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Slum community groups use negotiation
skills, knowledge, to improve access to
services and entitlements:
A demand side app...
Presentation Outline
• Glimpses of low access to services, deprivation from our urbanizing
planet
• Demand-side approaches...
Glimpses of an Urbanizing World
Competing for water
Washing utensils on
railway track - Kolkata
Rolling incense sticks to
...
Physical Living Environment of Urban poor
Slum at the edge of large
Wading through a large drain
for daily transit- Indore...
Living Conditions of Urban Disadvantaged
The urban disadvantaged, including women
contribute cheap labour towards GDP
Co...
Ignited slum community groups
engage as active citi-zens,
negotiate collaboratively fornegotiate collaboratively for
equit...
Trained, empowered slum women’s groups and cluster-level teams of slum
women’s groups gives stronger voice and greater neg...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 2
Increase Access to Govt. Address Proof and Picture ID
During Apr 2013 ...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 3
Women’s empowerment for enhanced caring
capacity of woman, family, imp...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 4
Pull Regular Outreach Health Services by Government
and Private Provid...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 5
Gentle, tractful Negotiation through Collective Petitions
Written requ...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 6
Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’
With continual ment...
Slum Women’s groups in slums use hand-drawn maps to
a) Ensure that no family is left out from lists used for housing, sewa...
Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 7b
Spatial City Mapping
Helps make the invisible visible
Location of Lis...
Dept. Women Child
Dev.
ICDS, LADLI,
Others
Health Dept
ANC, Immunization
Maternity Benefit Scheme,
Other services
Politici...
Glimpses of Improved Access
to Services in Slums,
Informal Settlements
Group member HH Non Gp member HH Non-Intervention
HH
Availing Healthcare
in Govt. facility
31% 15% 9%
Self-efficacious Slu...
Self-efficacious Slum Women’s Groups Improve Living
Environment including Non Group Member Families
Group member HH Non Gp...
Improved access to Toilets, Sewer, Paved Streets
During 2013-2015: 60,000 slum population benefited from sewage system
Struggle for
water Water tank
erected
Improved Water Supply
During Apr. 13- Mar. 15: 120,000 slum population in Agra and
I...
During 2013-2015: 40,000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from
electricity connections
Slum Women’s, Children-Youth Groups community requests to civic
authorities over 5 years bring bridge over large drain, In...
1. Trust less formally educated to analyse challenges, evolve &
implement solutions with support
2. Appreciation, motivati...
Let us Build Human Capability,
Expertise, Ignite Action & Engagement,
Collaborative efforts and Resilience of
Urban Exclud...
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Slum community groups use negotiation skills, knowledge, to improve access to services and entitlements: A demand side approach to better governance

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Urban Health Resource Centre's practical experiences shared at Urban Thinkers Campus on Health and Wellbeing
Convened by United Nations University IIGH,
Kuching, Malaysia
Ignited slum community groups engage as active citi-zens, negotiate collaboratively for equity and access to contribute to better urban governance .
i) Trained, empowered slum women’s groups and cluster-level teams of slum women’s groups gives stronger voice and greater negotiation power.
ii) Increase Access to Govt. Address Proof and Picture ID: During Apr 2013 gave legitimacy to urban informal settlement families– Mar 2015: 20,000 persons benefited from Govt. proof of address and Picture ID
iii) Empowered women facilitate reduction in alcoholism, domestic violence against women, enhance caring capacity of woman, family, improved social support. With over 125 million women among urban vulnerable in India, women-power has immense potential towards improved health, social justice, wellbeing.
iv) Trained slum community groups pull regular outreach health Services by Government providers in Migrant, other Deprived clusters
v) With training, mentoring, hand-holding support community groups engage in gentle, tactful negotiation through collective written petitions/requests to officers of Municipal Authorities, Nutrition Dept, Electricity Dept. Disadvantaged communities actively participate in governance, collaborate for equity, justice, access: maintain paper trail, persevere with tact (including tea + biscuits, polite thank you) to achieve “Right to the City”.
vi) Slum youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’: With continual mentoring, motivation Youth-children groups in slums improve their own lives; contribute to their communities in tangible ways, bring more vigour and joy to ‘ignite the senses”. It is noteworthy that there are 150 million youth 15-32 yr, 125 million 10-24 yr in urban India
vii) Spatial City and Neighborhood Mapping helps make invisible, voiceless poverty clusters and recent migrants, weaker families visible and their social inclusion.
viii) Let us Build Human Capability, Expertise, Ignite Action & Engagement, Collaborative efforts and Resilience of Urban Excluded, Deprived Citi-zens, and to bounce forward, prevent their learning to survive in impoverishment Let us translate words into real action towards inclusive, socially just cities.





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Slum community groups use negotiation skills, knowledge, to improve access to services and entitlements: A demand side approach to better governance

  1. 1. Slum community groups use negotiation skills, knowledge, to improve access to services and entitlements: A demand side approach to better governance January 25-27, 2016 www.facebook.com/uhrcindia/ www.uhrc.in January 25-27, 2016 Urban Thinkers Campus on Health and Wellbeing Convened by United Nations University IIGH, Kuching, Malaysia Agarwal Siddharth, Verma Shabnam, Verma Neeraj, Agarwal Kabir, Sharma M.R., Sharma C.B Urban Health Resource Centre, India
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Glimpses of low access to services, deprivation from our urbanizing planet • Demand-side approaches towards more accountable urban governance and inclusion based on program experience across > 410,000 urban disadvantaged population 1. Trained slum women’s groups and Cluster Teams 2. Increasing Access to Proof of Address and Picture ID 3. Gender empowerment enhances caring capacity of woman and family 4. Pull Outreach health service in migrant and other deprived neighbourhoods 5. Gentle, tactful Demand-side Negotiation through Collective Community Petitions 6. Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’ 7. Demonstrate uses of spatial Neighborhood and City Mapping • Inter-sectoral-Coordination for Bringing Multi-sectoral Efficiencies for Improved Health and Well-being • Improvements in Access to Services in Slums, Informal Settlements
  3. 3. Glimpses of an Urbanizing World Competing for water Washing utensils on railway track - Kolkata Rolling incense sticks to support family income- Indore An iron-smith’s daughter on Kolkata pavement Children on a temporary “bridge” across a drain- Jakarta Competing for water railway track - Kolkata
  4. 4. Physical Living Environment of Urban poor Slum at the edge of large Wading through a large drain for daily transit- Indore Water enters low-plinth house after heavy rain: Slum at the edge of large drain – risk of floods for daily transit- Indore Child filling water - Delhi Community toilet- pig; hard to keep clean Mosquito breeding in collected water - Indore house after heavy rain: climate change
  5. 5. Living Conditions of Urban Disadvantaged The urban disadvantaged, including women contribute cheap labour towards GDP Construction site, brick-kiln workers, labourers Child-bearing migrant-girls faced particular risks.
  6. 6. Ignited slum community groups engage as active citi-zens, negotiate collaboratively fornegotiate collaboratively for equity and access to contribute to better urban governance
  7. 7. Trained, empowered slum women’s groups and cluster-level teams of slum women’s groups gives stronger voice and greater negotiation power Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 1 Cluster Teams of Women’s Groups, Indore and Agra Slum women’s health groups (Mahila Arogya Samitis) mandated in Govt. of India’s National Urban Health Mission to strengthen demand for health services.
  8. 8. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 2 Increase Access to Govt. Address Proof and Picture ID During Apr 2013 – Mar 2015: 20,000 persons benefited from Govt. proof of address and Picture ID
  9. 9. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 3 Women’s empowerment for enhanced caring capacity of woman, family, improved social support • Slum women’s groups gradually contribute to a positive gender equation at family and society levels, provide social support to needy families • Women’s enhanced access to resources and greater capacity to take timely care of themselves, children, andcapacity to take timely care of themselves, children, and the family helps the family and community • Reduce number of alcohol vending, gambling joints • Promote savings, girls’ education There are over 125 million women among urban vulnerable in India
  10. 10. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 4 Pull Regular Outreach Health Services by Government and Private Providers in Migrant, other Deprived clusters Registration of beneficiaries - identifying left-outs and drop-outs Linkage with the Auxiliary Nurse- Midwife for vaccine administration Information and community motivation – women arrive for immunization day Linkage with Doctor for ailments, Ante-natal check-up Urban Health Extension Worker, Community Volunteer in Ethiopia, Urban Accredited Social Health Activist, ANM in India mandated to identify vulnerable pockets, improve Service access, infection prevention, promote healthy behaviours
  11. 11. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 5 Gentle, tractful Negotiation through Collective Petitions Written requests to officers of Municipal Authorities, Nutrition Dept, Electricity Dept. Petition Response of Civic Authority Disadvantaged communities actively participate in governance, collaborate for equity, justice, access: maintain paper trail, persevere with tact (including tea + biscuits, polite thank you) to achieve “Right to the City”.
  12. 12. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 6 Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’ With continual mentoring, motivation Youth-children groups in slums improve their own lives; also contribute to their communities in tangible ways. More vigour and joy to ‘ignite the senses”. Promoting Hygiene, Hand-washing Youth requests to civic authorities for streets, garbage cleaning, family-income certificates There are 150 million youth 15-32 yr, 125 million 10-24 yr in urban India
  13. 13. Slum Women’s groups in slums use hand-drawn maps to a) Ensure that no family is left out from lists used for housing, sewage system, toilets, entitlements; b) Track access to health services e.g. Immunization and ANC, delivery, other health and nutrition services, c) Help identifying recent migrants for linkage to services, entitlements Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 7a Demonstrate uses of Spatial Neighborhood Mapping 1
  14. 14. Demand-side Approach to better urban governance # 7b Spatial City Mapping Helps make the invisible visible Location of Listed, Unlisted Slums in Agra Slum Number Population Listed 215 538322 Unlisted 178 303251 Total 393 841573 Agra City Spatial mapping can help socially sensitive planning, inclusion of small pockets, seasonal, recent migrant clusters
  15. 15. Dept. Women Child Dev. ICDS, LADLI, Others Health Dept ANC, Immunization Maternity Benefit Scheme, Other services Politicians Lend support for Multi-Sectoral Community Groups’ Efforts in Smart City Roads, drains, water., toilet, tenure, housing Cluster team of Women’s Groups Collector’s Office Social Assistance Programs Old Age & Widow Pension Food Subsidy Cards: BPL, APL Cards Labor Dept Domestic worker registration Lend support for applications housing City Govt/ JNNURM Picture ID, proof of Residence, Certificate of residence UHRC Indore/ Agra
  16. 16. Glimpses of Improved Access to Services in Slums, Informal Settlements
  17. 17. Group member HH Non Gp member HH Non-Intervention HH Availing Healthcare in Govt. facility 31% 15% 9% Self-efficacious Slum Women’s Groups Improve Health care, Knowledge including non-group member families Knowledge of FP/birth spacing method 59% 61% 14% 1. Availing healthcare in Govt. facility was thrice as high among group member families than non-intervention slums; twice as high as compared to non group-member families 2. Knowledge of Family Planning methods was four times higher among program slums than non-intervention slums
  18. 18. Self-efficacious Slum Women’s Groups Improve Living Environment including Non Group Member Families Group member HH Non Gp member HH Non-Intervention HH Toilet in House 60% 58% 30% Appropriate Disposal of Garbage 59% 61% 14% 1. Having toilet in house was twice as high among intervention slums as compared to non-intervention slums. 2. Appropriate household garbage disposal was four times higher among intervention slums than non-intervention slum families.
  19. 19. Improved access to Toilets, Sewer, Paved Streets During 2013-2015: 60,000 slum population benefited from sewage system
  20. 20. Struggle for water Water tank erected Improved Water Supply During Apr. 13- Mar. 15: 120,000 slum population in Agra and Indore slums benefitted from improved water supply
  21. 21. During 2013-2015: 40,000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from electricity connections
  22. 22. Slum Women’s, Children-Youth Groups community requests to civic authorities over 5 years bring bridge over large drain, Indore 2013-2015:Determined women’s, children-youth group members continued to submit written applications to civic authorities and represented in person. Women’s group members at Dist. Public hearing 20112010 2015More permanent, taller bridge is built August 2012 October 2012 Bridge over Large Drain Benefits 1,20,000 population
  23. 23. 1. Trust less formally educated to analyse challenges, evolve & implement solutions with support 2. Appreciation, motivation, sustained mentoring and training builds collective confidence, negotiation skills among urban vulnerable communities to work towards overcoming exclusions, vulnerabilities 3. Simple 'indicators' can assess challenges & improvements e.g. i) proportion of households in neighborhood having toilet, ii) Lessons for Policy, Action Research, Sustained Efforts proportion of households in neighborhood having toilet, ii) proportion of families with money-lender debt, iii) proportion of families with habitual alcoholics, gamblers, iv) number of community petitions, reminders per year to civic authorities for services (water supply, cleaning drains, sewage system, paving of streets) 4. What keeps them motivated: Recognition from the community, and at public platforms, enhanced self-esteem, opportunity to be co- opted as Govt. outreach worker through training, outreach work siddharth@uhrc.in
  24. 24. Let us Build Human Capability, Expertise, Ignite Action & Engagement, Collaborative efforts and Resilience of Urban Excluded, Deprived Citi-zens, and to bounce forward, prevent theirto bounce forward, prevent their learning to survive in impoverishment Let us translate words into real action towards inclusive, socially just cities. siddharth@uhrc.in

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