most important questions are, “who will win the Battle of the PiaveRiver and will the defeated nation collapse?”So far, both sides had victories: Italy won the 6th battle and Austria-Hungary won the 12th battle—the other Battles of Isonzo did not quiet have decisive victors. In the Battle of the Piave River, for the first time in the entire war, the Italians got support from the French and theBritish. On the other side, Austria-Hungary had an advantage as well because the German support was increased andthe soldiers that used to fight in the Russian front were arriving to the Italian Front. Unfortunately, since the day Italywas pushed back to the Piave River, they were determined to defeat Austria-Hungary and Germany. “Tutti eroi! O ilPiave o tutti accoppati” (“Everyone a hero! Either (we reach) the Piave, or let all of us get killed.”).2 Therefore,General Diaz of the Italian army succeeded in finding out exactly when the Germans and Austrians would attackthem. Half an hour before the Austrian attack time, Italy began attacking them . This caused heavy casualties to theCentral Powers. I don’t think the Central Powers were aware of what exactly was happening when the Italians began2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Piave_River
firing them. The Austrians and Germans were unprepared and were in shock. So, I would think that there would beno way they could defend their trenches. Although, they still counter-attacked the Italians and surprisingly they evengained ground against them. This land was theirs for a very short amount of time because the they were driven back.The number of casualties kept on increasing. The battle was over with a decisive Italian victory on 23 June. Withthis victory, the Allies were pressuring Diaz to continue these battles and tactics against Austria-Hungary andeventually destroy the Austrian Empire. Even though the Italian army rejected applying this tactic,3Austria-Hungarywas under the risk of collapsing. Therefore, the conclusion of the Battles of the Isonzo, and the Battle of the Piavewas the end of the effective fighting of the Austrian army but also the beginning of the collapse of the DualMonarchy itself. Without a doubt, the weapons played the biggest role in the battles. In my opinion, the two most significantweapons used and invented by Austria-Hungary were Steyr M1912 and Steyr Mannlicher M1895 because they wereone of the most used weapons in Austria-Hungary. Steyr M1912 is an automatic handgun of 1.2 kilograms of weight.It is 215 mm long. The designer of it is Karel Krenka. During World War I, it was widely used. I think, this isbecause it was designed to be a military weapon. The fact that there were 300,000 of it built only during World War Iproves that it was widely used. The reason Austria-Hungary chose Steyr M1912 to use during the war is because ofits reliability. It was one of the most accurate handguns at the time of the First World War. I think, it affected thebattles because weaponry was very new in the beginning of the 1900s. Therefore, it was hard to find weapons thatwere accurate. In trench warfare, accuracy was the key to success because the fighting is very close. Thus, forexample, if the soldier cannot shoot an enemy soldier that is running towards him, then this enemy has a chance ofkilling him—short amount of time for defense. The other most famous weapon was Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 whichis a bolt-action rifle. Bolt-action rifles are manually operated and a rotating bolt locks it. It was one of the most builtweapons. There were 3 million of it built only in World War I. It weighed 3.8 kilograms. It was 1272 mm long. Thedesigner of it was Ferdinand Ritter Von Mannlicher. This weapon was famous because of its high accuracy. Themain battle rifle of Austria-Hungary was Steyr Mannlicher M1895. The most important reason of why Austria-Hungary preferred using this weapon is the fact that it was really quick to load it because of its Mannlicher en blockclip. The en block clip was “automatically ejected through the opening at the bottom of the magazine as the last3 Italian army rejected the tactic because, Diaz knew that the tactic wouldn’t work when the whole Italian army was scattered—this was a result of the Battle of the Piave
round was chambered.”4 I think this is why it was very famous in Austria Hungary during World War I where everyaction had to be quick. In conclusion, the artillery used in World War I was the new technology of the century. Every nation was creatingits own weapons. The aim was to create the best one, which meant building the strongest, fastest, and most accurate.Out of all the weapons created by Austria-Hungary, I think, Steyr M1912 and Steyr Mannlicher M1895 were one ofthe best inventions. They were widely used in all of the battles involving Austria-Hungary. Perhaps, the Austriansoldiers of the First World War are thanking these weapons. Since these weapons were commonly used in Austrianbattles, most probably, they were used in the two most significant battles of Austria-Hungary—the Battles of Isonzoand the Battle of the Piave River. For Austria-Hungary (who was one of the starters of First World War), it wouldn’tbe right to say that these battles had positive outcomes. This is because after the Battle of the Piave River, the DualMonarchy was near collapse.4 http://world.guns.ru/rifle/rfl18-e.htm
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