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Approach to dysmorphic child

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A detailed, systematic approach to diagnosis of a dysmorphic child.Step by step teaching in diagnostic approach to dysmorphology.

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Approach to dysmorphic child

  1. 1. An Approach to Dysmorphic Child Dr.Sid Kaithakkoden MD MBBS,DCH,DNB,MD,MRCPCH,FCPS alavisaid@aol.com
  2. 2. 02/25/15 Sid 2 Congenital Anomalies • 20 - 25% of perinatal deaths are due to lethal birth defects – 10% of deaths in infants weighing 500 - 1500 gm – 50% of deaths in infants > 1500 gm
  3. 3. 02/25/15 Sid 3 Birth Defects Estimated Incidence Structural/Metabolic Heart and circulation 1 in 115 births Muscles and skeleton 1 in 130 births Club foot 1 in 735 births Cleft lip/palate 1 in 930 births Genital and urinary tract 1 in 135 births Nervous system and eye 1 in 235 births Anencephaly 1 in 8,000 births Spina bifida 1 in 2,000 births Chromosomal syndromes 1 in 600 births Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) 1 in 900 births Respiratory tract 1 in 900 births Metabolic disorders 1 in 3,500 births PKU 1 in 12,000 births Congenital Infections Congenital syphilis 1 in 2,000 births Congenital HIV infection 1 in 2,700 births Congenital rubella syndrome 1 in 100,000 births Other Rh disease 1 in 1,400 births Fetal alcohol syndrome 1 in 1,000 births March of Dimes, 2000.
  4. 4. 02/25/15 Sid 4 Causes of Birth Defects • Multifactorial: 20-30% • Single gene disorders: 10-20% • Chromosomal: 15% • Infection: 2.5% • Maternal diabetes: 1.5% • Maternal medications: 1-2% • Rest unknown
  5. 5. 02/25/15 Sid 5 Empiric Recurrence Risks for for Birth Defects Condition Affected Relatives(s) None 1 sib/parent 2 sibs / sib & parent Cleft lip/palate 0.1 4 10-11 Cleft palate only 0.04 2-7 15 NTD 0.1 3 8 CHD (any) 0.3 4-5 10-11 VSD 3-4 10 Hypoplastic left heart 2 6
  6. 6. 02/25/15 Sid 6 • Dysmorpholgy: study of abnormal forms • Dysmorphic: abnormal appearing • Congenital: at birth • Anomaly: abnormality • Just because it’s congenital it doesn’t mean it’s genetic • One goal of the dysmorphologist is help determine the etiology of congenital anomalies
  7. 7. 02/25/15 Sid 7 Who needs a dysmorphology evaluation? •A history of intrauterine growth retardation or failure to thrive •Abnormal growth (short, excessive) •Abnormal or unusual facial features •Abnormal body and limb proportions or asymmetry •Major and/or minor congenital anomalies •Microcephaly, macrocephaly or craniosynostosis •Ambiguous or abnormal genitalia, early or late onset of puberty •Psychomotor delay or mental retardation •Hypotonia, hypertonia •A relative with problems similar to those of patient •Metabolic problems •Bleeding tendency •Blindness or deafness •A significant regression in developmental progress •An unusual body odor •Excessive unexplained vomiting •Unusual behaviors, especially when associated with minor malformations
  8. 8. 02/25/15 Sid 8 Purposes of a Medical Genetics Evaluation: New Patients: • Establish or confirm a specific diagnosis • Enable accurate, individualized counseling • Determine precise recurrence risks • Obtain necessary diagnostic tests • Provide specific education and support • Initiate appropriate referrals • Plan for focused medical management and follow-up Established Patients (follow-up care): • Assess new medical problems and related concerns • Determine compliance with recommended management • Keep patients informed about new diagnostic and management strategies • Provide ongoing age-appropriate education/support • Help coordinate necessary referrals and evaluations • Evaluate other at risk family members
  9. 9. 02/25/15 Sid 9 Approach to Birth Defects & Congenital Anomalies • Recognize associated abnormalities and medical problems • Make an accurate diagnosis • Give an accurate, realistic prognosis and natural history of the disorder to the family • Discuss options and alternatives for management • Deliver appropriate medical care and/or treatment • Prevent subsequent related complications • Optimize quality of life • Determine and provide recurrence risks • Offer genetic and psychosocial counseling • Provide anticipatory guidance and education
  10. 10. 02/25/15 Sid 10 1.Where are the problems? 2.What are the problems? 3.What is the diagnosis? 4.What are associated problems? 5.When could they have happened? 6.How did they arise? 7.Why did they occur? 8.Who is at risk?
  11. 11. 02/25/15 Sid 11 Observable Differences of Human Phenotypes • Normal variations • Minor anomalies • Major anomalies Anomalies and normal variants can serve as indicators of altered morphogenesis and clues to patterns of malformation
  12. 12. 02/25/15 Sid 12 A Range of Phenotypic Variation is Normal • “Normal” spectrum of human variation of morphological features with absolutely no medical significance (eg. Epicanthal folds, ‘attached’ vs. ‘unattached ear lobes’, • Observed in > 4% of the population
  13. 13. 02/25/15 Sid 13 Minor Anomaly • Minor variations of normal morphological features of little of no known medical, surgical, or cosmetic significance • Observed in < 4% of the population
  14. 14. 02/25/15 Sid 14 Copyright ©2002 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors Hunter, A. G.W. CMAJ 2002;167:367-372
  15. 15. 02/25/15 Sid 15
  16. 16. 02/25/15 Sid 16 Major Anomaly • Abnormality that has – Medical – Surgical or – Cosmetic significance
  17. 17. 02/25/15 Sid 17 Suspect a genetic condition or syndrome when... • Multiple anomalies • More than 3 minor anomalies • More than one major anomaly • One major anomaly and a few minor anomalies
  18. 18. 02/25/15 Sid 18 Variable Expression • Morphological features may be expressed at different degrees of severity in individuals resulting in different levels of dysfunction and problems for individuals having the “same” abnormality, even when due to the same etiology • Each individual with a particular syndrome, sequence, or association will not have every known feature of that disorder, or all the same features as one another, even if in the same family • The degree of variable expression may correlate with the degree of pleiotropy in single gene disorders
  19. 19. 02/25/15 Sid 19 Incomplete Penetrance • An “all or none” phenomena referring to the presence or absence of observable phenotypic expression of features of a dominant disease in an individual known to have a mutant allele • Some individuals with Tuberous Sclerosis appear to have incomplete penetrance
  20. 20. 02/25/15 Sid 20 Sex-Influenced or Limited Expression • Some congenital anomalies and/or genetic syndromes due to autosomal defects are more easily recognized, or only recognized, in individuals of a particular gender – Sex influenced: Genital hypoplasia, hypospadias, virulization with hypertrophy of the clitoris – Sex limited: Hereditary prostate cancer
  21. 21. 02/25/15 Sid 21 Types of Morphologic Abnormalities • Malformation • Deformation • Disruption • Dysplasia
  22. 22. 02/25/15 Sid 22
  23. 23. 02/25/15 Sid 23 Malformation • Defect of morphogenesis in an organ or structure due to an intrinsically abnormal problem with formation, growth, or differentiation of an organ or structure – hypoplasia of an organ or structure (microtia), incomplete closure (NTDs, cleft palate), incomplete separation (syndactaly)
  24. 24. 02/25/15 Sid 24
  25. 25. 02/25/15 Sid 25 Timing is everything!
  26. 26. 02/25/15 Sid 26 Malformations are not specific • The same morphological defect, or even a similar pattern of abnormalities, may occur as: – An isolated anomaly in an otherwise normal individual – A feature in a syndrome, sequence, or association – A feature of a chromosome disorder, a single gene defect, multifactorial disorder, or secondary to a teratogenic effect
  27. 27. 02/25/15 Sid 27 Deformation • Abnormal form or position of a body or region of the body caused by extrinsic non-disruptive mechanical forces on a normally developing structure (fetal constraint) – clubfoot, congenital hip dislocation, craniofacial asymmetry, over folded ear…..
  28. 28. 02/25/15 Sid 28 Disruption • Defect of morphogenesis resulting from a destructive breakdown of, or interference with, a normally developing structure resulting in death of cells or tissue destruction. May be secondary to mechanical forces, infections, or even vascular events. – Loss of digit due to amniotic bands, lack of normal limb development due to intrauterine vascular accident
  29. 29. 02/25/15 Sid 29 Dysplasia • Error of morphogenesis due to the abnormal cellular organization of function in a specific type of tissue most often due to single gene defects – Achrondroplasia, ectodermal dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta,
  30. 30. 02/25/15 Sid 30
  31. 31. 02/25/15 Sid 31 Recognizable Patterns of Anomalies • Syndromes • Associations • Sequences or field defects
  32. 32. 02/25/15 Sid 32 Syndrome • Multiple anomalies in one or more tissues or structures thought to be pathologically related due to a specific etiologic mechanism (chromosome disorder, single gene defect, environmental agent, or unknown factor), not due to a related sequence of defects or field defect. – Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, FAS, Turner syndrome, Gorlin syndrome…. • From Greek meaning “running together”
  33. 33. 02/25/15 Sid 33 Genetic heterogeneity • Even when phenotypically similar disorders have clear genetic etiologies, locus heterogeneity, and sometimes even allelic heterogeneity, may complicate laboratory testing and influence diagnosis, counseling, management, and prognosis – Locus heterogeneity: Tuberous Sclerosis, PKD – Allelic heterogeneity: Craniosynostosis, CF
  34. 34. 02/25/15 Sid 34 Sequence/Field Defect • Constellation of defects derived from a cascade of effects related to a single known, or presumed, localized abnormality (malformation, deformation, disruption) – Potter sequence • Renal dysplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia, facial dysmorphisms – Mandibular hypoplasia (Robin sequence) • Cleft palate – Meningomyelocele • Club foot, hip dislocation, hydrocephalus
  35. 35. 02/25/15 Sid 35 Association • Non-random occurrence of a combination of several anomalies not yet identified as a specific sequence or syndrome that occur more often together than by chance alone. – VATER and CHARGE associations
  36. 36. 02/25/15 Sid 36 General Caveats of Dysmorphology • Having a diagnosis, even if bad, is more useful for families than having no diagnosis • A wrong diagnosis is worse than no diagnosis • A diagnosis depends on the clinical recognition of patterns of abnormalities as supported by appropriate laboratory and imaging tests • Etiological heterogeneity and variable expression of abnormalities often makes the diagnostic evaluation challenging • Time and library/database searches can provide clues to diagnosis
  37. 37. 02/25/15 Sid 37 Reasons why difficulty in diagnosing Syndromes may be encountered • Some are very rare disorders - not well described • Problems with lumping and splitting • Variable expression • Incomplete penetrance • Sex influenced or limited expression • Pleiotropy • Etiologic heterogeneity
  38. 38. 02/25/15 Sid 38
  39. 39. 02/25/15 Sid 39 Management of Congenital Anomalies in the Fetus or Newborn • Conduct careful clinical evaluation • Review family, prenatal history, and perinatal history • Obtain diagnostic studies – Imaging studies: Photographs, X-rays – Laboratory studies: Chromosome, DNA, biochemical assays • If deceased, request autopsy and specific pathological analyses • Provide parents an opportunity to see child – Name, photograph,obtain hair, memorialize, bury... • Provide referrals to social work/psychological services and support groups as appropriate • Arrange follow-up genetic counseling
  40. 40. 02/25/15 Sid 40 Talking with Families about Birth Defects • Avoid delivery room diagnosis and counseling • Explain medical concerns openly and honestly • Humanize abnormal findings and note normal findings • Use diagnostic/medical terms only as appropriate • Avoid extensive differential diagnoses • Be careful about premature prognostication • Watch your facial expressions and body language • Listen to concerns and adhere to their agenda • Be supportive but not unrealistic or enmeshed • Provide frequent, honest updates of accurate information • Provide psychosocial support services
  41. 41. Ambiguous genitalia of a baby girl - the simple virilising form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  42. 42. 02/25/15 Sid 42 Ogilvy-Stuart, A L et al. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:401-407 Differential virilisation of the external genitalia using the staging system of Prader, from normal female (left) to normal male (right). Sagittal (upper panel) and perineal (lower panel) views shown. Ambiguous Genitalia
  43. 43. 02/25/15 Sid 43 Ogilvy-Stuart, A L et al. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:401-407 Investigation flow plan for assessment of ambiguous genitalia
  44. 44. 02/25/15 Sid 44
  45. 45. Down syndrome
  46. 46. 02/25/15 Sid 46 Trisomy 21 • Brachycephaly • Flat facial profile • Small ears • Folded helix • Conductive hearing loss • Upslanting palpebral fissures • Epicanthal folds • Iris Brushfield spots • Protruding tongue • Congenital heart defect • Atrioventricular canal • Duodenal stenosis/atresia • Imperforate anus • Hirschsprung disease • Atlanto-axial instability • Hypoplastic iliac wings • Shallow acetabulum • Joint laxity • Short, broad hands • Fifth finger mid-phalanx hypoplasia • Single transverse palmar crease • Excess nuchal skin • Single transverse palmar crease • Mental retardation • Alzheimer disease • Hypotonia, poor Moro reflex • Hypothyroidism • Acute megakaryocytic leukemia • Increased recurrence risk with parental translocation • Incidence, 1 in 650-1000 live births • Full trisomy 21, 94% • Mosaic trisomy 21, 2.4% • Translocation 21, 3.3%
  47. 47. 02/25/15 Sid 47 Trisomy 18
  48. 48. 02/25/15 Sid 48 Trisomy 18 • Incidence: 1 in 3000 • Girls : Boys 3:1 • Low birth weight infant • Mental deficiency • Low-set ears • Small jaw (micrognathia) • Clenched hands • Hypoplastic (underdeveloped) fingernails • Umbilical hernia or inguinal hernia • Diastasis recti • Cryptorchidism • Crossed legs (preferred position) • Congenital heart disease o VSD) o ASD o PDA Congenital kidney abnormalities o Horseshoe kidney o Hydronephrosis o Polycystic kidney • Coloboma of iris • Microcephaly • Pectus carinatum
  49. 49. 02/25/15 Sid 49 Trisomy 13
  50. 50. 02/25/15 Sid 50 Trisomy 13 • Incidence 1 in 5000 live births • Mental retardation, severe • Seizures • Small head (microcephaly) • Scalp defects (absent skin) • Small eyes (microphthalmia) • Cleft lip and/or palate • Eyes close set (hypotelorism) -- eyes may actually fuse together into one • Iris defects (coloboma) • low set ears • Simian crease • Ventricular septal defect (VSD) • Atrial septal defect (ASD) • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) • Hernias: umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia • Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) • Hypotonia • Micrognathia o Skeletal (limb) abnormalities • Extra digits (polydactyly)
  51. 51. 02/25/15 Sid 51 Marfan syndrome
  52. 52. 02/25/15 Sid 52 Marfan syndrome • Autosomal dominant • Disproportionate tall stature, upper to lower segment ratio less than 0.85 • Arm span to height > 1.05 • Dolichocephaly • Long, narrow face • Malar hypoplasia • Micrognathia • Retrognathia • Enophthalmos • Ectopia lentis • Myopia • Retinal detachment • Early glaucoma • Early cataracts • Down-slanting palpebral fissures • High-arched palate • Aortic regurgitation • Mitral regurgitation • Mitral valve prolapse • Aortic root dilatation • APectus excavatum • Pectus carinatum ortic dissection • Scoliosis • Kyphoscoliosis • Thoracic lordosis • Spondylolisthesis • Arachnodactyly • Caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene • About 25% of cases due to new mutations
  53. 53. 02/25/15 Sid 53
  54. 54. 02/25/15 Sid 54 Cornelia De Lange Syndrome • The incidence is 1 case per 10,000- 50,000 live births • Short stature • Microcephaly (98%) • Short neck (66%) • Hirsutism (78%) • Cutis marmorata and perioral cyanosis (56%) • Hypoplastic nipples and umbilicus (50%) • Micromelia (93%) • Undescended testes (73%) • Confluent eyebrows (synophrys) (99%) • Long curly eyelashes (99%) • Low anterior &posterior hairline (92%) • Underdeveloped orbital arches (100%) • Neat, well-defined, and arched eyebrows (as though they had been penciled) • Long philtrum • Anteverted nares (88%) • Down-turned angles of the mouth (94%) • Thin lip (especially upper vermillion border) • Low-set ears • Depressed nasal bridge (83%) • High arched palate (86%) and reports of cleft palate • Late eruption of widely spaced teeth (86%) • Micrognathia (84%)
  55. 55. 02/25/15 Sid 55
  56. 56. 02/25/15 Sid 56 Apert Syndrome • Craniostenosis • Large late-closing fontanels • Gaping midline defect • Flattened, often asymmetric face • Maxillary hypoplasia with retruded midface • Cardiovascular (10%) – Atrial septal defect – Patent ductus arteriosus – Ventricular septal defect • Syndactyly • Brachydactyly • Congenital cervical spinal fusion (68%), especially C5-C6 • Aplasia or ankylosis of shoulder, elbow and hip joints • Tracheal cartilage anomalies • Rhizomelia
  57. 57. 02/25/15 Sid 57
  58. 58. Turner syndrome (a) Puffy feet, (b) redundant skin at back of neck. (c) Histology of gonads: ovarian cortical stroma devoid of germ cell elements.
  59. 59. 02/25/15 Sid 59 Turner Syndrome • Short stature: • Ovarian failure: • Nails: Many patients have hypoplastic or hyperconvex nails. • Nevi: Excessive numbers of nevi • Webbed neck: • Lymphedema • Cubitus valgus (increased carrying angle): Short fourth metacarpal or metatarsal: Although this finding is of minimal clinical significance, it can be a clue to the presence of Turner syndrome. • Shield chest: • Eye: Ptosis, strabismus, amblyopia, and cataracts • Gastrointestinal bleeding: • Hip dislocation: • Scoliosis: This occurs in 10% • Hypertension: • Murmurs: Cardiovascular malformations include coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve, and aortic dissection in adulthood • Thyroid: 10-30% develop hypothyroidism. • Cutis laxa:
  60. 60. 02/25/15 Sid 60                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  61. 61. 02/25/15 Sid 61
  62. 62. 02/25/15 Sid 62 Noonan syndrome • Autosomal dominant • Short stature • Failure to thrive in infancy • Triangular face with age • Low-set ears • Nerve deafness • Ptosis • Hypertelorism • Down-slanting palpebral fissures • Epicanthal folds • Myopia • Mental retardation (25%) • Malignant schwannoma • High arched palate • Micrognathia • Dental malocclusion • Low posterior hairline • Webbed neck • Cystic hygroma • Atrial septal defects • Ventricular septal defects • Pulmonic stenosis • Shield chest, Pectus carinatum superiorly, • Pectus excavatum inferiorly • Caused by mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type, 11 gene
  63. 63. 02/25/15 Sid 63
  64. 64. 02/25/15 Sid 64 Crouzon Syndrome • Craniosynostosis: resulting in acrocephaly, brachycephaly, turricephaly, oxycephaly, flat occiput • Shallow orbits • Face - Midface (maxillary) hypoplasia • Eyes – Exophthalmos (proptosis) secondary to shallow orbits resulting in frequent exposure conjunctivitis or keratitis – Ocular hypertelorism – Divergent strabismus • Choanal atresia or stenosis • Mandibular prognathism • Cervical fusion (18%), C2-C3 and C5-C6 • acanthosis nigricans • Central nervous system – Approximately 73% of patients have chronic tonsillar herniation. Of these, 47% have progressive hydrocephalus. – Syringomyelia may be present – Hydrocephalus (progressive in 30%)
  65. 65. 02/25/15 Sid 65 Aarskog syndrome
  66. 66. 02/25/15 Sid 66
  67. 67. 02/25/15 Sid 67 Foetal Valproate syndrome
  68. 68. 02/25/15 Sid 68
  69. 69. Prader-Willi syndrome (marked hypotonia)
  70. 70. 02/25/15 Sid 70
  71. 71. 02/25/15 Sid 71 Prader-Willi syndrome • Failure to thrive • Central obesity • Dolichocephaly • Narrow bitemporal diameter • Almond-shaped eyes • Strabismus • Upslanting palpebral fissures, Myopia • Thin upper lip • Small-appearing mouth • Down-turned corners of mouth • Thick, viscous saliva • Early dental caries • Hypoventilation • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism • Cryptorchidism • Osteoporosis • Scoliosis, Kyphosis • Small hands • Syndactyly • Small feet : • Frontal hair upsweep • mental retardation Learning disabilities • Seizures • Global developmental delay • Childhood polyphagia • Microdeletion of 15q11 in 70%
  72. 72. 02/25/15 Sid 72 (A); A) both chromosomes 15 are inherited from the mother and the PWS region from the father is missing (present in about 25 percent of patients) (B); and a defect in methylation inherited from the father (present in less than 5 percent of patients) (C). In this case, the genes in the PWS critical region on the chromosome 15 inherited from the father are inactivated, similar to those of the mother
  73. 73. Angelman syndrome
  74. 74. The 15q11q13 deletion in Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome patients is sometimes just visible under the microscope in a standard cytogenetic preparation. In most cases a molecular test (FISH or PCR) is needed to make the diagnosis
  75. 75. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome a) The typical face, (b) broad thumb, and (c) characteristic appearance of large toes
  76. 76. Rett syndrome characteristic hand-wringing.
  77. 77. 02/25/15 Sid 77 45,X
  78. 78. 02/25/15 Sid 78 47,XXY
  79. 79. 02/25/15 Sid 79 47,XX,+13
  80. 80. 02/25/15 Sid 80 47,XX,+18
  81. 81. 02/25/15 Sid 81 47,XX,+21
  82. 82. 02/25/15 Sid 82 46,Y,fra(X)(q27.3)
  83. 83. Thank you

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