Architecture History Lecture 1

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Architecture History Lecture 1

  1. 1. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I LECTURE-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT 1st Semester B .Arch, August - December 2013
  2. 2. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS HISTORY? The study of past events These include not just written documents, but also through objects such as buildings, HISTORY Architecture ENVIRONMENT Colosseum Rome These include not just written documents, but also through objects such as buildings, artifacts An object made by a human being These include not just written documents, but also through objects such as buildings, artifacts and paintings.
  3. 3. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE ? HISTORY Architecture ENVIRONMENT The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings The style in which a building is designed and constructed, especially with regard to a specific PERIOD Parthenon, GreekGothic CathedralsThe National Congress of Brazil,
  4. 4. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE ? HISTORY Architecture ENVIRONMENT The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings The style in which a building is designed and constructed, especially with regard to a specific period, PLACE Places with heavy rainfallDesign on a hill
  5. 5. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE ? HISTORY Architecture ENVIRONMENT The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings The style in which a building is designed and constructed, especially with regard to a specific period, place, or CULTURE: Hindu architecture Sikh architectureChinese architectureChurch architecture
  6. 6. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT ? HISTORY Architecture ENVIRONMENT The setting or condition in which a particular activity is carried on. Natural Environment Man made Environment
  7. 7. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions
  8. 8. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Structures What is a Structures? Various elements of building And How these elements are interrelated… Purpose of Structures design ? To make building able to stand And Also withstand forces which acts on it . Forces: Dead load Live load Wind force Snow force
  9. 9. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Structures Caves - Natural formationsTress branches and leavesStone hutSun dried (katcha ) brick house Falling water house , Pennsylvania
  10. 10. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Structures
  11. 11. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Construction Methods
  12. 12. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Construction Methods
  13. 13. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in Construction Methods
  14. 14. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Traces the changes in other architectural elements
  15. 15. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I Group of BUILDINGS Includes a Therefore we must understand that history of architecture doesn’t end with the single building or element but includes the surroundings as well… Acropolis Athens
  16. 16. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT BC = Before Christ - THE YEARS BEFORE THE BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST A.D. = Anno Domini (year of our Lord) The number of years since the birth of Jesús Christ. THE YEARS AFTER THE BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST
  17. 17. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT The human race appeared on Earth 2.000.000 or 3.000.000 years ago and... ...Paleolithic started Life in prehistory : The fight for survival Humans are living creaturas.… What do we need to survive? WATER FOODPROTECTION
  18. 18. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT In Palaeolithic people were NOMADIC People moved from one place to another... Protection from bad weather, dangers… They sheltered in caves
  19. 19. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Survival was not easy... The storage of water? They learnt to make containers that can store water POTTERY
  20. 20. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Wild fruits and vegetables MeatFish They had...
  21. 21. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT There were a lot of problems! It’s difficult to find wild fruits and vegetables during the cold winters They learnt to farm the land They learnt to make containers that can store food BASKETS POTTERY
  22. 22. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Hunting was also not easy… Animals are stronger, bigger and faster than men They learnt to shape stones into tools or weapons
  23. 23. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Could they hunt and fish always? No, it’s difficult to find animals during the cold winter They learnt to take care of animals Difficulties to hunt and fish during the cold winter
  24. 24. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT The vegetables soup is boiling Baking bread COOKING FOOD: Humans learnt how to use fire to cook, so their diet became healthy and tasty Roasting some meat THE USES OF FIRE
  25. 25. BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Cave is not a nice place to live They built huts They lived in settlements In Neolithic people learnt to farm the land and take care of animals In Neolithic people became SEDENTARY
  26. 26. • World population grew • People began to grow more food than they would need – allowed people to do things other than farming • Trade increased • Establishment of Towns/Cities • Cities become centers of trade, politics and culture • Men became superior • Formalized religion Ceremonies, rituals, and worship Built large temples BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Changes in society..
  27. 27. • Based on occupations, wealth, and influence – rulers, priests, and nobles – merchants and artisans – farmers and unskilled workers – majority – slaves BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Social classes ..
  28. 28. Organized Government • Projects need planning-decision making • created laws • established systems of justice • supervised food production and building projects • gathered taxes • organized defense BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
  29. 29. NEED TO STUDY HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS To locate our self , that we are not individual, we are connected to the entire world. Experience from the past , largely influence today's decision. We get to know that each era since the beginning of time formed its own unique style .. Every action is sequel to another , so without studying past we cant move further.. Thus we need to study about our past and to know how change has happens through time
  30. 30. We have learnt from our past………. And we are witnessing its reflections today as well…… And now We must create things today that become History tomorrow
  31. 31. COURSE OVERVIEW
  32. 32. Overview of the entire course to be covered during the semester Unit-I • Definition and scope of Architecture. Interdependence of various components of the built environment. Need for a holistic approach. • Man’s early/prehistoric attempts to colonise and personalize space. Examples of early shelters, Stonehenge, tumuli, etc. as expression of man’s physical and spiritual needs • Determinants of Built Form - geo-physical, societal, political and technological, etc. Global examples of vernacular architecture. • Introduction to the River Valley Civilizations. Comparative study of different manifestations with reference to location, materials and techniques, socio-cultural influences and other contextual factors Unit-II • Egyptian Civilization: Concept of the Royal Necropolis, locational context and architectural characteristics of public buildings, e.g. mastabas, pyramids and temples(rock-cut & structural) -one example of each type to be chosen. Worker’s settlement- city of Kahun. • Mesopotamian Civilization; the urban context and architecture of public buildings (ziggurats and palaces). Examples of the city and Ziggurat of Ur, city and palace and of Khorsabad. Unit-III • Indus Valley Civilization: Form of the Harappan City, location and role of public buildings. • Architecture of the typical Harappan dwelling, Granary and Bath. • The Vedic Village, Building typology and construction
  33. 33. Tentative Teaching schedule Week no. Contents Week -1 (9th Aug , 2013 ) Id (Holiday) Week -2 (16thAug , 2013 ) Definition and scope of Architecture. Interdependence of various components of the built environment. Need for a holistic approach Week -3 (23rdAug , 2013 ) Man’s early/prehistoric attempts to colonise and personalise space. Examples of early shelters, Stonehenge, tumuli, etc. as expression of man’s physical and spiritual needs Week -4 (30thAug , 2013 ) Week -5 (6th Sep , 2013 ) Determinants of Built Form - geo-physical, societal, political and technological, etc. Global examples of vernacular architecture. Week -6 (13th Sep, 2013 ) Class test Introduction to the River Valley Civilizations. Comparative study of different manifestations with reference to location, materials and techniques, socio-cultural influences and other contextual factors Week -7 (20th Sep , 2013 ) Week -8 (27th Sep ,2013 ) MST 1
  34. 34. Tentative Teaching schedule Week no. Contents Week -9 (4th Oct, 2013 ) International Conference & Training Workshop by CSPA Week -10 (11th Oct , 2013 ) Pratibimbh 2013 ( Annual fest ) Week -11 (18thOct, 2013 ) Egyptian Civilization: Concept of the Royal Necropolis, locational context and architectural characteristics of public buildings, e.g. mastabas, pyramids and temples(rock-cut & structural) -one example of each type to be chosen. Worker’s settlement- city of Kahun. Week -12 (25th Oct , 2013 ) Week -13 (1st Nov , 2013 ) MST 2 Week -14 (8th Nov, 2013 ) Mesopotamian Civilization; the urban context and architecture of public buildings (ziggurats and palaces). Examples of the city and Ziggurat of Ur, city and palace and of Khorsabad. Week -15 (15th Nov, 2013 ) MST 3 Week -16 (22nd Nov, 2013 ) Class test Indus Valley Civilization: Form of the Harappan City, location and role of public buildings. Architecture of the typical Harappan dwelling, Granary and Bath. The Vedic Village, Building typology and construction Week -17 (29th Nov 2013 )
  35. 35. Kind of assignments the students would be expected to undertake, evaluation system

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