Classification of Rock
1. Geological Classification
a) Igneous rocks
b) Sedimentary rocks
c) Metamorphic rocks
2. Physical Classification
a) Stratified rocks
b) Non-stratified rocks
c) Foliated rocks
3. Chemical Classification
a) Siliceous rocks
b) Argillaceous rocks
c) Calcareous rocks
Stone is a natural solid formation of one or many
There are thousands of types of stone that have been
quarried through the centuries.
Quarries are located all around the world.
QUARRYING OF STONES
While selecting a quarry site, the points to be borne in mind
Availability of sufficient quantity of the stone of desired
Proper transportation facilities
Cheap local labor
Problems associated with drainage of rain water
Location of important and permanent structures in the
vicinity and site for dumping refuse
Stone quarrying (self study)
1. Quarrying with hand tools.
2. Quarrying with channeling machine.
3. Quarrying by blasting.
Seasoning of Stone
A freshly cut stone carries some natural
moisture known as quarry sap making it
soft and workable. The quarry sap is a
mineral solution and reacts chemically
with the mineral constituents when the
stone is exposed to atmosphere after
quarrying. The stone becomes harder and
Why stone is losing popularity as a building material?
1. Dressing of stones is tedious, laborious and time consuming.
2. Desired strength and quality not available at moderate rates
especially in plain areas.
3. RCC, Steel are alternatives to stones and gives more strength and
4. Stone structure design can’t give freeness and flexibility to the
Characteristic of good
Appearance- For face work it should have fine,
compact texture; light-coloured stone is preferred as
dark colors are likely to fade out in due course of
Structure - A broken stone should not be dull in
appearance and should have uniform texture free
from cavities, cracks, and patches of loose or soft
Strength - A stone should be strong and durable to
withstand the disintegrating action of weather.
Compressive strength of building stones in practice
range between 60 to 200 N/mm2.
Hardness- This property is important for floors,
pavements, aprons of bridges, etc. coefficient of
hardness should me more than 14.
Toughness - The measure of impact that a stone
can withstand is defined as toughness. The value
of toughness index must be more than 13.
Specific Gravity – it should be more than 2.7.
Fire Resistant – it depend upon mineral
composition of rock. Lime stone resist fire upto
Water Absorption – For good stone percentage
absorption by weight after 24 hours should not
Testing of Stone
Acid test - to check weather resistance-100 g of stone
chips are kept in a 5 per cent solution of
H2SO4 or HCI for 3 days. Then the chips are
taken out and dried. The sharp and firm
corners and edges are indication of sound
stone. This test is used to test the cementing
material of sand stone.
Smith test - Break off the freshly quarried
stone hipping to about the size of a rupee coin
and put them in a glass of clean water, one-
third full. If the water becomes lightly cloudy,
the stone is good and durable
To find out the rate of wear of stone which are used in road
Instrument – Deval’s attrition test machine
Sample size – 60mm
Amount of sample – 50N
Duration of test – 5 hours for 30 R.P.M
Size of sieve - 1.5mm
Percentage wear = Loss in weight X 100/initial weight
To find the compressive strength of stone.
Instrument – UniversalTesting Machine
Sample Size – 40 x 40 x 40mm
Specimen should be placed in water for 72 hours before
Load bearing surface is then covered with plaster of paris .
Rate of loading – 13.72N/mm2.
Crushing Strength – Maximum load/area of bearing face.
Instrument – Dorry’s testing machine
Sample size – Cylinder of radius 25mm and
Initial pressure – 12.5N/mm2
Disk is rotated at a speed of 28 R.P.M for 1000
Coefficient of hardness = 20 – loss in weight in
Sample size – Cylinder of 25mm dia and 25mm
Instrument – a steel hammer of weight 20N
Height of first blow is 1cm, second blow is 2 cm
and so on…
The blow at which specimen break is represented
as toughness index of stone.
Water absorption test
Sample size – cube of weighing 0.5 N –W1
Cube is immersed in distilled water for 24 hours.
After 24 hours its weight is again measured-W2.
Cube is suspended freely in water and its weight is recorded
Percentage absorption =W2-W1/100
Specific Gravity -W1/(W2-W3)
Preservation of Stone
Linseed Oil – May be applied as raw or boiled. Renewal is
important after every year.
Paraffin – May be used alone or may be dissolved in neptha
and then applied.
Solution of alum and soap – Proportion 0.75:0.5 N and
then dissolved in 1 litre of water.
Solution of Baryta – It is a solution of barium hydroxide.
Specially used when decay of stone is due to calcium
Variety : Tiles and Slabs as required by the client
Sizes : Length upto 240cms and width upto 75cms
Thickness : 16mm to 100mm
•Dholpur Offwhite (Natural)
Mint Fossil Desert
•AGRA RED (NATURAL)
Teak Wood Rainbow
•Buff Brown (Natural)
•Budhpura Grey (Natural)
•Modak Raj Green (Natural)
GRANITES MAINLY COME FROM NORTH AND SOUTH REGIONS.
GRANITE IS NON POROUS, HARD, STRONG, DURABLE.
THERE ARE MORETHAN 300 DIFFERENTTYPES OF
Granites ARE OFTWOTYPES :-
•GANGSO - HARDER
•VERTIVAL - SOFTER THAN
Granite Countertops Granite Backsplash
Granite Tile Granite Paving Stone
USES OF GRANITE
NAMES OF GRANITES RETAILER
(RS PER SQ/FT)
JET BLACK 165
SURF GREEN PLAIN 210
LAKHANI RED 255
AKASIA GREEN 190
SILKY BROWN 185
NEW SILKY 200
BLACK GALAXY 190
MERRY GOLD 190
SINDURI RED 190
MOKALSAR GREEN 190
RED CATEYES 190
RBI RED 195
IVORY FANTASY 240
BLUE PEARL 550
BROWN RED 140
TAN BROWN 130
PALVA GOLD 150
THE THICHKNESS OF GRANITE CAN BE OF 16MM ,18MM
,25MM MAINLY OF 18MM.
SIZES OF GRANITES
• 8 * 3 FT
• 9* 4 FT
• 7* 4 FT
• 6* 2.5 FT
MOULDING CHARGES RANGES FROM RS 20 TO 50/SQ FT.
• HALF MOULDING
• FULL MOULDING
• CORNER MOULDING
• SQUARE MOULDING
CUTTING CHARGES OF GRANITES ARE RS15 TO 25.
Marble is a metamorphic rock
composed of recrystallized carbonate
minerals, most commonly calcite or
It has become an increasingly popular choice for
It graceful style, ability to reflect light, and ease
of cleaning have made it the stone of choice
amongst the elite.
Uses of Marble
TYPES OF MARBLES
THE MOST USED OR COSTLIER MARBLE IS MAKRANA
MAKRANA HAS DIFFERENT QUALITIES
•WHITE MAKRANA -
The construction of stones bonded together with mortar is
termed as stone masonry where the stones are available in a
abundance in nature, on cutting and dressing to the proper
shape, they provide an economical material for the
construction of various building components such as walls,
columns, footings, arches, lintels, beams etc.
1) Building foundations, walls, piers, pillars, and architectural
2) Lintels, Beams, beamsArches, domes etc.,
3) Roofs and Roof coverings.
5) Dams, light houses, monumental structures.
6) Paving jobs
7) Railway, ballast, black boards and electrical switch boards
Selection of stone for stone masonry:
2) Ease of working
4) Strength and stability
5) Polishing characteristics
The stones to be used for stone masonry should be hard,
tough and durable.
The pressure acting on stones should be vertical.
The stones should be perfectly dressed as per the
The heads and bond stones should not be of a dumb bell
In order to obtain uniform distribution of load, under the
ends of girders, roof trusses etc large flat stones should be
The mortar to be used should be good quality and in the
The construction work of stone masonry should be raised
The plumb bob should be used to check the verticality of
The stone masonry section should always be designed to take
compression and not the tensile stresses.
The masonry work should be properly cured after the
completion of work, for a period of 2 to 3 weeks.
As far as possible broken stones or small stones chips should
not be used.
Double scaffolding should be used for working at higher
The masonry hearting should be properly packed with
mortar and chips if necessary to avoid hallows.
The properly wetted stones should be used to avoid mortar
moisture being sucked.
Laying The Stone
Decrease the stone thickness from the bottom to the top of
Ensure that the headers in the heart of the wall are the same
size as in the face and extend at least 12 in (300 mm) into the
core or backing. (Avoid Dumb-bell shaped stones)
Ensure that headers in “walls of 2 feet (600 mm) or less in
thickness” extend entirely through the wall. The headers shall
occupy at least 20 percent of the face of the wall.
Lay the masonry in roughly leveled courses. Ensure that the
bottom of the foundation is large, with selected stones.
Lay the courses with leaning beds parallel to the natural bed of
Regularly diminish the thicknesses of the courses, if varied, from
the bottom to the top of the wall. Keep a surplus supply of stones
at the site to select from.
Before laying the stone in the wall, shape and dress it so that it will
not loosen after it is placed. No dressing or hammering which will
loosen the stone will be permitted after it is placed.
Laying The Stone
Clean each stone and saturate it with water before setting it. Clean
and moisten the bed that will receive it.
Bed the stones in freshly made mortar with full joints. Carefully
settle the stones in place before the mortar sets.
Ensure that the joints and beds have an average thickness of not
more than 1 inch. (25 mm).
Ensure that the vertical joints in each course break with the
adjoining courses at least 6 in. (150 mm).
Do not place vertical joints directly above or below a header joint.
If a stone is moved or if the joint is broken after the mortar has
set, take the stone up and thoroughly clean the mortar from the
bed and joints. Reset the stone in fresh mortar.
NOTE: Do not lay the masonry in freezing weather or
when the stone contains frost, except with permission
subjected to the required conditions.
Whenever possible, properly point the face joints before the
mortar sets. If joints cannot be pointed, rake them out to a depth
of 1 in (25 mm) before the mortar sets.
Do not smear the stone face surfaces with the mortar forced out
of the joints or the mortar used in pointing.
Thoroughly wet the joints pointed after the stone is laid with clean
water and fill with mortar.
Drive the mortar into the joints and finish with an approved
Keep the wall wet while pointing. In hot or dry weather, protect
the pointed masonry from the sun and keep it wet for at least three
days after the pointing is finished.
NOTE: Do not perform pointing in freezing weather or
when the stone contains frost.
After the pointing is completed and the mortar is set, thoroughly
clean the walls and leave them in a neat condition.
Types of Stone Masonry:
Based on the arrangement of the stone in the construction
and degree of refinement in the surface finish, the stone
masonry can be classified broadly in the following two
1. Rubble masonry
2. Ashlar masonry
1) Rubble masonry:
In this category, the stones used are either undressed or roughly
dressed having wider joints. This can be further subdivided as
uncoursed, coursed, random, dry, polygonal and bint.
(i) Uncoursed rubble masonry: This is the cheapest, roughest
and poorest form of stone masonry.The stones used in this type of
masonry very much vary in their shape and size and are directly
obtained from quarry. Uncoursed rubble masonry can be divided
into the following.
a) Uncoursed random rubble
b) Uncoursed squared rubble
Uncoursed rubble masonry
a) Uncoursed random rubble masonry:The weak corners and
edges are removed with mason’s hammer. Generally, bigger
stone blocks are employed at quoins and jambs to increase
the strength of masonry.
b) Uncoursed squared rubble:
In this type the stone blocks are
made roughly square with
hammer. Generally the facing
stones are given hammer-
dressed finish. Large stones
are used as quoins. As far as
possible the use of chips in
bedding is avoided.
Uncoursed rubble masonry
(iv) Built to regular course: In this type of stone masonry the uniform
height stones are used in horizontal layers not less than 13cm in
height. Generally, the stone beds are hammered or chisel dressed
to a depth of at least 10cm from the face.The stones are arranged
in such a manner so that the vertical joints of two consecutive
curse do not coincide with each other as shown in figure below.
(v) Polygonal rubble masonry: In this type of masonry the stones
are roughly dressed to an irregular polygonal shape. The
stones should be so arranged as to avoid long vertical joints in
face work and to break joints as much as possible. Small stone
chips should not be used to support the stones on the facing
as shown in the figure below.
Flint rubble masonry
(vi) Flint rubble masonry: This type of masonry is used in the
areas where the flint is available in plenty.
The flint stones varying in thickness from 8 to 15cm and in
length from 15 to 30cm are arranged in the facing in the
form of coursed or uncoursed masonry as shown below.
Dry rubble masonry
This type of masonry is used in the
construction of retaining walls
pitching earthen dams and canal
slopes in the form of random
rubble masonry without any
mortar. The hallow spaces left
around and stones should be
tightly packed with smaller stone
pieces as shown below.
This type of masonry is built from accurately dressed stones
with uniform and fine joints of about 3mm thickness by
arranging the stone blocks in various patterns.
The backing of Ashlar masonry walls may be built of Ashlar
masonry or rubble masonry. The size of stones blocks should
be in proportion to wall thickness.
The various types of masonry can be classified under the
following categories are
1) Ashlar fine
2) Ashlar rough
3) Ashlar rock or quarry faced
4) Ashlar facing
5) Ashlar chamfered
6) Ashlar block in course
A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is
generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a
building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or
window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a
pedestal or along the top of an interior wall.
The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to
throw rainwater free of the building’s walls.
Slope to Drain off
the top of