PACE Team 1 PAMD Presentation July 2013

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Students from Hongik University, Inha University, Northwestern University and Tuskegee University collaborated on this Personal Assisted Mobility Device project as part of PACE (www.pacepartners.org). They presented their project at the PACE Annual Forum in July 2013.

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PACE Team 1 PAMD Presentation July 2013

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Team structure / Collaboration process Design concept / User scenario / Positioning map / Folding system / Modular structure / Docking system / Customizing / Mock-up process Project management / Target market Business plan / Marketing strategy / Carbon footprint / Plant safety Collaboration / Overall / Powertrain / Stability / Frame / Driving / Module / Vehicle Technical Specification Contents 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 01 Team structure 4
  5. 5. 01 Team structure 5
  6. 6. 01 Team structure 6
  7. 7. 01 Team structure 7
  8. 8. 01 Team structure 8
  9. 9. 01 Team structure 9
  10. 10. 01 Team structure 10
  11. 11. 01 Team structure 11
  12. 12. 02 Process(January 2013~) 12
  13. 13. 02 Process (January 2013~) 13
  14. 14. 02 Process (January 2013~) 14
  15. 15. 02 Process (January 2013~) 15
  16. 16. 02 Process (January 2013~) 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 02 Process (January 2013~) 18
  19. 19. 02 Process (January 2013~) 19
  20. 20. 02 Process (January 2013~) 20
  21. 21. 02 Process (January 2013~) 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 01 Design concept 23
  24. 24. 01 Design concept 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 01 Design concept 26
  27. 27. 01 Design concept 27
  28. 28. 01 Design concept 28
  29. 29. 01 Design concept 29
  30. 30. 02 User scenario 30
  31. 31. 02 User scenario 31
  32. 32. 02 User scenario 32
  33. 33. 02 User scenario 33
  34. 34. 01 Design concept 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Price Weight 03 Positioning map & Package 36
  37. 37. Price Weight 03 Positioning map & Package 37
  38. 38. 03 Positioning map & Package 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 04 Folding system 40
  41. 41. 04 Folding system 41
  42. 42. 05 Modular structure 42
  43. 43. 05 Modular structure 43
  44. 44. 06 Customizing 44
  45. 45. 06 Customizing 45
  46. 46. 06 Customizing 46
  47. 47. handle 06 Customizing 47
  48. 48. 06 Customizing 48
  49. 49. 06 Customizing 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. 07 Docking system / Smart application 51
  52. 52. 07 07 Docking system / Smart application 52
  53. 53. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 53
  54. 54. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 54
  55. 55. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 55
  56. 56. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 56
  57. 57. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 57
  58. 58. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 58
  59. 59. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 59
  60. 60. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 60
  61. 61. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 61
  62. 62. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 62
  63. 63. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 63
  64. 64. 07 Docking system / Smart application07 Docking system / Smart application 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. 08 Mock-up process 66
  67. 67. 08 Mock-up process 67
  68. 68. 08 Mock-up process 68
  69. 69. 08 Mock-up process 69
  70. 70. 08 Mock-up process 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 01 Project management 72
  73. 73. 02 Target market 73
  74. 74. 02 Target market 74
  75. 75. 02 Target market 75
  76. 76. 02 Target market 76
  77. 77. 02 Target market 77
  78. 78. 02 Target market 78
  79. 79. 02 Target market 79
  80. 80. 02 Target market 80
  81. 81. 02 Target market 81
  82. 82. 02 Target market 82
  83. 83. 02 Target market 83
  84. 84. 02 Target market 84
  85. 85. 02 Target market 85
  86. 86. 02 Target market 86
  87. 87. 87
  88. 88. Driving Brake Suspension Powertrain Motor Battery Frame Ergonomics Material selection Structure design Folding mechanism 01 Overall Stability Pitching direction Roll direction 88
  89. 89. 02 Powertrain 36 V & 300 W in front wheel Weight 3 kg Fork size 14 cm Wheel diameter 30 cm Powertrain BLDC Hub motor 89
  90. 90. Traction force & Total running resistance Slope (deg) Power Velocity (km/h) Tractionforce/Totalrunningresistance(kgf) Motor power : 300 W Target Maximum speed : 10 km/h at 10% (6˚) uphill 02 Powertrain - Motor Weight of STIGO: 12 kgf Weight of user : 75 kgf Air density : 1.205 kg/m^3 Frontal area : 1.1 m^2 Drag coefficient : 0.7 Rolling resistance coefficient : 0.01 90
  91. 91. Weight of STIGO: 12 kgf Weight of user : 75 kgf Viscosity of the air : 1.86*10^-6 kg/m-s Driveway slope : 6 degrees Driving speed : 10 km/h 300 W is enough 02 Powertrain - Motor Verification by simulation 91
  92. 92. Type : BLDC hub motor Power : 300 W Voltage : 36 V Torque : 14 N-m Maximum Speed : 280 RPM Weight : 3 kg Fork size : 14 cm 14 cm 30 cm 14.8 cm 02 Powertrain - Motor Specifications Location 92
  93. 93. Powertrain Powertrain – Battery pack02 Powertrain Battery Pack Li-ion Battery 36 V 5000 mAh / 180 Wh 22.8 x 12 x 3.8 (cm) 93
  94. 94. Supposing 75 % 25 %Walking time Time of using Public transportation Average commuting Time (OECD) 35 min. Target hour: 1 hour usage available (at 15 km/h) 02 Powertrain – Battery Pack Target x Use STIGO (25%) 0.25 Round trip 2x x Safety factor 3 = 53 min. 94
  95. 95. 1.7 kg 228 mm 120mm 38mm Type : Li-ion Battery pack Capacity : 180 Wh # of cell : 40 Type : LiFePO4 Voltage : 3.2 V Capacity : 1400 mAH Mass : 40 g Battery Cell 02 Powertrain – Battery Pack Specification Location 95
  96. 96. Stability 03 Stability Stability in Roll direction Depends on driver’s position Consideration about changing footrest position Stability in Pitching direction Depends on distance between 2 rear wheels Consideration about adopting tilting system 96
  97. 97. : Footrest positioned on rear wheel axis Total weight : 87 kgf Driveway slope : 6 deg. Torque of Motor: 32.5 N-m Friction coefficient : stat. 0.9 / kin. 0.8 Footrest position ↑Graph of STIGO’s pitching angle Stability test of baseline model 03 Stability – Pitching direction 97
  98. 98. Total weight : 87 kgf Driveway slope : 6 deg. Torque of Motor: 32.5 N-m Friction coefficient : stat. 0.9 / kin. 0.8 ↑Graph of STIGO’s pitching angle Footrest position 03 Stability – Pitching direction Stability test of improved Model : Footrest was moved to forward 200 mm from rear wheel axis 98
  99. 99. A Centrifugal force Rollover Rollover criteria : (total mass) : 90 kg (user height) : 1.8 m (diameter of back wheel) : 7 in. (distance between 2 wheels) : 15 cm (acceleration of gravity) : 9.8 m/s2 (curve radius) : Variable driving speed : Variable (tilting angle) : Variable (sum of moments) : Output 03 Stability – Roll direction Modeling Moment equation in roll direction + 99
  100. 100. An example of motor tricycle applied tilting system No tilting STIGO Tilting STIGO (up to 10˚) * For the sake of convenience, the right table is calculated at only 10˚, not 0~10˚ . 03 Stability – Roll direction Stability analysis & Test Centrifugal force : No tilting STIGO : Tilting STIGO (up to 10˚) Total weight : 90 kgf STIGO height : 1.863 m (including human height) Curve radius : 3 m Driving speed : 5 km/h Tilting STIGO’s angle : 7 ˚ Top view Back view both Stable(not rollover).3m radius curve at 5km/h, 100
  101. 101. An example of motor tricycle applied tilting system No tilting STIGO Tilting STIGO (up to 10˚) * For the sake of convenience, the right table is calculated at only 10˚, not 0~10˚ . 3m radius curve at 9.5 km/h,9.5 No tilting STIGO turns over. Centrifugal force : No tilting STIGO : Tilting STIGO (up to 10˚) Total weight : 90 kgf STIGO height : 1.863 m (including human height) Curve radius : 3 m Driving speed : 9.5 km/h Tilting STIGO’s angle : 10 ˚ Top view Back view 03 Stability – Roll direction Stability analysis & Test 101
  102. 102. No tilting STIGO Tilting STIGO (up to 10˚) * For the sake of convenience, the right table is calculated at only 10˚, not 0~10˚ . Tilting of just small degrees (10deg.) Improving stability of rollover direction considerably SAFE ZONE SAFE ZONE 03 Stability – Roll direction Stability analysis & Test 102
  103. 103. Tilting of just small degrees (10deg.) Improving stability of rollover direction considerably If an user tilts their body slightly, It doesn’t need tilting system! 03 Stability – Roll direction Stability analysis & Test 103
  104. 104. Baseline ModelImproved Model Stability Analysis Change footrest position No tilting system 03 Stability Conclusion of stability analysis 104
  105. 105. Ergonomics The height of handle bar The shape of footrest Frame 04 Frame 105
  106. 106. Less side force in user’s knee 74 ~ 125 cm 04 Frame - Ergonomics The height of handle bar The shape of footrest The sloping bottom Less arm fatigue Average 100 cm height position 106
  107. 107. Aluminum 6061 Butted tube FRP body case Material 04 Frame Frame 107
  108. 108. Aluminum 6061 in the body frame. 04 Frame - Material Material Selection Good Normal Bad 108
  109. 109. Aluminum 6061 Yield strength : 255 MPa Safety factor : 3 Type Pipe-shape tube Butted tube Mass 0.3 kg 0.143 kg Max stress Compressive force Bending force 5.437 MPa 60.36 MPa 13.61 MPa 84.15 MPa 52.33% of the mass is reduced. 04 Frame - Material Frame tube design 109
  110. 110. 04 Frame - Material Fix Fix 150 x 3 = 450N 600 x 3 = 1800N Material Analysis for footrest [ load and boundary conditions] Safety factor : 3 Max Stress : 169.01 MPa < Yield stress(255 MPa) Safe110
  111. 111. Frame 04 Frame Folding mechanism Motivated by umbrella Folding footrest 111
  112. 112. Umbrella 04 Frame – Folding mechanism Motivation One-step folding Easy to use Stability 112
  113. 113. 04 Frame – Folding mechanism Connecting bar 113
  114. 114. x = 12 cm F = 625 N x position – tension force graph of connecting bar Upper position of connecting bar Designer preferred for beauty Lower position of connecting bar Engineer preferred for safety Compromised position x12 cm Position of connecting bar 04 Frame – Folding mechanism 114
  115. 115. Possible cross section shapes Staple shape Round shape Window shape Shape of connecting bar’s cross section 04 Frame – Folding mechanism 115
  116. 116. [Case 2] : Footrest coming out from the frame [Case 1] : Unfolding footrest coming out in the case 04 Frame – Folding mechanism Footrest folding mechanism [Case 2] : Footrest coming out from the frame 116
  117. 117. Footrest : Enough length to ride (18 cm) Footrest-Rod : Enough length to fold (28 cm) Footrest-Stay : Enough space to fold (32 cm) Footrest folding mechanism 04 Frame – Folding mechanism 117
  118. 118. Safety factor : 3 04 Frame – Folding mechanism Improved design 2Baseline design 1 23.30MPa < Yield strength (O) 161.06MPa < Yield strength (O) 2747.49MPa < Yield strength (X) 71.02MPa < Yield strength (O) 117.96MPa < Yield strength (O) FEA results of footrest 218.47MPa < Yield strength (O) Yield strength : 255MPa, 118
  119. 119. Driving 05 Driving Suspension Spring coefficient 33,000 kN/m Damping coefficient 300 N·s/m Mechanical disk brake Suitable for BLDC motor 119
  120. 120. Brake Caliper Cantilever V-brake Mechanical Hydraulic Strengths Light weight Low price High braking power Low price Easy of repair and maintenance Suitable for BLDC MOTOR High braking power Weaknesses Low braking power Hard to set up Moisture effect Difficulty to handle at steep slope High price Difficult of repair and maintenance 05 Driving - Brake Brake requirementMechanical disk brake Suitable for BLDC Motor Easy to set up Reasonable price Braking power 120
  121. 121. “First Mile/Last Mile Transition”Rough road For better comfortable driving 05 Driving - Suspension 121
  122. 122. Comfortable driving SUSPENSION 05 Driving - Suspension For better comfortable driving K : 33,000 N/m C : 300 N·s/m 122
  123. 123. Design part Analysis part 1. Position of Suspension? 2. Angle of Suspension? 3. Enough space for suspension?  Simulation with ADAMS tool 05 Driving - Suspension Collaboration 123
  124. 124. VS Case 1-1 Front wheel Case 1-2 Connecting bar 05 Driving - Suspension 1. Where should the suspension is located in?
  125. 125. • Comfortable ride : 1~1.5 [Hz] • Excitation frequency : 0.05Sin(𝟒𝝅𝒕) • Amplitude : 5 [cm] • Frequency : 2 [Hz] • Spring coefficient (k) 33000 [N/m] • Damping coefficient (c) 300 [N•s/m] 05 Driving - Suspension Suppose that…
  126. 126. Length(mm)05 Driving - Suspension Case1FrontwheelCase2Connectingbar angle of framesuspension displacement Length(m) suspension displacement BUMP BUMP
  127. 127. 05 Driving - Suspension Case 1-1 Front wheel Case 1-2 Connecting bar 1. Where should the suspension is located in?
  128. 128. Case 2-2 Tilted suspension VS Case 2-1 Vertical suspension 2. Which angle of suspension is suitable? 05 Driving - Suspension
  129. 129. 05 Driving - Suspension Case1VerticalCase2Tilted Unstable
  130. 130. 05 Driving - Suspension Case 2-2 Tilted suspension Case 2-1 Vertical suspension 2. Which angle of suspension is suitable?
  131. 131. Overlap with wheel Overlap with frame 05 Driving - Suspension 3. Does STIGO have enough space for suspension?
  132. 132. 05 Driving - Suspension Final STIGO with suspension Space for length of suspension Space for radius of suspension Enough space for suspensionFinal model
  133. 133. 05 Driving - Suspension Without SuspensionFinal STIGO with suspension Conclusion
  134. 134. 05 Driving - Suspension WithoutsuspensionOptimizedsuspension
  135. 135. • Need suspension because STIGO passes rough road. In case of STIGO with suspension, expect a comfortable ride.  Improved the ride quality ! • Simulate vibration characteristic of STIGO with suspension by ADAMS tool. • To apply suspension, consider two position. And Change angle at determined position. Finally, To apply actual suspension, consider space problem. • As compared with STIGO without suspension, improved performance in case of STIGO with suspension. Conclusion 05 Driving - Suspension
  136. 136. Module 06 Module Saddle 5~95% human available Contained extra battery 136
  137. 137. 06 Module - Saddle Concept Saddle concept Extra battery concept 137
  138. 138. Target value: 60.0°, Radius: 50.48 cm Saddle movement path 06 Module - Saddle Considering 5 ~ 95% human model 138
  139. 139. Pressure measurement image 3D Model 06 Module - Saddle 139
  140. 140. 07 Collaboration Engineers Designers 140
  141. 141. 07 Collaboration Main issue Weak connection Unstable footrest Frame structure 141
  142. 142. 07 Collaboration Final concept Strong connection Stable footrest Frame structure 142
  143. 143. Rear rubber tire Non-slip step pads HIPS plastic Aluminum main frame Strength, lightweight and flexibility LED Back light High visibility for increased safety NBR Handle cover Comfortable grip Battery Pack Li-ion 36V 180Wh Front aluminum rim Strength and rigidity Front rubber tire FRP case Lightweight, low-thermal expansion and strength LED Front light High visibility for wide view and increased safety Rear aluminum rim Strength and rigidity Footrest Strength and rigidity Smartphone dock system Hub motor 36V 300W in front wheel Stop lever Eidetic plastic lever for increased safety Controller Steering Bevel gear assembly for steering Suspension Materials Components 07 Vehicle Technical Specifications 143
  144. 144. 09 Vehicle Technical Specifications Speed Adjustable from 2 to 15 km/h Motor BLDC Hub Motor 36V, 300W in Front Wheel Max. endurable load 110kg Climbing ability 10% continuous at 10km/h Range on a full charge 1hour, 15km Battery pack Li-ion built-in BMS(Battery Management System) LiFePO4, 180 Wh, 1.7 kg Brake Mechanical disk brake Suspension Front wheel Spring 33 kN/m, Damp 300N-s/m Steering Bevel gear assembly 144
  145. 145. 09 Vehicle Technical Specifications Weight 12.7 kg Ground clearance 6.3 cm Wheels diameter Front : 30 cm / Rear : 17.8 cm Frame Aluminum 6061 Grips NBR Body case FRP Open STIGO dimension Length: 90 cm Width: 44.6 cm Height: 103 cm *Except handlebar Width Folded STIGO dimension Length: 33.5 cm Width: 30.2cm Height: 117.8 cm *Except handlebar Width 145
  146. 146. 146
  147. 147. 01 Business plan 147
  148. 148. 01 Business plan 148
  149. 149. 01 Business plan 149
  150. 150. 01 Business plan 150
  151. 151. 01 Business plan 151
  152. 152. 02 Marketing strategy 152
  153. 153. 02 Marketing strategy 153
  154. 154. 02 Marketing strategy 154
  155. 155. 03 Carbon footprint 155
  156. 156. 04 Plant safety 156
  157. 157. 157
  158. 158. 158

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