Muslim Rule in Spain


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Overall Muslim rule in Spain and their linkage with Holy Prophet (all Muslims Caliphate)

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Muslim Rule in Spain

  1. 1. • I’ll will present the happenings in Spain from 711-1492 while Arabs were in the Iberian Peninsula plus their links with Holy Prophet & other Muslim dynasties • Studying past Muslim historical events shows their influence on modern Spain Modern practicing Mosque in Cordoba.
  2. 2. I. --Berber expansion, period of conquest and consolidation II. --Cordoba established by Abd al Rahman I as capital III. --Abd alRahman III (caliph) --advisers: wazirs IV. V. VI.
  3. 3. • April 30th of 711, Berber leader Tariq ibn-ziyad landed at Gibraltar • The Battle of Guadalete (turning point) • The Battle of Tours in 732 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492 Tariq ibn-ziyad
  4. 4. 756- the exiled prince Abd-ar-Rahman I established himself as the Emir of Codoba. And established a tenuous rule of much of Al- Andalus For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Cordoba. In 929 Abd-al-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212-1492
  5. 5. After the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus was overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids, the last surviving member of the Umayyad dynasty fled to Spain and named himself Emir Abd al-Rahman I. He then created the Umayyad emirate and made Cordoba the capital. He also build al-Andalus and established diplomatic ties with the northern Christian empires, the Byzantine empire, and North Africa.
  6. 6. • All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty • Cordoba reached its peak under these Caliphate rulers • Caliphate rule existed until 1031 when it was fractured into a number of independent taifas. 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  7. 7. Caliphate Rulers Abd-ar-rahman III (912–961) Allowed tolerance and freedom of religion Repelled enemies with alliances in Africa al-Hakam II (961–976) Peace with Christian kingdoms Stability of agriculture Economic and philosophic improvements Mezquita Hisham II (976–1013) Gained title at age ten Almansur Dictator rule 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  8. 8. After the death of the caliphate in Cordoba, only a few decades passed before the complete collapse of Muslim presence was unstoppable. These kings, formerly known as party kings (in Arabic mulukal-tawa'if, from the word ta'ifah), continued to improve upon modern arts and learning by competing with one another for the most spectacular states. In doing so, they took in many scientist and artist who needed the resources to improve upon their own skills. From 1008 to 1031, a period of anarchy in the Al-Andalus caused more or less 24 individual smaller states to form. These rulers, owning their own territories, were known as the muluk al-tawa'if, and each of these states did not contain enough power through force to become the sole caliphate of the lands. 711-929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  9. 9. • Banu Hammudids of Malaga • Banu Ziri of Granada • Mamluks of South East Spain • Banu Hud of Saragosa • Banu Dhiral-Num of Toledo • Banu Abbad of Seville
  10. 10.  When Christian kingdoms began taking over weak Taifa kingdoms, by "exacting tribute", no one in the Al Andalus took action to stop the conversions.  Much of the north had already been taken over by the ever increasing presence of the Christians.  By 1085 the Castilians conquered the important city of Toledo and so the Taifas kings were forced to ask the new Almoravid ruler in Morocco (Yusuf ibn Tashufin) for assistance.  The Almoravids (in Arabic, "The Garrisoned Ones") were a dynasty risen from the Amazighs (Berbers) of Morocco, and until this time were steadfast to assist the taifa kings. 711-929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  11. 11. After the second and third Taifas were created as a result of fragmentation of the Peninsula, north Africa took this advantage to invade. The first to invade were the Almoravides, the second were the Almohads, and the third were the Banu Marins. By the middle of the 13th century, Islamic Spain, due to their progressive weakening, was reduced to Nasrid kingdom in Granada, which is located between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Cape of Gata.
  12. 12. • Berber (Muslim dynasty) founded in the 12th century • Conquered all Northern Africa along with Al-Andalus known as the Moorish Iberia 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  13. 13. • Berber dynasty from the Sahara • 1097- Yusuf ibn Tashfin was the Amir al Muslimin • 1119- Ali ibn Yusuf, Sintra, and Santarem were in charge after Yusuf´s death 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  14. 14. 1130- Abd al-Mu’Min al- Kumi and the Almohads defeated the ruling Almoravids 1147- The conquered city of Marrakech by the Almohads marked the end of the Almoravids Extended his power all over northern Africa as far as Libya 1170- The Almohads transferred their capital to Seville 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  15. 15. Gharnata Almohads Nasrid Dynasty Surrendered by Boabdil on Jan 2, 1492 Resulting Influence: El Flamenco Las Alpujarras Architecture (Alhambra) 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  16. 16. Boabdil was the last Moorish king of Granada. In 1482, he was proclaimed the king in place of his father who had been driven from the land. He invaded Castile in order to gain prestige, but was taken prisoner. He was only granted freedom if he held Granada as a tributary kingdom under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. In 1491, he was asked by the king and queen of Castile to hand over Granada, but because he refused, it was besieged by the Castilians. After about a year, Granada surrendered, and the last spot that Boabdil was said to have looked at Granada from was is still shown and is known as the “ last sigh of the Moor.”
  17. 17. Almohads Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 Almohad Army Despeñaperros Pass Moorish Period – Nasrid Dynasty Political instability Golden Age of Andalucia Cultural Flowering 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  18. 18. • Decline of Empire – Records destroyed • Possible Reasons: – Internal Struggles – Dynastic and factional strife – Lacking sufficient forces – Refusing to pay tribute to King of Castile 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  19. 19. After the Spanish Inquisition was created, Kind Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted to drive out the Muslims and Jews, because they were considered a threat to their ambition. The army was to capture anyone who didn’t follow the Roman Catholic faith. To do this, the army would check men’s genitals to see if they were circumcised. The army would spy on them, and if they bathed on Fridays or wore beautiful clothes of Eid, then they were killed. Even some weak and frail Muslims who thought the only way to be saved was to denounce Islam and convert to Christianity were also killed.
  20. 20. • 1453:Constantinoplefallsin East • 1469:European Christians-Castille,Aragonand Leonunited Ferdinand andIsabelle • Pope Authorizes Spanish Inquisitions-originallyforlapsed Christians • Torquemada-HammerofSpain-GrandInquisitor • LastChapter of AlAndalus • 1492:Granada splitwithson ofemir-usesChristian alliestofight father • FerdinandandIsabelletourAlhambra • Jews convert or expelled-endofReconquista • 1609:Muslimconvert expelledfromSpain
  21. 21. • Jews • Christians • Muslims • Influence of all 3 stillevident today – Synagogues – Churches, cathedral – Arab style architecture (Mudejar)
  22. 22. LA ALHAMBRA
  23. 23. • largest city in Western Europe • paved streets
  24. 24. • largest city in Western Europe • paved streets
  25. 25. • public baths • fountains • gardens • prosperous economy • streets lit by lamps at night
  26. 26. • 70 libraries – largest library had 400,000 books • caliphs of Córdoba wanted to outshine the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad
  27. 27. mathematics geography astronomy philosophy medicine
  28. 28. • Used math to create more accurate calendars
  29. 29. • developed tables that showed the location of the sun and other planets at different times of the year
  30. 30. • Al-Idrisi –wrote an encyclopedia of geographic knowledge • contained 70 maps and descriptions of the geography of many world regions
  31. 31. • al-Zahrawi –wrote medical encyclopedia • covered topics such as surgery and how to care for and repair teeth
  32. 32. • Andalusian qadi, physician, philosopher in the Aristotelian tradition, and author of important commentaries on the works of Aristotle, as well as on music, astronomy, medicine and jurisprudence (over 20,000 pages).
  33. 33. • the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct • Ibn Rushd – studied Plato and Aristotle – his work helped reintroduce classical Greek philosophy to Europe
  34. 34. • A universal scholar, the most influential philosopher and physician of the Islamic east in the Middle Ages, who interpreted Greek metaphysics in the framework of Islam. • Known in the West as the Galen of the Muslim world.
  35. 35. • Jews were persecuted by Christian • The Muslims tolerated “people of the book” – Jews and Christians • Many Jews who faced persecution came to al-Andalus
  36. 36. • Enormous influence on European thought • Wrote works in Arabic • Guide to the Perplexed: An effective synthesis of medieval Judaism with the philosophy of Aristotle: Reason is the primary source of human knowledge, but it remains acceptable to rely on faith in cases beyond the reach of rationality. Suggests philosophical reasoning not helpful to most ordinary people who are advised to rely on faith. • Book of Commandments codified Talmudic law.
  37. 37. • Gardens and presence of flowers in parks and plazas • Flamenco dance (Muslim, Jewish, and gypsy roots) • Arabic Baths • Architecture: gothic style, relief work, arches • Courtyards
  38. 38. • Muslim praise and value of gardens • Economy – highly developed craftsmanship, modern agricultural techniques – based on money (gold cordobesa money) • Culture – Library with 400,000 volumes – Highly philosophical 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  39. 39. Mezquita  Cathedral and Mosque  Constructed during the period of the Caliphate  Looks towards Mecca  Horseshoe semicircular shaped prayer room  Muslim influence: walls of flowers, fountains, architecture (arches, relief work)  Jewish influence: statues, stars 711- 929 929- 1031 1031- 1090 1090- 1212 1212- 1492
  40. 40. Women in Muslim society were active in political and cultural affairs. An example of such a woman would be Subh. Subh was the wife of al-Hakam al-Mustansir, the ninth Umayyad caliph. Subh was very ambitious, but she had two major faults: she was a foreigner and a Christian. Subh is a perfect example of being well versed in the history and the power of words. She was both a poet and a linguist. Because her husband was more interested in knowledge and books, he left all the management of political affairs to Subh.
  41. 41. Walladah was the daughter of the caliph of Cordoba. In Cordoba, many women were often scholars. Walladah inherited enough wealth after her father’s death to guarantee her independence. She was a well-known poet as well the host of literary gatherings for both men and women. She had several love affairs, although she never married. Her surviving poetry describes her free spirit. She was also known for designing robes with embroidered sleeves.
  42. 42.  Mozarabic (mustarab): a Christian living in Muslim Spain, who conserved their eclesiastical, judicial and religious organizations.  Muladí (muwaladi): a Hispanic Christian who converted to Islam during the period of Muslim rule.  Jews: allowed to practice own religion and conserve own community structure.  In Christian territory: Mudejar (mudayyan): Muslim permitted to live under Christian domination conserving own religion.
  43. 43. Many Christians living in Muslim Spain adapted to the culture. Some people learned Arabic, and wore the same clothes as their rulers. Some women even began wearing the veil. Some changed their names to Arabic names. The Christians who did this were known as Mozarabs. Christians had their own rulers known as counts. These counts were directly responsible to the Muslim emir of caliphate. Their taxes were collected by special agents, and they were allowed to retain their social hierarchy, as well as use Visigoth canon law instead of the Muslim law.
  44. 44. After the Muslims took over al-Andalusia, the economy slowly began to patch up, because maintaining the caliph’s court and army required a good economy. Agriculture especially flourished with new foods. This was made possible by the extensive irrigation system that was copied from the Syrians. Better agriculture produced a healthier, higher population. This in return allowed the government to lower tax rates, and this encouraged urban growth and more industries.
  45. 45. Harvesting figs provided a greater diversity of fruits for consumers. Malaga (a city in Spain) was one of the most important centers for growing figs. The city is surrounded on all sides by fig trees. These figs were exported by Muslims and Christians and were sold in Baghdad as well as India and China. The fig was valued for it’s taste as well as the ability to preserve for a full year.
  46. 46. After Abd al-Rahman III became the first Spanish Caliph, the caliph had two purposes: one was to strengthen the Peninsular kingdom, and the other was to consolidate the commercial routes of the Mediterranean outside the country, guarantee an economic relationship with the east-Byzantium, and guarantee the supply of gold. In 972, a Spanish city located on the Mediterranean on the north coast of Africa, called Melilla was occupied, and later in the same century, the Umayyad controlled the triangle formed by Algeria, Siyima, and the Atlantic.
  47. 47. MUSLIM RULE IN SPAIN AND ITS IMPACT (711-1492) Rapid growth of Muslim emp.Strongly centr. Roman state Arabs let local officials keep offices N. Afr. Moors led by Arabs easily conquer Spain (711 CE)  Widespread destruction due to: Continued resistance by Visigoths Semi-civ. nature of Moors Moors rebel vs. Arab ruling class Christian Kingdoms of Portugal, Leon, Castile, & Leon survive in North Franks stop Moors in Fr Ummayad Abd al-Rahman, fleeing fr. Abassids, takes over in 756 Highly centralized rule & cultural golden age centered at Cordoba (912-1008): Extensive irrigation projects, & industries Thriving ec. Library with 400,000 books Take title of Caliph to counter claim by Shi’ite Fatimids in Eg. Flourishing archit. & music Learning revives in W. Eur. Rising power of Chr. Kgd’s Rising power of Chr. Kgd’s Civil wars over throne Strife b/w Berbers & Arabs Nasrid Granada (1250-1492) hangs on in south due to exc army, help from N. Afr., & extensive network of forts & watchtowers Final fall of Granada to Castile in 1492 Jews expelled & Muslims under growing persecution & pressure to convert to Chr. Unif. Of Castile & Aragon (1469) Unif. Of Castile & Aragon (1469) Genoa controls Gran’s trade Less help from N. Africa Colder climate in NW Relig. Fervor of W. Eur Chr’s who come to Sp. to fight for the faith Relig. Fervor of N Afr Muslims who come to Sp. to fight for the faith Sp. Muslim Kgd’s try to retake lands Sp. Christian Kgd’s advance vs. Sp. Muslims Cordoba Caliphate fragments into 6 main Taifa (party or faction) kingdoms that revive culture & economy By 1250, Sp. Chr.kgd’s have taken all the Iberian Peninsula exc. Granada in S.