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Test Driven Development With Python

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A quick overview of the popular unit testing frameworks in python. Covers unittest, py.test and nose

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Test Driven Development With Python

  1. 1. Test Driven Development in Python Siddharta Govindaraj siddharta@silverstripesoftware.com
  2. 2. What is Test Driven Development (TDD)? http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnsyweb/3051647719/
  3. 3. Red, Green, Refactor ● First write a test ● Write code to pass the test ● Clean up the code ● Repeat
  4. 4. TDD Example Write a function to check whether a given input string is a palindrome
  5. 5. code.py def is_palindrome(input_str): pass
  6. 6. tests.py from code import is_palindrome def test_function_should_accept_palindromic_words(): input = "noon" assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  7. 7. Result
  8. 8. code.py def is_palindrome(input_str): return input_str == input_str[::-1]
  9. 9. Result
  10. 10. tests.py def test_function_should_ignore_case(): input = "Noon" assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  11. 11. Result
  12. 12. code.py def is_palindrome(input_str): input_clean = input_str.lower() return input_clean == input_clean[::-1]
  13. 13. Result
  14. 14. tests.py def test_function_should_ignore_trailing_space(): input = "Noon " assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  15. 15. code.py def is_palindrome(input_str): input_clean = input_str.strip().lower() return input_clean == input_clean[::-1]
  16. 16. tests.py def test_function_should_ignore_spaces_in_text(): input = "ab raca carba" assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  17. 17. code.py def is_palindrome(input_str): input_stripped = input_str.replace(" ", "") input_clean = input_stripped.lower() return input_clean == input_clean[::-1]
  18. 18. tests.py def test_function_should_handle_combined_characters(): input = u"u0bb4u0bbfuu0b95u0bb4u0bbf" assert is_palindrome(input) == True (Input is ழ கழ )
  19. 19. Reversing unicode strings The String: ழ கழ Characters: ழ + ி + க + ழ + ி Wrong: ி + ழ + க + ி + ழ Right: ழ + ி + க + ழ + ி
  20. 20. # naïve implementation to pass the test def is_palindrome(input_str): def reverse_string(input_str): def is_combining_char(char): chars = [u"u0bcd"] return char in chars reversed_chars = [] for char in input_str: if is_combining_char(char): reversed_chars.insert(1, char) else: reversed_chars.insert(0, char) return "".join(reversed_chars) input_stripped = input_str.replace(" ", "") input_clean = input_stripped.lower() reversed_string = reverse_string(input_clean) return input_clean == reversed_string
  21. 21. And so it continues... ● Turns out reversing a string is quite complex when unicode scripts come into the picture ● Many different cases to consider ● Unit tests can validate the complex code logic and check for regression errors
  22. 22. Why is unit testing important? ● Quality ● Regression ● Safety Net ● Integration with build and CI tools ● Documentation
  23. 23. Attributes of good tests ● Fast ● Clear ● Isolated ● Reliable
  24. 24. Unit Testing in Python ● We will look at three test frameworks ● unittest ● py.test ● nose
  25. 25. What are we looking for? ● Ease of writing tests ● xUnit output support ● Ease of running tests ● Test →Doc ● Test autodiscovery ● Code coverage ● Running specific tests ● Code profiling ● Running failed tests ● Parallel testing ● Setup & teardown ● Interactive debug
  26. 26. unittest import unittest class TestPalindrome(unittest.TestCase): def test_function_should_accept_palindromes(self): input = “noon” self.assertTrue(is_palindrome(input))
  27. 27. unittest features + Similar to standard unit testing frameworks in other languages (jUnit, Nunit...) + Included in base python standard library + Best IDE support + Maximum adoption
  28. 28. unittest features – Inflexible, cumbersome, unpythonic – Requires lots of boilerplate code to write code – No test autodiscovery – No support for running specific tests – Limited support for setup and teardown – No support for advanced test features
  29. 29. py.test def test_function_should_accept_palindromic_words(): input = "noon" assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  30. 30. py.test features + Test autodiscovery + Easy to write and run tests + Supports most of the advanced features – parallel testing, parametrized tests, compatibility with unittest, coverage, interactive debug + Good support for extensions
  31. 31. py.test features – Not standard – Lack of IDE support
  32. 32. nose def test_function_should_accept_palindromic_words(): input = "noon" assert is_palindrome(input) == True
  33. 33. nose features + Compatible with unittest + Supports all advanced features + Works well with Django, Pylons, Turbogears + Excellent plugin support + Supported by some IDEs + Most popular among alternative test frameworks
  34. 34. nose features – Not standard
  35. 35. Some interesting plugins ● Code coverage – Shows you how well your unit tests covers the code ● Profiling – Measures the time taken by functions when running the tests ● Parallel testing – Runs tests in parallel to speed things up
  36. 36. Other Interesting Features ● Generative tests – Runs the same test sequence with different combinations of input data ● Interactive debug – Drops into the python debugger on test failure
  37. 37. Nose Plugins - Spec Test → Doc class TestIsPalindrome(self) def test_should_accept_palindromic_words def test_function_should_ignore_case def test_function_should_ignore_trailing_space IsPalindrome - Should accept palindromic words - Should ignore case - Should ignore trailing space
  38. 38. Nose Plugins - Xunit ● Provides test result output in the standard xUnit xml format ● This format can be read and integrated into standard continuous integration systems
  39. 39. Summary Not much to choose between py.test and nose nose is currently more popular Use unittest if standardisation is important

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