Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Building stone stone masonry

3,102 views

Published on

Building Stones: Varieties of Indian Stones, Quarrying blasting, Dressings of stones,
Characteristics of good building stones, Slate, Marble, Artificial stones, Stone
Preservation

Published in: Engineering
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THAT BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story That Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths that Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Building stone stone masonry

  1. 1. Stone Earth Crust Rock Stone
  2. 2. Classification of Rock 1. Geological Classification a) Igneous rocks b) Sedimentary rocks c) Metamorphic rocks 2. Physical Classification a) Stratified rocks b) Non-stratified rocks c) Foliated rocks 3. Chemical Classification a) Siliceous rocks b) Argillaceous rocks c) Calcareous rocks
  3. 3. Stone is a natural solid formation of one or many minerals. There are thousands of types of stone that have been quarried through the centuries. Quarries are located all around the world. STONES
  4. 4. QUARRYING OF STONES While selecting a quarry site, the points to be borne in mind are  Availability of sufficient quantity of the stone of desired quality  Proper transportation facilities  Cheap local labor  Problems associated with drainage of rain water  Location of important and permanent structures in the vicinity and site for dumping refuse
  5. 5. Stone quarrying (self study) 1. Quarrying with hand tools. 2. Quarrying with channeling machine. 3. Quarrying by blasting.
  6. 6. Seasoning of Stone A freshly cut stone carries some natural moisture known as quarry sap making it soft and workable. The quarry sap is a mineral solution and reacts chemically with the mineral constituents when the stone is exposed to atmosphere after quarrying. The stone becomes harder and compact.
  7. 7. Why stone is losing popularity as a building material? 1. Dressing of stones is tedious, laborious and time consuming. 2. Desired strength and quality not available at moderate rates especially in plain areas. 3. RCC, Steel are alternatives to stones and gives more strength and flexibility. 4. Stone structure design can’t give freeness and flexibility to the designer.
  8. 8. Characteristic of good building stone  Appearance- For face work it should have fine, compact texture; light-coloured stone is preferred as dark colors are likely to fade out in due course of time.  Structure - A broken stone should not be dull in appearance and should have uniform texture free from cavities, cracks, and patches of loose or soft material.  Strength - A stone should be strong and durable to withstand the disintegrating action of weather. Compressive strength of building stones in practice range between 60 to 200 N/mm2.
  9. 9.  Hardness- This property is important for floors, pavements, aprons of bridges, etc. coefficient of hardness should me more than 14.  Toughness - The measure of impact that a stone can withstand is defined as toughness. The value of toughness index must be more than 13.  Specific Gravity – it should be more than 2.7.  Fire Resistant – it depend upon mineral composition of rock. Lime stone resist fire upto 600C.  Water Absorption – For good stone percentage absorption by weight after 24 hours should not exceed 0.60.
  10. 10. Testing of Stone  Acid test - to check weather resistance-100 g of stone chips are kept in a 5 per cent solution of H2SO4 or HCI for 3 days. Then the chips are taken out and dried. The sharp and firm corners and edges are indication of sound stone. This test is used to test the cementing material of sand stone.  Smith test - Break off the freshly quarried stone hipping to about the size of a rupee coin and put them in a glass of clean water, one- third full. If the water becomes lightly cloudy, the stone is good and durable
  11. 11. Attrition test  To find out the rate of wear of stone which are used in road construction  Instrument – Deval’s attrition test machine  Sample size – 60mm  Amount of sample – 50N  Duration of test – 5 hours for 30 R.P.M  Size of sieve - 1.5mm  Percentage wear = Loss in weight X 100/initial weight
  12. 12. Deval’s Attrition Test Machine
  13. 13. Crushing test  To find the compressive strength of stone.  Instrument – UniversalTesting Machine  Sample Size – 40 x 40 x 40mm  Specimen should be placed in water for 72 hours before testing.  Load bearing surface is then covered with plaster of paris .  Rate of loading – 13.72N/mm2.  Crushing Strength – Maximum load/area of bearing face.
  14. 14. Universal Testing Machine
  15. 15. Hardness Test  Instrument – Dorry’s testing machine  Sample size – Cylinder of radius 25mm and height 25mm.  Initial pressure – 12.5N/mm2  Disk is rotated at a speed of 28 R.P.M for 1000 revolution.  Coefficient of hardness = 20 – loss in weight in gm/3
  16. 16. Dorry’s Testing Machine
  17. 17. Impact Test  Sample size – Cylinder of 25mm dia and 25mm height  Instrument – a steel hammer of weight 20N  Height of first blow is 1cm, second blow is 2 cm and so on…  The blow at which specimen break is represented as toughness index of stone.
  18. 18. Water absorption test  Sample size – cube of weighing 0.5 N –W1  Cube is immersed in distilled water for 24 hours.  After 24 hours its weight is again measured-W2.  Cube is suspended freely in water and its weight is recorded –W3  Percentage absorption =W2-W1/100  Density –W1/(W2-W3)  Specific Gravity -W1/(W2-W3)
  19. 19. Preservation of Stone  CoalTar  Linseed Oil – May be applied as raw or boiled. Renewal is important after every year.  Paint  Paraffin – May be used alone or may be dissolved in neptha and then applied.  Solution of alum and soap – Proportion 0.75:0.5 N and then dissolved in 1 litre of water.  Solution of Baryta – It is a solution of barium hydroxide. Specially used when decay of stone is due to calcium sulphate.
  20. 20. Stone for specific uses
  21. 21. SEDIMENTARY • SANDSTONE IGENOUS • GRANITE METAMORPHIC • MARBLE
  22. 22. STONES •SANDSTONE •LIMESTONE •CUDDAPA HARDEST OFALL STONES. •KOTA •MICA •SLATE
  23. 23. KOTA Variety : Tiles and Slabs as required by the client Sizes : Length upto 240cms and width upto 75cms Thickness : 16mm to 100mm SANDSTONE •Dholpur Offwhite (Natural) Mint Fossil Desert •AGRA RED (NATURAL) Teak Wood Rainbow •Buff Brown (Natural) •Mandana (Natural) •Budhpura Grey (Natural) •Modak Raj Green (Natural) •Mint (Natural)
  24. 24. GRANITES  GRANITES MAINLY COME FROM NORTH AND SOUTH REGIONS.  GRANITE IS NON POROUS, HARD, STRONG, DURABLE. THERE ARE MORETHAN 300 DIFFERENTTYPES OF GRANITES . Granites ARE OFTWOTYPES :- •GANGSO - HARDER •VERTIVAL - SOFTER THAN GANGSO
  25. 25. Polished Surface Rough Texture TEXTURES
  26. 26. Shape Flat to Round
  27. 27. Granite Countertops Granite Backsplash Granite Tile Granite Paving Stone USES OF GRANITE
  28. 28. NAMES OF GRANITES RETAILER (RS PER SQ/FT) JET BLACK 165 BLACK 135 SURF GREEN PLAIN 210 LAKHANI RED 255 AKASIA GREEN 190 SILKY BROWN 185 NEW SILKY 200 BLACK GALAXY 190 AMBAWHITE 200 MERRY GOLD 190 SINDURI RED 190 MOKALSAR GREEN 190 RED CATEYES 190 RBI RED 195 BLUE 135 IVORY FANTASY 240 BLUE PEARL 550 BROWN RED 140 TAN BROWN 130 PALVA GOLD 150
  29. 29. THE THICHKNESS OF GRANITE CAN BE OF 16MM ,18MM ,25MM MAINLY OF 18MM. SIZES OF GRANITES • 8 * 3 FT • 9* 4 FT • 7* 4 FT • 6* 2.5 FT MOULDING CHARGES RANGES FROM RS 20 TO 50/SQ FT. • HALF MOULDING • FULL MOULDING • CORNER MOULDING • SQUARE MOULDING CUTTING CHARGES OF GRANITES ARE RS15 TO 25.
  30. 30. POLISHES OF GRANITES MIRROR POLISH SADA POLISH  HYDRAULIC POLISH  FLAME POLISH
  31. 31. Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
  32. 32. It has become an increasingly popular choice for countertops,  flooring, fireplaces, foyers, bars, tables, showers, and windows. It graceful style, ability to reflect light, and ease of cleaning have made it the stone of choice amongst the elite. Uses of Marble
  33. 33. TYPES OF MARBLES INDIAN MARBLES SPANISCO IRAN TURKEY GREECE
  34. 34. INDIAN MARBLES AMBAJI RAJNAGAR MAKRANA GREEN MARBLE SAPOL AGARIYA VANNI ARNA THE MOST USED OR COSTLIER MARBLE IS MAKRANA MAKRANA HAS DIFFERENT QUALITIES •ALBETTO •ADANGA •KUMARI •DUNGRI •WHITE MAKRANA -
  35. 35. STONE MASONRY
  36. 36. Stone Masonry  The construction of stones bonded together with mortar is termed as stone masonry where the stones are available in a abundance in nature, on cutting and dressing to the proper shape, they provide an economical material for the construction of various building components such as walls, columns, footings, arches, lintels, beams etc.
  37. 37. Uses 1) Building foundations, walls, piers, pillars, and architectural works. 2) Lintels, Beams, beamsArches, domes etc., 3) Roofs and Roof coverings. 4) CladdingWorks 5) Dams, light houses, monumental structures. 6) Paving jobs 7) Railway, ballast, black boards and electrical switch boards
  38. 38. Selection of stone for stone masonry: 1) Availability 2) Ease of working 3) Appearance 4) Strength and stability 5) Polishing characteristics 6) Economy 7) Durability
  39. 39. Through Stone
  40. 40. General Principles  The stones to be used for stone masonry should be hard, tough and durable.  The pressure acting on stones should be vertical.  The stones should be perfectly dressed as per the requirements.  The heads and bond stones should not be of a dumb bell shape.  In order to obtain uniform distribution of load, under the ends of girders, roof trusses etc large flat stones should be used
  41. 41. General Principles  The mortar to be used should be good quality and in the specified faces.  The construction work of stone masonry should be raised uniformly.  The plumb bob should be used to check the verticality of erected wall.  The stone masonry section should always be designed to take compression and not the tensile stresses.  The masonry work should be properly cured after the completion of work, for a period of 2 to 3 weeks.
  42. 42.  As far as possible broken stones or small stones chips should not be used.  Double scaffolding should be used for working at higher level.  The masonry hearting should be properly packed with mortar and chips if necessary to avoid hallows.  The properly wetted stones should be used to avoid mortar moisture being sucked. General Principles
  43. 43. Laying The Stone  Decrease the stone thickness from the bottom to the top of wall.  Ensure that the headers in the heart of the wall are the same size as in the face and extend at least 12 in (300 mm) into the core or backing. (Avoid Dumb-bell shaped stones)  Ensure that headers in “walls of 2 feet (600 mm) or less in thickness” extend entirely through the wall. The headers shall occupy at least 20 percent of the face of the wall.
  44. 44.  Lay the masonry in roughly leveled courses. Ensure that the bottom of the foundation is large, with selected stones.  Lay the courses with leaning beds parallel to the natural bed of the material.  Regularly diminish the thicknesses of the courses, if varied, from the bottom to the top of the wall. Keep a surplus supply of stones at the site to select from.  Before laying the stone in the wall, shape and dress it so that it will not loosen after it is placed. No dressing or hammering which will loosen the stone will be permitted after it is placed. Laying The Stone
  45. 45.  Clean each stone and saturate it with water before setting it. Clean and moisten the bed that will receive it.  Bed the stones in freshly made mortar with full joints. Carefully settle the stones in place before the mortar sets.  Ensure that the joints and beds have an average thickness of not more than 1 inch. (25 mm).  Ensure that the vertical joints in each course break with the adjoining courses at least 6 in. (150 mm).  Do not place vertical joints directly above or below a header joint.
  46. 46.  If a stone is moved or if the joint is broken after the mortar has set, take the stone up and thoroughly clean the mortar from the bed and joints. Reset the stone in fresh mortar.  NOTE: Do not lay the masonry in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost, except with permission subjected to the required conditions.  Whenever possible, properly point the face joints before the mortar sets. If joints cannot be pointed, rake them out to a depth of 1 in (25 mm) before the mortar sets.  Do not smear the stone face surfaces with the mortar forced out of the joints or the mortar used in pointing.
  47. 47.  Thoroughly wet the joints pointed after the stone is laid with clean water and fill with mortar.  Drive the mortar into the joints and finish with an approved pointing tool.  Keep the wall wet while pointing. In hot or dry weather, protect the pointed masonry from the sun and keep it wet for at least three days after the pointing is finished.  NOTE: Do not perform pointing in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost.  After the pointing is completed and the mortar is set, thoroughly clean the walls and leave them in a neat condition.
  48. 48. Masonry Joints
  49. 49. Types of Stone Masonry: Based on the arrangement of the stone in the construction and degree of refinement in the surface finish, the stone masonry can be classified broadly in the following two categories 1. Rubble masonry 2. Ashlar masonry
  50. 50. 1) Rubble masonry: In this category, the stones used are either undressed or roughly dressed having wider joints. This can be further subdivided as uncoursed, coursed, random, dry, polygonal and bint.  (i) Uncoursed rubble masonry: This is the cheapest, roughest and poorest form of stone masonry.The stones used in this type of masonry very much vary in their shape and size and are directly obtained from quarry. Uncoursed rubble masonry can be divided into the following. a) Uncoursed random rubble b) Uncoursed squared rubble
  51. 51. Uncoursed rubble masonry  a) Uncoursed random rubble masonry:The weak corners and edges are removed with mason’s hammer. Generally, bigger stone blocks are employed at quoins and jambs to increase the strength of masonry.
  52. 52.  b) Uncoursed squared rubble: In this type the stone blocks are made roughly square with hammer. Generally the facing stones are given hammer- dressed finish. Large stones are used as quoins. As far as possible the use of chips in bedding is avoided. Uncoursed rubble masonry
  53. 53. Regular Course  (iv) Built to regular course: In this type of stone masonry the uniform height stones are used in horizontal layers not less than 13cm in height. Generally, the stone beds are hammered or chisel dressed to a depth of at least 10cm from the face.The stones are arranged in such a manner so that the vertical joints of two consecutive curse do not coincide with each other as shown in figure below.
  54. 54.  (v) Polygonal rubble masonry: In this type of masonry the stones are roughly dressed to an irregular polygonal shape. The stones should be so arranged as to avoid long vertical joints in face work and to break joints as much as possible. Small stone chips should not be used to support the stones on the facing as shown in the figure below. Quoins
  55. 55. Flint rubble masonry  (vi) Flint rubble masonry: This type of masonry is used in the areas where the flint is available in plenty. The flint stones varying in thickness from 8 to 15cm and in length from 15 to 30cm are arranged in the facing in the form of coursed or uncoursed masonry as shown below.
  56. 56. Dry rubble masonry  This type of masonry is used in the construction of retaining walls pitching earthen dams and canal slopes in the form of random rubble masonry without any mortar. The hallow spaces left around and stones should be tightly packed with smaller stone pieces as shown below.
  57. 57. Ashlar Masonry  This type of masonry is built from accurately dressed stones with uniform and fine joints of about 3mm thickness by arranging the stone blocks in various patterns.  The backing of Ashlar masonry walls may be built of Ashlar masonry or rubble masonry. The size of stones blocks should be in proportion to wall thickness.
  58. 58.  The various types of masonry can be classified under the following categories are 1) Ashlar fine 2) Ashlar rough 3) Ashlar rock or quarry faced 4) Ashlar facing 5) Ashlar chamfered 6) Ashlar block in course Ashlar Masonry
  59. 59. Ashlar fine Ashlar rough Ashlar Masonry
  60. 60. Ashlar rock or quarry faced Ashlar block in course Ashlar Masonry
  61. 61. Ashlar facing Ashlar chamfered Facing Ashlar Masonry
  62. 62. Cornice  A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall.  The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls.
  63. 63. Decorative Cornice Slope to Drain off Rain water Rain water collection Channel over the top of Decorative Cornice
  64. 64. SILLS Stone SILL Sloped Outer REVEAL
  65. 65. Chamfered Quoins Stone Sill Edge Drop Rubble Masonry Wall
  66. 66. Min 25Cm Overlap into the abutting masonry
  67. 67. Sill as a Ledge in the Interior
  68. 68. PLINTHS
  69. 69. Traditional Plinth
  70. 70. Plinth in Random Rubble Masonry to receive A Load-Bearing wall Above.
  71. 71. Plinth Platform Conventional Plinth in Rural Areas
  72. 72. Cladding

×