E nose

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E nose

  1. 1. DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER IN PRIMITIVESTAGE BY ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANICCOMPOUNDS IN EXHALED AIR COMPOUNDS By, Ayush Faisal Ameen Siddharth DC Santosh Srivatsa Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Types of lung cancers Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  3. 3. Small cell lung cancer: 12 out of 100 patients are suffering from this type of cancer, mainly caused due to smoking. Cured by chemotherapy rather than surgery.Non-small cell lung cancer: Most common type of cancer which infiltrates regional lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Depending on tumor size ,lymph node involvement and presence & absence of distant metastasis this type of cancer is categorized into stageI, stageII, stageIII & stageIV Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  4. 4. LUNG CANCER DETECTION IN PRIMITIVE STAGE :METHODS  PWS(partial wave spectroscopic microscopy) -based on alteration in Buccal epithelium.  Chest CT and PET scan  Analysis of VOCs(volatile organic compounds) in exhaled air using E-Nose Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  5. 5. ANALYSIS OF VOCS IN EXHALED AIR USING E-NOSE Concept: “The exhaled breath contains VOCs . Analysis of Exhaled breath can be analyzed to detect lung cancer in primitive stages . This analysis results in the detection of “biomarkers”, 1- butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone in the exhaled air which indicates the probability of lung cancer” Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  6. 6.  The “electronic nose” is an electronic detection system consisting of an array of coated sensors, which can detect VOCs. And the change in chemical reactivity or electrical properties of the Enose can be analyzed to evaluate certain important parameters: Breath samples are taken from lung cancer patients, healthy nonsmokers, Ex-smokers, and patients with respiratory condition.
  7. 7. Implementation : Oral exhaled breath was collected in Tedlar bags. The gas from each bag was analyzed by the Enose, resulting in a total of four graphic displays per subject. The E-Nose is an electronic detection system with an array of 6-channel coated chip sensors, each consisting of tin oxide electrodes with individualized highly-reactive rare earth coatings. These element coatings undergo oxidation which is detected by a chip-based microelectronic device as a change in resistance, which results in change in voltage and is recorded simultaneously for all channels. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  8. 8.  An additional two channels provided measurements of temperature and humidity. An electronic memory is generated allowing the identification of similar patterns between samples rather than the identification of specific compounds. The output from each channel is graphically displayed the following parameters are analyzed :  The peak height of the curve  Rate to peak height,  Rate of recovery, and  Area under the curve Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  9. 9.  Results: Rate to Peak Height:  Patients with lung cancer had significantly lower rates to peak height for when compared with other subjects. Peak Height:  Lung cancer patients had significantly lower peak height values when compared to other subjects. Rate of Recovery:  Lung cancer patients having significantly lower rate of recovery values when compared with other subjects. Area Under Curve: No significant differences were seen for lung cancer patients And other subjects when comparing area under the curve values . Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  10. 10. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  11. 11. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  12. 12. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  13. 13. ANALOGY The electronic nose system is analogues to the mammalian Olfaction system. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  14. 14. E-NOSE RESPONSE TO ODORANTS Regarded as first order response Reference gas is flushed through the sensor to obtain the base line. Sensor is exposed to the odorant which causes change in the output signal, until steady state is reached. Finally odorant is flushed out of the sensor using the reference gas resulting in the sensor to return back to its base line. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  15. 15.  Time during which sensor is exposed to the odorant is referred to as Response Time. while the time sensor takes to return to the base line resistance is called the Recovery Time. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  16. 16. SENSORS EMPLOYED IN E-NOSE SYSTEMPHYSICAL CHANGE TYPE OF SENSORSconductivity Conductivity sensorsmass Piezoelectric sensors( SAW)optical Optical sensorWork function MOSFET Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  17. 17. MOSFET SENSOR: Works on the principal that the threshold voltage of the sensor changes on interaction with the gate material [porous gas sensitive] with certain gases such as hydrogen. Threshold voltage changes due to change in work function of the metal and oxide layer Change in threshold voltage s proportional to concentration of the analyte Fig : MOSFET based sensor Changes in drain source current and the gate voltage are also considered as response mechanism Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  18. 18. Optical Sensor: optical fiber sensor arrays have there size or tips coated with a florescent dye encapsulated in a polymer matrix as shown in fig. Polarity alterations in the florescent dye, on interaction with the gas changes its optical properties such as intensity, spectrum and wavelength shift. These optical changes are used as response mechanism for odor detection Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  19. 19. Surface acoustic wave sensor[SAW]: It is composed of piezoelectric substrate with an input(transmitting) and output (receiving ) interdigital transducer deposited on top of the surface It is a class of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) which rely on the modulation of surface acoustic waves to sense a physical phenomenon. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  20. 20. Conducting Sensors: It works on the principal that interaction with gas leads to change in resistance. Sensing material is deposited over two parallel electrodes through which relative resistance measure Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  21. 21. CONCLUSION From the detailed analysis of the sensors its been found that lung cancer can be detected in primitive stage by following our non invasive and inexpensive technique. Dept. of Instrumentation Tech, RVCE
  22. 22. REFERENCES IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 10, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2010 Sensors 2009 Wikipedia.com Thebestoncologist.com http://www.uta.edu www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/9/7/5099/pdf http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals www.irma-international.org
  23. 23. Any Questions ???

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